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rif the mind, giving place to others with which, from some cause or other, the word has been associated.
40. We now proceed to lay before our readers some specimens of the derivations and explanations given by Mr. H. Tooke. That is frequently termed a conjunction; it is sometimes termed a pronoun; we class it with the retrictives: but under whatever name it is known, its use and signification is the same. The differences supposed to be perceived in them arise simply from unnoticed ellipses or abbreviations of construction. If it be remembered that that was originally applicable to nouns of both numbers, no difficulty will be found by any intelligent reader in analysing sentences in which it occurs as a pronoun: in cases where it is used as a conjunction, the following analyses will serve as a sufficient clue. "I wish you to believe that I would not hurt a fly.'' Resolution; I would not hurt a fly, I wish you to believe that (assertion.) "Thieves rise by night that they may cut men's throats." Resolution; Thieves may cut men's throats, (for) that (purpose) they rise by night. If (formerly written gif) is merely the imperative of the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon verb sifan to give. In Scotland and the northern counties of England gin is used in place of if; and gin u merely the past participle given abbreviated. Hence "I will read 1/ (or gin) you will listen, means, give (or this giren) that you will listen, I will read: and it cannot be unknown to the classical reader that the imperative da is used in exactly the same manner. An, now nearly obsolete, is the imp. of ntmn to grant. Unless (formerly sometimes written onles) is the imp. of onlesun, to send away. From alesan comes the imperative else; and from learn the past participle lest; both verbs meaning the same with onlesan. From the same source come less and least, the privative termination less, the verbs loosen, lose, lessen, &c. Yet is the imperative of getan, to get; and still, of stilhtn, to put. Though (in some counties still prouonnced thaf, that), is the imperative of thafian, to allow or grant. But is now corruptly employed for two words, but and but: hot is the imperative of hot air, to boot, to add in order to supply a deficiency; but, of beon-ulan, to be-out, and has the same signification as without. But properly re-' quircs*a negative in construction with it, as I saw none but him; bat it is often omitted, as, I saw but two plants. With
out a the imp. of wyrthan-utan, to beout. And is the imp. of ananad, to heap, or add. Formerly four different sets of words were used where now sine* is used,, and it is now taken four ways: 1. For siththan, sithence, or seen and thenceforwards; as, It has not been done since the reign of John. ?. For sync, sene, or seen; as, Did George II. live before or since that example. 3. For seand, seeing, seeing as, or seeing that; as, I should labour for truth since no effort is lost. 4. For sithtlie, silk, seen-as, or seen-that j as. Since death in the end takes from all. Sithence and sith were in good use till the time of the Stuarts. So and as are articles meaning the same as it, that or which. As he sows, so he will reap, with the ellipses supplied is, (In) what (manner) he sows, (in) that he will reap, or even without supplying them, What he sows, that he will reap.
