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be tempted, in making an offer, to add a considerable sum, to provide against contingencies which might arise. In the construction of Indian railways the best materials only should be employed, put together in the most substantial manner ; for the population was very great, the traffic was likely to be heavy, and there was every prospect of a fair return for the outlay.

In closing the discussion, it was remarked that the paper was one of the most interesting and instructive that had ever been read at the institution. It was a subject for congratulation that the results of the non-contract system had been so satisfactory in India ; for, although great supervision had been exercised by the government over the expenditure, there was nothing like personal interest to insure economy. Contractors might be said to be both bold and timid—bold where the thing to be done was fairly understood ; but timid where there were contingencies in the background. In introducing a new class of labor into a new country, the engineer should pioneer the way, so as to ascertain the character of the elements on which contractors might subsequently found estimates. When that had been done, fair competition might be relied on, and then the contract system might be introduced with advantage.

Inferences of a useful character might be drawn from the comparison which had been made as to fares, and the average distance traveled by each passenger. The third-class fares in India seemed to be about one-half what they were in England, whilst the distance traveled by each passenger was respectively thirtytwo and twelve miles. If the distance each passenger was conveyed in England could be increased, no doubt either higher dividends would be realized, or lower fares could be charged. The intricate complications of railway companies had arisen from the contests for long fares. But it was believed that the real prosperity of a railway company was dependent more upon its own traffic; and that, in general, facilities should be afforded for the construction of lines in the districts traversed, so as to lead ultimately to an increase in the accommodation of the immediate population, and for the general conveyance of traffic.

THE RAILROADS OF NEW YORK, Too much importance, says the New York Courier and Enquirer, cannot be attached to the railroads and canals of our State. They have contributed more than all other sources combined to the growth of the city and the State. They bave promoted the great interests of agriculture and manufactures throughout nearly the whole of the forty-seven thousand square miles within our limits. They will go on further, and in an equal ratio probably, in advancing the business and wealth of the State.

In five years the total freights on the two leading roads, and the tolls on the canals have amounted to nearly $50,000,000--and the number of tons carried 27,000,000, viz:1855–1859.

Freights. Tons carried. New York Central Railroad....

$19,114,338 3,884,702 New York and Erie...

19,335,575 4,419,865 Canals (tolls).....

11,433,629 18,929,639

Total for five years.......

$49,883,542

27,233,703

CAPITAL, DEBT, COST OF ROAD, FOR THE YEAR 1859, ENDING SEPTEMBER 1st. Name of road.

Capital Total debt. Cost of road. Receipts, 1859. New York Central Railroad. $24,000,000 $14,333,771 $30,840,713 $6,200,848 New York and Erie

11,000,000 25,613,703 35,390,907 4,482,149 Hudson River

3,758,466 9,256,654 11,388,279 1,842,636 New York and Harlem“ 5,717,100 5,353,297 8,019,671 1,076,322

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Total, four roads....... $44,475,566 $54,557,425 $85,569,570 $13,601,955

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Total State of N. Y... $70,189,794 $73,077,358 $129,433,033 $20,341,374

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Passengers
Freight.
Mail...
Express...
Privileges

RECEIPTS FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1860.
$975,259 33 Rents and tolls......

4,220 70
582,573 26
55,175 00 Total receipts ........ $1,605,096 67
17,488 38 Total expenditures... 761,500 00
430 00

Net earnings..... $873,596 67

For these figures we are indebted to an official source; and comparing them with the company's annual report for the year ending June 30, 1859, we find that for said year the gross receipts were $1,330,812 40, and the net receipts $783,037. These amounts, deducted from the gross and net earnings for the year euding June 30, 1860, exhibit in the gross receipts an increase of $304,284, and in the net receipts an increase of $95,560 67.

The Memphis and Charleston Railroad is an astonishing financial success ; and we use this strong adjective not because there is anything surprising in the fact that the road is a success—for that result was always expected of it-but because the measure of its success is beyond the hopes of the most sanguine of its confident projectors, and is almost beyond example among iron lines.

The Memphis and Charleston Railroad Company at date, July 1, 1859, owned 287 miles of first-class road, with complete appurtenances and equipments, represented by a funded debt of $2,700,000, and a stock capital of $3,580,264, making a total of capital and funded debt of $6,280,264.

The floating debt is small; the interest on the funded and floating debt together, for the year, not exceeding $200,000, and which, deducted from the net receipts for the year, leaves a balance of $673,596 67, from which to make appropriations to sinking fund, and renewal fund, and also to pay in cash a dividend so large as to seem fabulous.

The Memphis and Charleston Railroad Company command congratulations upon their most triumphant success, for no railroad man can ponder their figures without emotions of the heartiest and highest satisfaction.

