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DEXTER FUND

SCHOOL WORK

A PRIL,

19 O 3

A SERIES OF MODEL LESSONS IN NATURE STUDY

FOR ALL PRIMARY GRADES

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FIRST HALF

THE SQUIRREL (GRAY).
LESSON ON SQUIRREL

Put the picture or blackboard draw-
May E. Chandless

ing before the class in the morning. The Nature Plan for October could This arouses interest, recalls previous be as follows:

knowledge, and makes children rich

with thoughts and receptive for new Animals:

facts. Squirrel, rabbit, chicken, duck,

After obtaining the name from the goose, pigeon; also such birds and

children, with the word on the blackinsects as present themselves.

board, the peculiarity of the word Plants:

awakens another interest, if the teachObserve form, etc., of apple, hick- er tells them that the first part of the ory nut, chestnut, with burr.

name tells about its bushy tail (squirHave children learn something of rel). the distribution of seeds by wind (thistle, milkweed and dandelion); by 1. Size: fastening to clothing, etc. (burdock

Compare with size of cat. Children burrs and stick-me tights); by wind

will appreciate the comparison if the and water (maple, ash and elm).

teacher will place dots 13 to 14 inches The Nature Lesson, which is rest

apart to represent the squirrel, and 22 ful, should follow one where close at

or 23 inches for the cat. tention has been required. The afternoon is the better time for this lesson.

II. Color: When presenting the lesson, the object, picture, or blackboard drawing is Under part white, and back gray indispensable.

fur. (The picture should show this.)

on

III. Mouth and Teeth:

“THE SQUIRREL'S ARITHMETIC.” Sketch blackboard the four

High on a branch of a walnut tree chisel-like teeth and speak of their A bright-eyed squirrel sat,

What was he thinking so earnestly? use.

And what was he looking at? IV. Tail and Feet:

The forest was green around him, The bushy tail and how he uses it The sky all over his head; - just as we cover ourselves with His nest was in a hollow limb,

And his children snug in bed. blankets he spreads out his tail over his back and sleeps sitting up.

He was doing a problem o'er and o'er, The claws, long and curved, fitted Busily thinking was he;

How many nuts for his winter store for clinging and climbing trees.

Could he hide in the hollow tree? V. His Food:

He sat so still on the swaying bough, What does he eat Where does he

You might have thought him asleep. find his food? Can he get it when

Oh, no; he was trying to reckon now

The nuts the babies could eat. the snow covers the ground? What must he do then? Where does he Then suddenly he frisked about, store it? When is he very busy?

And down the tree he ran.

“The best way to do, without a doubt, Tell the children how he fills his

Is to gather all I can.” cheeks with nuts and runs back and forth many, many times, placing the

LESSON nuts in the hollow of a tree. How

Belle Rosenhaupt he sometimes takes the eggs from the Recognize and name four objects birds' nests and eats them. Holds food and pictures; horse, cow, rabbit, between two fore paws.

chicken, duck, goose and pigeon.

Observe characteristics, features, VI. Home: For the winter he finds a hollow in

habits, actions and other interesting

facts of the horse and cow. a tree (illustr.). Gathers leaves and moss to make it soft. He builds a

COW. summer home in the top of a tree with Material: twigs, leaves and grass. His home

Picture of cow, horns (if possible). is called a nest.

Introduction. VII. Habits:

Children tell in their own language Sleeps the greater part of the winter, but has his store of nuts to eat

anything appertaining to the cow,

either from personal experience or should he wake up. Bright and nim

from observation of picture. (Speak ble (jumps from branch' to branch),

of cow and calf as mother and child.) chatters and scolds if he is disturbed. VIII. Use:

Development.
Flesh is sometimes used for food. Compare to Horse.
Fur, for coats and muffs.

Size of body, head, neck, ears, eyes IX. Literature:

(expression mild, pleasant and hapStory for conversation. "The py); tail, horns, hoofs, hair, color. Squirrels," from "All the Year Food: Grass and clover in summer. Round,” I., by Strong. Poetry, "The Why? Hay and grain in winter Squirrel's Arithmetic."

Why?

- LG

In speaking of food, develop the cud chewing process; then develop other habits of the cow, such as lying in the shade on warm days; standing knee-deep in water to keep cool, etc.

Uses.-(When alive.)

Very strong, therefore the ox is used in drawing heavy loads.

Gives us milk, butter and cheese.

Let children tell how cows are taken to the cattle yard to be milked. (Speak of cowbells.)

Horns used to help themselves.

Uses.- (After life.)

Hair for plaster, bones for handles, horns for combs, hoofs for glue, fat for tallow, hide for leather, flesh for food.

Tell story of "Wise Cow and His Horns."

Teach Poem.
Thank you pretty cow that made
Pleasant milk to soak my bread,
Every day and night,
Fresh and sweet and pure and white.

II. Conveniences for planting.
(a) Window boxes or flower pots

filled with soil.
(b) A box filled with sawdust.

Keep this wet. (c) Glass tumblers with a piece

of cotton batting, cut so as to

lie on top of the water. (d) A glass jar filled with water. III. Pieces of heavy manilla paper about five inches square; one for each child.

IV. A paper of pins. Notes to Teacher:

The manilla will keep damp or wet beans from soiling the desk.

Use pins to keep the bean secuie on the manilla while drawing the different stages of growth. The drawings are apt to be more accurate than otherwise.

Have manilla given out for each lesson; pins, when needed. Method:

Observation and discovery.
Experiment, inference, conclusion.

Lesson One may well be devoted to gathering up what the pupils already know about the growth of seeds in general, what they need for growth, and the planting of seeds.

We might begin in this way:
Give each child a bean.

Let us see what our hands can tell us about our lima beans ?

As a result, the following discoveries will be made by children:

Our beans are hard, smooth, flat, and are shaped like a half-circle; one edge straight, other edge curved.

Put this story on the board.

Is there anything about our beans, our hands have not told us ? From children:

Our beans are white and shiny, and they have a scar.

SECOND HALF.

GERMINATION

Eleanor L. O'Hearn

With young children in the 1A and IB grade, it will be best to study carefully the germination of one kind of seed. For this the lima bean is probably best, its parts being so distinct.

The following comprises a series of lessons which can be carried on as opportunity or progress of plant warrants :

Material:

I. An abundant supply of lima beans, so that they can be distributed freely to the children.

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