41. Prepositions, to use the ideas of Mr. Tooke, are necessary in language, because it is impossible to have a distinct complex term for each different collection of ideas which we have occasion to put together in discourse. By the aid of prepositions, complex terms are prevented from being indefinitely numerous, and are used only for those collections of ideas which we have most occasion to use. This end is thus answered : we either take that complex term which includes the greatest number, though not all of the ideas we would communicate, or else that which includes all and the fewest more ; and then by the help of the preposition we either make up the deficiency in the one case, or retrench the superfluity in the other: so, a house with a party wall; a house without a roof. Other relations are declared by prepositions ; but they have all meanings of their own, and are constantly used according to those meanings. With is the imperative of withan, to join: sometimes of wyrthan, to be; in which case it is exactly the same with by. Through or thorough is the Gothic substantive dauro, or the Teutonic thuruh, and like them means door, gate, passage: so, through the air, is, passage the air, or the air being the passage or medium, from is the AngloSaxon noun/rum, beginning, source, author. Of this word Harris produces three, examples, which he considers as proving that it is used in three different relations, Ariz. detached relation, quiescence, and motion, the last two being contradictory: these figs come from Turkey; the lamp hangs from the ceiling; the lamp falls from the
ceiling. Now came is a complex term for one species of motion ; falls for another; hangs for a species of attachment. Have we occasion to mention the beginning or commencement of these motions and this attachment, and the place where they begin or commence? What more natural or more simple than to add the signs of those ideas, trig. the word beginning (which always" re- mains the same,) and the name of the place (which will perpetually vary.) Figs came
beginning Tnrkey; lamp 1 ^^s f beginning ceiling: i. e.Turkey the place of beginning to come ; ceiling the place of beginning to 1 fin"''' ?To is the Gothic
substantive taut, act, effect, end, or result, which is itself the past participle of tnugun, to do. While is an Anglo-Saxon substantive, signifying time ; till, is to-while, to the time; until, a on to the time. Of is probably a fragment of the Anglo-Saxon substantive afora, offspring, &c. and always means consequence, offspring, succession, follower, &c. In all the instances produced in the dictionaries, cause may be substituted for far, without injury to the sense, though sometimes aukwardly. It is probably the Gothic substantivefairina, cause. By a the imperative of be on, to be; frequently, but not always, used with an abbreviation of construction, instrument,cause, agent, &c, being understood. Among is the past participle of gamamgan, to mingle. After is the comparative of aft, Aliout is from boda thcfiist outward boundary or extremity of any thing ; hence onboda, onbuta, abuta, about. In, out, on, off, and at, Mr. Took t does not profess to trace to an origin; we feel little doubt that on is simply one of the several forms of the numeral one ; and the same process of thought has occurred in the Greek, where iif and n> (and perhaps also true) are almost indisputably the corresponding numeral. We should have thought it probable that the English m has the same origin as me, if Mr. H. 'I mike had not produced the Gothic substantive tana, the interior part of the body (used also for cave or cell.) Out he thinks not improbably originally meant skin
VIII. Of the Interjection.
43. We have very little to say in addition to what we have said respecting this small and insignificant class of words. Oh, or O, is almost the only word for which it is necessary. A few other words may be men-
tioned as being usually classed with it. Farewell is the imperative offaran to go, and the adverb ir.il. Halt is the imperative of healdan, to hold. I.a is the imperative of look. Fie is the imperative of/fan, to hate. Welcome means, it is trill that you are come. Adieu, used so often without a moment's thought as to its serious import, is the French it dies, to God, meaning, I commend you to God. r
GRAMME, in French weights. The unit weight, called a gramme, is the weight of the cube of the hundredth part of the metre of distilled water, taken at its maximum density. It answers to 15.444 grains. The kilogramme, or the weight of a thousand grammes is equal to 32J Troy ounces.
GRANARY, a building to lay or store corn in, especially that designed to be kept a considerable time.
GRANATITE, era*.* stone, a mineral found in Spain, and in some parts of France and Switzerland. It is crystallized in a very peculiar form ; two six-sided prisms intersect each other at right angles, or obliquely. Hence its name, cross stone. It is of a reddish brown colour: specific gravity 3.3, nearly. It is fusible before the blow pipe. It consists of
Oxide of iron 13
Oxide of manganese 1
GRAND jury. The sheriff of every county is bound to return, to every commission of oyer and terminer, and of goal, delivery, and to every session of the peace, twenty-four good and lawful men of the county, some out of every hundred, to enquire, present, do, and execute all those things which on the part of our lord the King shall then and there be commanded them. They ought to be freeholders; but to what amount is not limited by law. Upon their appearance they are sworn upon the grand jury, to the amount of twelve at the least, and not more than twenty-three, that twelve may be a majority. They are only to hear evidence on behalf of the prosecution -, for the finding of an indictment is only in the nature of an enquiry on accusation, which is afterwards to be tried; and they are only to enquire, upon their oaths, whether there is sufficient cause to call upon the party to answer it. If twelve agree to find the bill, it must be pronounced a true bill, but it cannot be found by a smaller number. 'the mode of finding a bill is by indorsing it a true bill; when it is rejected it is indorsed "ignoramus," or not found; and no one can be tried by indictment without the finding by a grand jury.