WEAR OF RAILS. In Herapath's Railway Journal, (English,) it is stated that, “at a late meeting of the West Flanders Railway, the editor having mentioned, on the experience of one of our ablest practical railway men, that the rails, unless at the stations and places where there is skidding, do not sensibly wear out, was afterwards spoken to by a gentleman and a railway chairman, who seemed to misunderstand what Mr. Herapata said, and adduced the splitting and exfoliation of some of the rails in disproof of what they called a theory. Lest others should run away with the same mistaken notions and misapprehensions, we think it necessary to say that the non-wearing-out applies to rails made of good iron, not inferior iron tinned over, as it were, with good, of which far too many rails are made, and to rails on the middle of a line over which the trains run in the ordinary way. Experiments have been made by taking up and carefully weighing rails in this position after twelve months' wear or more, which were found not sensibly to have lost any weight during that time, thereby proving that there could have been no sensible wear. Besides, we have been assured that, after being down for many years, they showed no signs of material wear, which justified the statement which Mr. HERAPATI made on the authority given him. It is true that, near stations and places of “shunting,' where there is much sliding and slipping by the application of the breaks or otherwise, there is a very sensible wear, but this is caused by slipping friction, not rolling, which is incom. parably less than the former, though it seems we have ex-railway chairmen quite innocent of the knowledge of that simple fact." Rails made of the best iron cost more at first, but they endure three times longer than rails made of an inferior quality of metal, and the former are therefore the cheapest in the end.

LOCOMOTIVES IN FRANCE,

The number of locomotives which can be built yearly by the Frecch builders is officially reported as follows :-Cail, of Paris, 100; E. Gouin, of Paris, 73; Andre KOECHLIN & Co., of Mulhouse, 100; works at La Creuzot, 80; BUDDICOM, of Rouen, 40 ; Cave, 50 ; Clement DESORMES, 40 ; and the workshops of the Orleans Railway Company, 34 ; making 516 yearly. Besides the Orleans, other railway companies produce from 30 to 40 more engines yearly.

STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE, &c.

COTTON CROP OF THE UNITED STATES.
STATEMENT AND TOTAL AMOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31ST AUGUST, 1860. FROM THE

NEW YORK SHIPPING LIST.
NEW ORLEANS.

1860. 1859. 1858. Export from New OrleansTo foreign ports.....

.bales 2,005,662 To coast wise ports..

208,634 Burnt at New Orleans..

5,240 Stock, 1st Sept., 1860....

73,984

2,293,470 Deduct received from Mobile.. 34,179 Received from Montgomery, etc.

28,473 Received from Florida...

16,335 Received from Texas..

49,036 Stock, 1st Sept., 1859.

26,022

154,045 ALABAMA,

2,139,425 1,669,274 1,576,409 Export from MobileTo foreign ports.....

659,481 To coastwise ports..

158,332 Burnt at Mobile

3,387 Manufactured in Mobile.

1,220 Stock, 1st Sept., 1860.

41,682

864,102
Deduct received from N. Orleans 984
Stock, 1st Sept., 1859

20,106
21,090

843,012 704,406 622,364 Export from Galveston, &c.To foreign ports, including 1,865 to Mexico).

111,967 To coastwise ports...

139,767 Manufactured in Galveston.

177 Stock, 1st Sept., 1860.......

3,168

255,079 Deduct stock, 1st Sept., 1859...

2,655

252,424 192,062 145,286 FLORIDA, Export from Apalachicola, St. Marks, &c.— To foreign ports, Uplands..... 58,353 Sea Islands..

755 To coastwise ports, Uplands... 117,394 Sea Islands..

13,200 Burnt at Apalachicola.....

1,394 Stock, 1st Sept., 1860..

864

192,960 Deduct stock, 1st Sept., 1859...

236

192,724 173,484 122,351

TEXAS.

GEORGIA.

Export from Savannah-
To foreign ports, Uplands.....

Sea Islands.
To coastwise ports, Uplands...

Sea Islands.....
Stock in Savannab, 1st Sept., '60
Stock in Augusta, 1st Sept., '60

331,159

6,596 190,937 18,345 4,307 5,252

556,596

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Total crop of the United States....

4,675,770 3,851,481 3,113,962 Increase over crop of 1859 824,289 | Increase over crop of 1857 1,736,251 Increase over crop of 1858 1,561,808 | Increase over crop of 1856 1,147,925

COMPARATIVE CROP STATEMENT.

1859-60... 1858-9.... 1857-8....

Bales.
4,675,770 | 1856-7.....
3,861,481 | 1855-6.
3,143,962 1854-5.....

Bales.
2,939,519 1853-4.....
3,527,845 | 1852-3.
2,847,339 | 1851-2.....

Bales. 2,930,027 3,262,882 3,015,029

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