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IRON TRADE IN SWEDEN. As iron is the principal branch of Swedish industry, and certainly that which is of the greatest interest to our readers, it may be as well here to give a brief description of the Swedish irons, which are of various qualities, each mine baving distinct properties. They may be classed under three heads :
1. The Danemora irons, wbich are the most valuable, and of which nine-tenths are used in England, (almost entirely in Sheffield,) where their value varies from £25 to £34 per ton. The whole quantity made at all the Swedish forges, where these ores are used, only amounts to about 4,500 tons, and the recent convulsions in the commercial world have had no effect upon their value.
2. Next in estimation to the Davemora irods are the numerous brands which are used for steel and other purposes, for which their good quality renders them desirable. For the sale of ihese irons Sweden depenas upon the state of trade in England and the United States. In 1857, these irons were worth from £15 to £19 per ton in England, whereas in 1858 their value decreased to from £13 to £15 per ton. Iu a good state of trade these irons have a higher value than the third class of Swedish irons.
3. These are commonly called “assorted bar iron,” or “common Swedish iron.” When, however, trade in the two principal countries where the second class of iron is used is depressed, the common irons have a higher value, as they find a market in every part of the world. The price of common Swedish irons was in Sweden, at the date of Mr. Grey's report, from £10 to £13 per top.
During the two years preceding Mr. Grey's report, Mr. Bessemer's process of making steel had been tried at Edsken, near Hægbo, in the province of Gefle, upon a larger scale and with more success up to that time than in any other country, and great results were then anticipated-results that, we doubt not, will be little short of being fully realized. The steel so made is already in practical use in Sweden, where a species of Swedish steel, called in England German steel, has hitherto been employed for general purposes, for which caststeel only is used in England and other countries where manufactures are in a more advanced state. At the manufactory of Messrs. BOLINDER, at Stockholm, the tools used are mostly of BESSEMER steel, and those persons who manipulate with them say that they are as good as is required.
TRADE OF BOSTON FOR APRIL. The following is the monthly statement of the value of imports and exports of goods, wares, and merchandise entered at the port of Boston during the month of April, 1860 :
EXPORTS, Dutiable, entered for con
Domestic merchandise ... $1,152,985 sumption ..... $1,795,905 Foreigo
dutiable 74,937 Dutiable, warehoused.. 839,696 Foreign
free .... 58,700 Free (exclusive of specie &
Specie and bullion....
6,030 bullion). .....
852,484 Specie and bullion......
Merch'dise withdrawn from
TOBACCO AND THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT. The Spanish government have issued proposals for Virginia and Kentucky tobacco to the extent of 300,000 Castilian quintals, or 30,000,000 lbs.
DEAD-LETTERS_NEW LAW. The following are among the recent acts of Congress which the whole community will approve of. The number of dead-letters will diminish under the new law; and letter writers generally, will perceive the utility of placing their printed names on each envelop. The reduced rate for the receipt and delivery of letters in the city, to one cent, is certainly a good improvement :AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE RETURN OF UNDELIVERED LETTERS IN THE POST
OFFICE. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That when any person shall indorse on any letter his or her name and place of residence, as writer thereof, the same after remaining uncalled for at the office to which it is directed thirty days, or the time the writer may direct, shall be returned by mail to said writer, and no such letters sball be advertised, por shall the same be treated as dead-letters, until so returned to the Post-office of the writer, and there remain uncalled for one quarter. Approved 6th April, 1860. AN ACT AUTHORIZING PUBLISHERS TO PRINT ON THEIR PAPERS THE DATE WHEN SUBSCRIPTIONS EXPIRE, AND IN RELATION TO THE POSTAGE ON DROP LETTERS.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Cougress assembled, That the second clause of section third of the act of thirtieth August, eighteen hundred and fifty-two, establishing the rates of postage on printed matter, is hereby so modified as to read as fol. lows, namely:
Second. I'here shall be no word or communication printed on the same after its publication, or upon the cover or wrapper thereof, nor any writing por mark upon it, nor upon the cover or wrapper thereof, except the name, the date when the subscription expires, and the address of the person to whom it is to be sent.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That on all drop letters delivered within the limits of any city or town by carriers, under the authority of the Post-office Department, one cent each shall be charged for the receipt and delivery of said letier, and no more.