Grand larceny. See Larceny.
GRANITE, in mineralogy, is a particular mountain rock, composed of felspar, quartz, and mica. In general the felspar in the predominating substance, and mica the least considerable. In some varieties the quartz is wanting, and in others the mica. The constituent parts differ likewise considerably in their magnitude: they alternate from large to small, and even very fine granular. The large and coarse usually belong to the oldest, and the small and fine granular to' the newer granite formation. It differs also in colour, and this difference depends chiefly on the felspar, the quartz and mica being usually of a grey colour. The felspar passes from the white to the red. The feldspar in granite has usually a vitreous lustre, and perfectly foliated fracture; in some varieties it passes into the earthy, with the loss of its lustre and hardness, even into porcelain earth. This is owing to decomposition, effected, according to Mr. Davy, by eletro-chemical agencies. Sometimes the constituent parts of granite are regularly crystallized, but principally the felspar and quartz. The mica sometimes occurs in nests, unmixed with the other parts. Sometimes the constituent parts are so arranged, that when a specimen is cnt, its surface has a kind of resemblance to written characters. Hence it has been denominated Graphic stone.
Besides felspar, quartz, and mica, the essential constituent parts of granite, other fossils occur in it; of these, school is the most frequent, and next is garnet and tinstone. There are three formations of granite; the. first, or oldest, serves as the basis for all the other classes of rocks. 'The second occurs only in the first; and the third, or newest, appears to be among the newest of the primitive rocks. In the oldest granite formation, when it rises to a height above the surface of the earth, and is surrounded by other primitive rocks, these are always wrapped around it, or the strata are nuntla-shajied. This is one of the most
widely-exteHded and abundant formation! with which we are acquainted. The second granite formation occurs only in veins, which traverse the oldest formation, but never reaches any of the newer ropk. The newest granite formation always rests on some of the older primitive rocks, and usually in an overlying position. It never occurs in globular distinct concretions: its structure is very irregular ; sometimes contains grains of precious garnet, and has a deep red colour. It often occurs in veins that shoot from the rock, or in veins that are not connected with any rock beyond the strata which they traverse.
When granite is exposed, it frequently occurs in high and steep cliffs, which form vast mural precipices: often also in lofty summits, denominated peaks. It is found in almost every country, and in many places the stones are of an immense size. The largest, as an unconnected stone, has been described in the sixty-eighth volume of the Philosophical Transactions. It is found near the Cape of Good Hope. Granite rocks are frequently traversed by rents, which widen by the action of the elements: the mass separates into fragments of greater or lesser magnitude, and they remain long' piled on each other, in the most fanciful manner, appearing like vast artificial turfmuli, or masses brought together by an immense flood. The hard white granite, with black spots, is a very valuable kind: it consists of congeries of variously constructed and differently coloured particles, not diffused among, nor running into one another, but each pure and distinct, though firmly adhering to which ever of the others it comes in contact with, and forming a very firm mass. It is much used in London for the steps of public buildings, and in other situations where great strength and hardness are required. The hard red granite, variegated with black and white, is common in Egypt and Arabia. The stones used in paving the streets is another species of granite. Granite, though not abounding in metal, contains occasionally sonic of the most important. Iron and tin occur most frequently.
