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THINGS WE SEND ABROAD. We have sent vast quantities of agricultural implements to all parts of Europe, and some to Asia and Africa. A good many of our importations have been taken to Palestine, but it has been found next to impossible to get the Arab population to use them. In some other countries, where the laborers are almost equally barbarous, they have shown much more affection for things that lessen labor—that of drawing water from wells in particular. In a late conversation with J. D. West, the inventor of a most effective iron pump, he told us that his firm bad frequent orders for pumps to be sent to Russia, Germany, Turkey, Egypt, and now a party is asking for its exclusive sale in Hungary. It is popular in all northern regions, on account of its anti-freezing properties. It is also in use in the city of London, and it is sent abroad, as well as used at home, with the Ericsson hot-air engines, which begin to be ordered for several foreign countries.
The pump above spoken of is manufactured by J. D. West & Co., 179 Broadway, N. Y., and for its simplicity, durability, and ease of action is a truly valuable invention, and we think we may be doing our readers a service by speaking of it, especially as our recommendation is sustained by the best engineers and judges of hydroalic machinery in the country, many of whom speak of it after practical trial. It is adapted for every place where liquids are to be raised, from common wells and cisterns to mines and manufactories, and it is quite economical both in price and in the power required to drive it. It bas taken the first pre. mium at the United States agricultural fair at Richmond, and at numerous State fairs.
ORIGIN OF IRON BRIDGES.
It is a curious circumstance that the most successful contriver of an iron bridge, and that of the very boldest design, was no other than the celebrated Thomas PAINE. He was an exciseman, and drew up a petition for an increase of pay. He studied mathematics and mechanics, and became acquainted with GOLDsmith and Franklin; the latter persuaded him to go to America. He settled down at Philadelphia to mechanical and philosophical studies, and spec. ulations on electricity, minerals, and the uses of iron. In 1787, when a bridge over the Schuylkill was proposed to be constructed without any piers, as the stream was apt to be choked with ice in the spring freshets, Paine boldly offered to build an iron bridge with a single arch of 400 feet span. The same year we find him at Paris, submitting the plan of his bridge to the Academy of Sciences, whose opinion was decidedly favorable. IIe sent a copy to Sir Joseph Banks, to be submitted to the Royal Society; and he next proceeded to Rotherham Iron Works in Yorkshire, to have his bridge cast. It was a segment of an arch of 410 fect span, and constructed of framed iron panels, radiating towards the center in the form of voussoirs. An American named WHITESIDE advanced him money on the security of his property in the States ; he was unable to com. plete the castings of the bridge, which were then shipped off to London, and erected on a bowling green at Paddington. There it was visited by a large number of persons, and regarded as a great success.
Wuteside having become bankrupt, Paine was arrested by his assignees, but was liberated by the assistance of two other Americans, who became bail for him. When returned from France to America, he in 1803 presented a memoir to Congress on the construction of iron bridges, with several models. It does not appear that he succeeded in erecting his bridge. In the meantime, however, the bridge exhibited at Paddington produced results; the manufacturers agreed to take it back as part of their debt, and the materials were used in the noble structure over the river Wear, at Sunderland, where it was erected in 1794. This bridge was long regarded as the greatest triumph of art. Its span exceeded that of any existing stone arch, being 236 feet, with a rise of 34 feet, the springing commencing 95 feet above the bed of the river, allowing vessels of 300 tons burden to sail underneath without striking their inasts. “ If,” says Mr. STEPLENSON, “ we are to consider Pains as its author, his daring in engineering certainly does full justice to the fervor of his political career; for, successful as the result has undoubtedly proved, want of experience and consequent ignorance of the risk, could alone have induced so bold an experiment; and we are rather led to wonder at than to admire a structure which, as regards its proportions, and the small quantity of material employed in its construction, will probably remain unrivaled.”
MANUFACTURING IN OHIO.
Prior to 1850, Ohio had about 4,000,000 of sheep, yielding about 10,000,000 pounds of wool ; nearly all this wool was sold in Manhatta, New York, Lawrence and Lowell, Massachusetts, and other manufacturing towns. It might have been manufactured in Ohio, and would have been except for the want of capital. The immense capital accumulated in Boston and New York was applied to the manufacture of woolen and cotton goods. For want of capital the West could not compete with these factories ; but raised the wool and sent it to them.
Ohio is wholly an interior country, and hence can grow only with the cultivation of its lands, unless its capacities for manufacturing be brought out. This will be done, and done on an immense scale, whenever the coal and iron region is developed. This has been done to a moderate extent. We take from the report of the Commissioner of Statistics, the following digest of the production of coal and iron in Ohio, for the year 1857 :
DEVELOPMENT OF COAL.