Approved 3d April, 1860.
THE BRITISH POST-OFFICE. The following table shows the number of letters delivered in the United Kingdom during the last year, with the rate of increase, and the proportion of letters to population :
Proportion of letters
to population. 22 to each person.
JOURNAL OF INSURANCE.
LIFE INSURANCE LAWS OF NEW YORK, The following are the provisions of “ An Act to amend an act entitled ' an act to provide for the incorporation of life and health insurance companies, and in relation to agencies of such companies,' passed June twenty-four, eighteen hundred and fifty-three.” Passed April 12, 1860 :-
The people of the State of New York represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:-
Section 1. Section one of the act entitled " An act to amend an act entitled • An act to provide for the incorporation of life and health insurance companies, and in relation to agencies of such companies,' passed June twenty-four, eighteen hundred and fifty-three," passed July eighteen, eighteen hundred and fifty-three, is hereby amended so as to read as follows :
No company shall be organized under this act, for the purposes mentioned in the first department, with a less capital than one hundred thousand dollars, and no company shall be organized, for the purposes mentioned in the second depart: ment, with a less capital than twenty-five thousand dollars. The whole capital of such company shall
, before proceeding to business, be paid in and invested in stocks of the United States or of the State of New York, the market value of which shall be at the time at or above par, or in bonds and mortgages on improved unencumbered real estate within the State of New York, worth seventy-five per cent more than the amount loaned thereon, (but in such valuation farm buildings shall not be estimated,) or in such stocks or securities as now are or may hereafter he receivable by the banking department. And it shall be lawful for any company organized under this act, to change and re iuvest its capital, or any part thereof, at any time they may desire, in the stocks or bonds and mortgages or securities aforesaid No company organized for the purposes mentioned in the first department, shall commence business until they bave deposited with the superintendent of the insurance department of this Siate the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, invested as hereinbefore provided for the investment of the capital of such company; and no company organized for the purposes named in the second department shall commence business until they have deposited with the superintendent of the insurance department of this State, the sum of twentyfive thousand dollars, invested as herein before provided for the investment of the capital of such company. The superintendent of the insurance department shall hold such securities as security for policy holders in said companies, but so long as any company so depositing shall continue solvent, may permit such company to collect the interest or dividends on its securities so deposited, and from time to time to withdraw any of such securities, on depositing with the said superintendent such other securities of liku value as those withdrawn, and of the same character as those above mentioned.
Seo. 2. Section eight of the act entitled " An act to provide for the incorporation of life and health insurance compunies, and in relation to the agencies of such companies,” passed June twenty-four, eighteen bundred and fifty-three, is hereby amended so as to read as follows:
It shall be lawful for any company organized under this act to invest its funds or accumulations in bonds and mortgages on unencumbered real estate within the State of New York, worth fifty per cent more than the sum so loaned thereon, on* in stocks of the United States, stocks of this state, or of any incorporated city of this State, if at or above par, and to lend the same or any part thereof on the security of such bonds and mortgages, and upon the pledge of such stocks ; provided that the current market value of such stocks shall be at least ten per cent more than the sum so loaned thereon.
So in originul.
Sec. 3. Any company organized under the acts to which this is an amendment, having first obtained the consent of the superintendent of the insurance department thereto in writing, may, by a vote of a majority of their directors, accept the provisions of this act, or any of them, and amend their charter to conforin with the same.
Sec. 4. This act shall take effect immediately.
TOWN INSURANCE LAWS OF NEW YORK.
AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE FORMATION OF TOWN
AY ACT TO AMEND AN AOT ENTITLED
INSURANCE COMPANIES," PASSED APRIL SEVENTEENTH, EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTYSEVEN. PASSED APRIL 3, 1860.