GRANT, in law, a gift in writing of such a thing as cannot be passed or conveyed by word only, as a grant is the regular method, by the common law, of transferring the property of incorporeal hereditaments, on such things whereof no livery of seisin can be bad. For which reason, all corporeal hereditaments, as lands and lion> s, are said to be in livery ; and the others, as advow•ons, commons, services, rents, reversions, and the like, lie in grant. He that granteth is termed the grantor; and he to whom the grant is made is termed the grantee. A grant differs from a gift in this, that gifts are always gratuitous, grants are upon some consideration or equivalent. The operative words in grants are dedi et coneesri," I have given and granted." Grants may be void by incertainty, impossibility, being against law, or a wrong title, to defraud creditors, he. Grants of the King are by letters patent, and are void when obtained by mistake or deceit apparent, or for an estate which cannot be granted, such as an estate to a man and his heirs male, without saying of his body; because it is neither an estate in fee nor in tail.
GRANULATION, in chemistry, the process by which a metal is reduced into grains, which is effected by melting the metal, and then pouring it in a very slender stream into cold water. As soon as the metal comes in contact with water it divides into drops, which have a tendency to a spherical shape, and are more or less perfect, according to the thinness of the stream; the height from which it falls, and the temperature of the metal. Some of the more fusible metals may be reduced to much finer grains, by pouring it in its melted state into a wooden box, rubbed over with chalk, and shaking it violently before it has time to become solid.
GRAPE. SeeVins. Grapes have been repeatedly examined by the best informed chemists and most accurate tests\but without that success which might have been expected. They are found to contain much sugar, a portion of mucilage and jelly, some albumen and colouring matter. Tartrate of potash, tartaric acid; the citric and malic acids have likewise been discovered in them. GRAPHIC gold. See Tellurium. Graphic stone. See Granite. GRAPHITES, a mineral principally of carbon, with a small portion of iron and silica. When pure it burns with a reddish flame, emitting beautiful sparks, and it smell of sulphur. Its specific gravity is about 1.; it feels somewhat greasy, stains the fingers, and marks strongly. It is a true carburet of iron, of which there are several species ; one is plumbago, or black lead, so
useful in the form of pencils. It consists of
GRAPHOMETER, a mathematical ire strumeut, otherwise called a semi-circle, the use of which is to observe any angle, whose vertex is at the centre of the instrument in any plane (though it is most commonly horizontal, or nearly so) and to find how many degrees it contains.
The graphometer is a graduated semicircle, ABC, (see PlateVI. Misccl. fig. A, 6, 7) made of wood, brass, or the like, and so fixed on a fulcrum, G H, by means of a brass ball and socket, that it easily turns about, and retains any situation It has two sights fixed on its diameter, A C, and at the centre there is commonly a magnetical needle and compass in a box. There is likewise a moveable roler or index, E D, with two sights, P, P, which turns round the centre, and retains any situation given it.
To measure by this instrument an angle, A C B, in any plane, and comprehended between the right lines, A C and. B C, drawn from two points, A and B, to the place of station, C. Let the graphometer be placed at C, supported by its fulcrum ; and let the immovable sights on the diameter of the instrument, D E, be directed towards the point, A , and likewise while the instrument remains immoveable, let the sights of the ruler, F G, which is moveable about the centre, C, be directed to the point, B. Now it is evident, that the moveable ruler cuts off an arch, D H, which is the measure of the angle, A C I!, sought. Moreover, by the same method, the inclination of D E, or of F G, may be observed with the meridian line, which is pointed out by the magnetic needle inclosed in the box, and moveable about the centre of the instrument.
GRAPNELS, a sort of anchors with four flukes, serving for boats to ride by.
There is also a kind called fire and chaingrapnels, made with four barbed claws, instead of flukes, and used to catch hold of the enemy's rigging, or any other part, in order for boarding them.
A fire grapnel, in some respects, resembles the former, but differing in, the construction of its flukes, which are furnished with strong barbs on its points. Fire giapnelsare usually fixed by a chain on the yardarms of a ship, to grapple any adversary whom she intends to board, and are particularly requisite in fire-ships.