Quantity mined. Athens..... ... bushels 2,000,000 Perry...
1,000,000 Carroll... 100,000 Stark.
2,000,000 Columbiana.. 1,365,000 Summit.
6,000,000 Belmont.... 3,500,000 | Trumbull..
4,300,000 Guerney. 1,200,000 Tuscarawas..
1,795,000 Jefferson, 5,000,000 Vinton .
300,000 Lawrence. 2,500,000 Washington
8,000,000 Aggregate...... 44,600,000 Muskingum..
2,000,000 The development of coal, especially in the counties of Meigs, Vinton, and Lawrence, has no doubt been increased since 1857; but is still far short of what it ought to be and might be, under a prosperous state of manufactures.
DEVELOPMENT OF IRON.
Tons of Counties.
Furnaces. ore. Gallia .. 1 6,000 Stark..
2 Hocking 8 18,000 Tuscarawas.
1 12,516 Jackson... 12 60,000 Vinton.
5 21,000 Lake
14 77,000 Mahoning
6 45,000 Aggregate....... 54 299,516 Scioto.
9 45,000 The pig metal produced from this ore amounted to 105,500 tons.
It will be seen that the iron region round Portsmouth, on the Ohio side, has 44 furnaces, and makes 86,000 tons of pig metal. This, however, is only a part of that iron belt. There are about 20 furnaces on the Kentucky side—making about 64 furnaces in all, and producing about 110,000 tons of metal. The results of this production are centered chiefly in Cincinnati, where iron is manufactured extensively.
RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
FREIGHTS FROM THE WEST, The roads centering at Chicago met in convention September 1st, and agreed upon the following new tariff of through rates from Chicago, to take effect from Monday, September 30:
Chicago and Joliet to-
1st class. 60 75 76 60
76 1 20 1 45 1 45 1 80 1 45 1 30 1 45 1 30 1 55 1 40 155 1 55 1 55 1 55 1 65 1 40 1 65 1 40
60 1 00 1 10 1 14 1 04 1 14 1 04 1 15 1 03 1 23 1 03 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 23 1 08 1 23 1 08
84 74 78 70 83 75 83 83 83 83 83
65 50 58 52 65 60 55 55 55 65 65 60 65 60
Flour in lots 50 brls. & over. 40 55 40 45
55 1 00 1 10 1 05
95 1 05
95 1 15 1 05 1 30 1 20 1 10 1 10 110 1 30 1 80 1 20 1 30 1 20
RATES FROM LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE TO SOUTHERN CITIES BY RAIL.
the following tariff of rates on freight from Louisville and Nashville to southern points by all rail:
-- Freight from Louisville to---
Ala. Savannah. Whisky, per barrel....
2 50 3 25 3 10 3 50 3 50 4 00 Pork and beef ...
2 10 2 75
2 60 2 85 8 90 3 35 Flour, per barrel.
98 1 23 1 18 1 33 1 38 1 48 Wheat, per bush...
304 30+ 361 424 444 469 Corn, rye, barley, ship stuff, and corn meal, per bushel..
24 31 30 35 36 38 Oats, per bushel ...
16 21 20 23 24 26
--Freight from Nashville to---
Ala. Savannah. Whisky, per barrel...
1 50 2 25 2 10 2 50
2 50 3 00 Pork and beef, per barrel
1 25 1 88 1 76 2 00 2 00 2 50 Flour, per barrel..
50 75 70 85 90 1 00 Wheat, per bushel .
18 26 24 30 82 34 Corn, rye, barley, ship stuff, and corn meal, per bushel. 14 21 20 25
28 Oats, per bushel..
g 14 13 16 17 19
RAILWAYS OF EAST INDIA. In the Merchants' Magazine for August, page 251, was given the statistics of the existing railways in India. The London Engineer remarks upon these railroads and their effects as follows:
The construction of railways in India has awakened a spirit of enterprise ; had caused the country to be examined for its more valuable products, of which iron and coal bad been found; had induced designs for docks, and for the improvement of navigation and of irrigation; had given employment, on an average, to 100,000 laborers; had led to an expenditure of £14,000,000, within a few years, chiefly among the native population ; and had involved the delivery into the country of 700,000 tons of material, irrespective of contractors' plant, &c. costing about $10,500,000. That they would ultimately lead to the development of the rich resources, and to the civilization of the immense native population of India, could not now be doubted.