The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows :
Section 1. So much of section five, of the act entitled “ An act to authorize the formation of town insurance companies.” passed April seventeenth, eighteen buodred and fifty-seven, as relates to the filing of undertakings therein specified, within five days, is hereby amended so as to read as follows :
Every such undertaking shall, within thirty days after the execution thereof, be filed by the secretary of such company in the office of the clerk of the town in which the office of said company is located.
CINCINNATI FIRES-PAID DEPARTMENT. The following shows the number of fire3, burning chimneys, false alarms, &c., from the commencement of the paid fire department, (April 1st, 1853,) up to the present time, (April 1st, 1860,) a period of seven years :Burning False Burning
Loss over Fires. chimneys. alarms. beds. Total. Loss.
Insurance. insurance. 1854.. 106 20 13
$680,906 $330,079 $350,817 1855 ... 104
117 120,816 84.831 35,985 93
101 276,095 103,730 172,365 1857 .. 104 7
113 184,119 157,489 26,630 1858 ..
82 359,784 219.051 130,733 1859.. 84
92 121,499 401,471 22,028 1860.. 109 13
120 295,914 217,250 78,664
RECAPITULATION OF LOSSES IN MAY, 1860.
Vessel and freight. Cargoes.
176,500 108,700 160,400
LOSSES SINCE JANUARY, 1860.
Five months 1860....
LIFE INSURANCE, A convention of life insurance compavies was recently held in New York city. In reference to the rate of interest, the committee reported in favor of four per cent, as the safest for the next bundred years. The funds now held in trust by the life insurance companies of this country amount to $22,000,000, the sums insured for are $180,000,000, and the number of lives about 160,000. Over $2,000,000 are paid out every year by the falling in of claims, mostly to widows and orphans.
DUTY ON WOOL IN FRANCE, The Echo Agricole shows that the abolition of the import duty on foreign wool will not injure the French farmer, and that the French producer need feel no alarm at the proposed measure. From the beginning of the century up to 1823 foreign wool entered France free of duty, but in the last named year the price of wool underwent a heavy decline in all the markets of Europe. A certain description of merinos, for example, which were worth in France 4 f. to 4 f. 50 c. the kilogramme, fell successively to about 2 f., and bas since remained on an average at 2 f. to 2 f. 50 c. Protection was in fashion in those days, and an import duty of 33 per cent ad valorem was imposed on wool. But this duty though, so to speak, prohibitive, did not cause a rise in price. From 1823 to 1834 the average price was 2 f. 20 c. the kilogramme, the lowest being 1 f. 70 c., and the highest 2 f. 80 C. In 1834 the duty was reduced to 22 per cent, including what is called the dixieme ; and that duty was maintained up to 1855, a period of 20 years, during which the price varied according to the abundance of the crops and the manufacturing and commercial situation, from 1 f. 40 c. (in 1848) to 2 f. 50 c. (in 1855.)
In 1856 the duty was reduced to 15 c. the kilogramme; and from that year up to 1859 the price of wool in France was, notwithstanding commercial and financial crises, 2 f. 40 c. to 2 f. 50 c. the kilogramme. It will be seen that under the most moderate duty, that wbich pow exists, the price of wool has not fallen, and the reason is this—a reduction of duty has always for effect to maintain prices in foreign markets, and the wool of France being the best, if not the finest, of all wools, our manufacturers, influenced by the firmness of foreigo markets, hasten to lay in stocks of French wool, which is the quality that suits them best. During the last ten years the importation of foreigo wool has been on the increase; in 1850 and in preceding years it was 20,000,000 kilogrammes, and since 1852 it has been, on an average, 35,000,000. How is it that with such an importation the price of wool in France does not decline? The answer is, 1. Because the price of wool in France must be on a level with the price of wool abroad. 2. Because the consumption of woolen fabrics in France is constantly on the increase. 3. Because the export of French woolen fabrics abroad in. creases considerably every year. On this subject the customs returns present some curious results. It is known that the French manufacturers of woolen goods cannot compete with foreigners, except on the condition that the Custom house