GRASS, in botany. The tribe of grasses is one of the seven natural families into which all vegetables are distributed by Linnexus in his " Philosophia Botanica." They are defined to be plants which have very simple leaves, a jointed stem, a husky calyx named a glume, and a single seed. This description includes corn as well as the grasses.
Most of these plants are annual or perennial herbs , some of them are erect, others creep upon the ground. 'The roots, in the greatest number creep, and emit fibres from each knot or joint; in others, they are simply branched and fibrous. The stems and branches are round; the leaves are simple, alternate, entire, very Ions, and commonly narrow; they are generally placed immediately upon the stem, except in the bamboo, and a few others which have a foot stalk at the origin of the leaves. The leaves form below a sort of sheath, which embraces the stem, and is generally cleft on one side through its whole length. The top of the sheath is sometimes crowned with a membrane, that is either cleft or entire, and is frequently accompanied with two appendages or ears, as in rice, pharus, darnel, wheat, rye, and barley. In others, the sheath is crowned with hairs, as in millet, panic-grass, and andropogon, and in some species of panic grass it is naked, that is, has neither membrane nor hairs. There are three sections. The flowers are hermaphrodite in plants of the first section; male and female upon the same root in those of the second , hermaphrodite and male on the same root in those of the third. They proceed either singly from the sheath of the leaves, as in lygeum; form a single spike, as in nardus and darnel; or are formed into a panicle, that is, loose spike, as inpoa, agrestis, and oats. The calyx and corolla in this order are not sufficiently ascertained. In tome a single scale or husk, in others two, as in nardus, supply the place of both covers; some grasses, as canary-grass, and phleum, have four husky scales, two of which serve for the calyx, and the other two for the corolla; some have five, as antiioxantbiim; Athers six, as rice, four of which are supposed to constitute the calyx, and the other two are termed, improperly enough, the husky petals. The corolla is sometimes composed of one petal with two divisions,
as in fox-tail grass. The stamina are gcrr rally three in number, and placed irregularly with respect to the situation of the calyx and the corolla. One stamen is commonly placed betwixt the seed bud and the two small scales or external husk of the corolla; and two betwixt the seed bud and the inner busk. Rice, zizania, and pharus, have six stamina. The anthers are long, furnished, with two cells, and slightly attached to the filaments. The seed bud is placed upon the same receptacle as the calyx, corolla, and stamina. In bobartia it is said to be placed under the receptacle of the flower. The style is generally double, and crowned with a hairy stigma or summit. The seed vessel in this order is wanting. The seeds are single, oval, and attached below to the bottom of the flower.
GRATIOLA, in botany, a genus of the Diaudria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Personatoe. Scrophularix, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx sevenleaved, the two outer leaves petulous; corolla irregular, reversed ; stamen two, barren ; capsule two-celled. There are twelve species. ,,
GRAVE, in music, is applied to a sound which is of a low or deep tone. The thicker the cord or string, the more grave is the note or tone; and the smaller, the more acute. The gravity of sounds depends on the slowness of the vibratory motions of the chord; and their acuteness on its quick vibrations. Grave, in the Italian music, denotes a very grave and 'slow motion, somewhat faster than adagio, and slower than largo.
Gkkvk accent, in grammar, shews that the voice is to be lowered ; its mark stands thus \ See Accent.
Grave digging beetle. See Silpha.
GRAVEL, in natural history and gardening, a congeries of pebbles, which, mixed with a stiff loam, makes lasting and elegant gravel walks; an ornament peculiar to our gardens, and which gives them the advantage over those of other nations.
GRAVER, in the art of engraving, a tool by which all the lines, scratches, and shades, are cnt in copper, Jkc. Gravers are of three sorts, round pointed, square-pointed, and lozenge. The round are the best for scratching; the square-pointed are for cutting the largest strokes, and the lozengepointed ones for the most fine and delicate strokes; but a graver of a middle form, between the square and lozenge-pointed, will make the strokes or scratches appear