The number of men employed on the opened portions of the Indian railways, in 1859, was 590 English and 7,855 natives, giving an average of sixteen men per mile. At this rate the lines now being constructed would give permanent employment to 77,000 persons. The fares in the Bombay Presidency in 1859 were--first class, 27d. ; second class, 4d.; and third class, kd. per mile. The speed of the trains, including stoppages, was from sixteen to twenty miles per bour. The total number of passengers carried was 1,161,501, and the number conveyed over one mile, per mile of railway open, was 192,974; the average distance traveled by each person being 32.4 miles. The total number of passengers, on all the lines, in 1859, was 2,822,382, of which nearly 93 per cent were third class. The average receipts in the Bombay Presidency, for the year ending June, 1859, had been, for passengers, £453, and for goods, £464 per mile. It was evident that the goods traffic had not yet been fully developed, as the lines were not continuous, nor had they reached the principal producing districts. The cost of working to June, 1859, which had since been increased, was only 44.1 per cent of the gross receipts, notwithstanding that the cost of fuel was three guineas per ton. The dividend on the expended capital was about 5.14 per cent. The East Indian had realized even a larger dividend.
In reply to the inquiry as to the reasons which had led to the execution of the works on the Madras Railway by the engineers, without the intervention of contractors, it was stated, that when the line was commenced there were no large contractors available in that presidency, and it was thought better to proceed at once rather than to enter into correspondence with the administrative body in England, which must bave resulted in considerable delay. It had already been proved, by experience in Pengal, that the natives could be readily organized on railway work; and as the large English contractors had no more information than the engineers as to the labor question, the purchase of materials, and other arrangements, there was no room for hesitation in returning to the primitive system, so successfully pursued in the cases of the Eddystone lighthouse, and the Stockton and Darlington and Liverpool and Manchester railways. Besides, in India scarcely any plant was required. The works were begun at Madras without any appliances from this country. The natives found their own tools, and baskets for carrying the earth. Temporary rails were not needed, as there were no long“ leads," from cuttings into embankments. The earthwork for the first six miles from Madras was let to a native contractor for rather less than one penny per cubic yard. The other parts of the live were let on a similar principle, in small sections, the sub-contractors being paid weekly. No difficulty whatever was experienced in carrying out this system, within a reasonable distance of Madras.
With regard to the style adopted in the construction of Indian railways, it was sometimes argued that the substantial bad been selected in opposition to what was, incorrectly, called the American system. This was denied, for it had been the practice to take advantage of the cheapest and best materials to be found upon the spot; and where there was abundance of good stone, and timber was dear, it was more economical to use stone and bricks than timber.
It was but fair to mention that the rate of wages and the price of work were much higher in the Bombay Presideney than in the Madras. In the latter, labor averaged per day, coolies, 3d. ; women or boys, to assist in carrying earth, 1zd. ; carpenters, from 9d. to 104d.; and bricklayers, from 7}d. to 104d. These rates were about the same as were now being paid upon the Great Southern of India. The ordinary price of earthwork was 1fd. to 2d., and of masonry 7s. 6d. to 10s. per cubic yard. The making of embankments, building of bridges, laying of the permanent-way, and ballasting the road, cost about £1,500 per mile, exclusive of materials and of stations.
It was observed that the Calcutta and Southeastern was so small as hardly to be worth naming in an engineering point of view. It possessed, however, some interest commercially; the object being to open out a new port for the enormous and rapidly increasing trade of Bengal. The line extended from Calcutta to the Mutla, a distance of 284 miles. The dangers of the Hooghly were well known. Its crowded state, and the expense and difficulty of its navigation, all rendered it necessary to seek another outlet. This was fortunately found in the Mutla, which was, to a great extent, free from the dangers of the Hooghly. The Mutla had a depth of not less than 24 feet at low water spring tides, from the proposed new port to the sea. It was subject to no bars, por dangerous tida! currents. The stream of tide did not exceed, at any time, four miles per hour. It had no freshets, no shifting sands, and no bar. It was interesting, in an engineering point of view, to compare the Hooghly with the Mutla; the former with a vast body of fresh water always passing down it, incumbered with shoals and shifting channels ; the other, without fresh water, a clear, deep, and permanent channel, kept open by the tidal scour alone. The system of executing the works without the intervention of contractors had been adopted, because the works were of that nature that no advantage could be derived from the large contract system. In this case no plant was required, and the native labor could be directed quite as well by the company's engineers as by those of a large contractor.
It was contended that, in a distant country like India, where the engineer himself had no precise knowledge of what would be the cost of railway works, it was impossible to induce a fair competition among contractors ; who would