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Pharmacy, Valparaiso, Ind.; Joseph Yates Marsden, Battle Creek,
OKLAHOMA DEPARTMENT.

Mich., Northern College of Pharmacy, Manchester, England;
Emil Shebler, Archibold, O., Ohio Northern University, Ada,

O.; Odis 0. Benson, Sacred Heart, Minn., Ohio Northern Uni-
They Met and United.-Oklahoma and Indian versity, Ada O.; Geo. W. Wagner, Glenside, Penn., Philadel-
Territory Pharmaceutical Association met in Guthrie, phia College of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, Peon.
Okla., December 10, 1907, at the Ione Hotel for the

The next meeting will be held in McAlester, Okla., purpose of amalgamating the two associations into

on April 14, 1908. Application blanks and full inforone State Association. The following officers were

mation can be had by writing.-[J. C. BURTON, Secreelected:

tary, Stroud, Oklahoma.
President-E. K. McGinnis, Sulphur.
First Vice-President-Robert Scott, Oklahoma.

The Slack Hand Man.
Second Vice-President-M. M. Hayes, Quinton.
Third Vice-President-Fred Reed, Norman.

"He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand. Secretary-W. H. McCutchen, Luther.

-[SOLOMON'S PROVERBS. Treasurer-Henry C. Cobb, Muskogee.

Ever notice these slack-handed merchants? CareAssistant Secretary-D. Wiley, Sulphur.

less about everything. Had rather give a customer a A Constitution and By-Laws were adopted, and the

little too much sugar than carry it back to the barrel. affairs of the association will be looked after by an

Are not very particular about anything. Forget to executive council.

charge items in many instances; put the proceeds of a A new proposed Pharmacy law was adopted and

sale in their pockets, rather than cross the room to legislative committee appointed to get its passage.

the cash register. The committee on resolutions reported as against the

In addition to being a good business man, Solomon establishment of parcel post and promiscuous selling must have been an expert fisherman. His slack-hand of cocaine, morphine and other habit forming drugs; and in support of the N. A. R, D. and in favor of the proverb is essentially a fishing term. You cannot

catch fish with a slack line. You must have it taut. legislature allowing Oklahoma wholesale druggists to furnish retail druggists with alcohol for medical, ing with a slack line, the ends of their poles dipping

Solomon had seen fellows sitting on the bank fishmechanical and manufacturing purposes in limited

in the water-half asleep, perhaps. He knew they quantities and under reasonable restrictions.

couldn't catch any fish that way, and when he wanted Sixty charter members were enrolled, and it is

to tell the business men about him that they must be thought that at least 300 more will join before the

alive and alert, he just summed up the whole situameeting at Sulphur next spring.

tion in the remark, "he becometh poor that dealeth Considering the busy season the meeting was well

with a slack hand." attended.

He that dealeth with a slack hand is never certain Oklahoma State Board of Pharmacy –The Board of anything. He “guesses” that he doesn't need anymet in regular quarterly session on the 14th day of thing when the representative calls. He “reckons'' January, 1908 at Oklahoma City.

he can get along for a time without making any imA class of eleven was present and took the examina- provements. He “supposes" a new device is all tion, of which the following passed the required grade right, but he "believes'' he can do without it. He and were gộanted certificates of registration: Warner

“thinks" he will sell more goods next season. B. Millet, Stroud, Okla.; Sam Ingalls, Stroud, Oklay- Oh, Mr. Slack-handed Merchant! Gather up the Walter Smith, Atoka, Okla.; J. B. Kinsey, Kiowa, lines and drive. Grit your teeth—don't let your jaw Okla.; Alfred Rowntree, Oklahoma City, Okla. The hang down. Get a grip on your business. Hammer following having complied with the requirements of the the hoops on tighter to stop the leaks. Clinch your Board were granted registration on diploma:

fists with determination to win. Buckle up the bellyChas A. Gesick, Oklahoma City, St. Louis College of Pharmacy,

band another notch. Take up another link or two in St. Louis, Mo.; Jas. M. Thornton, Oklahoma City, Austin College, the trace chain. Let out your reason a loop or two. Effingham, Ill ; D. H. Hering, Ardmore, Ohio Normal University

Tighten up all around and instead of reckoning and Ada, 0.; Philip W. Brown, Atoka, ill., Valparaiso University,

guessing, know.—[By GEORGE F. BURBA, in AgriValparsiso, Ind.; Albert S. Sackett, West Farmington, O., Ohio

cultural Advertising. Normal University, Ada, O.; Wm. H. Wiese, Chickasha, Northern Indiana School of Pharmacy, Valparaiso, Ind.; Henry H. Gerard, Hobart, Highland Park College of Pharmacy, Des Moines, la.; Jas. V. Brian, Newkirk, Oklahoma University, Norman,

Hygiopone is an iron preparation stated to be preOkla.; Karl H. Kendall, Galena State University, Norman, Okla.; pared by electrolysis, and to contain metallic iron in Mary A, Pocock, Oklahoma City, Northern Indiana School of an extremely minute state of division, partially free, Pharmacy, Valparaiso, Ind.; Eugene C. Abernathy, Hollis, Okla

and dissolved in the liquid. It is a yellowish-brown homa University, Norman, Okla.; H. Philip Hill, Jr., Baltimore,

thin liquid with an astringent, not unpleasant taste, Md., New York College of Pharmacy, New York, N. Y.; Chas. F. Smith, Muskogee, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, Ill.; with a faint odour of chlorine. It is perfectly miscible Arthur M. Lyon, Struthers, O., Scio College of Pharmacy, with water, but is incompatible with alcohol and with Scio, O.; Oscar O. Nichols, Lawton, Ia., Highland Park College

milk. It should be kept in a dark, cool place. The of Pharmacy, DesMoines, Ia.; Edward W. Thompson, Kansas City, Mo., University of Iowa, Department of Pharmacy, Iowa

dose is a few drops.-[Schweiz. Woch. Chem. Pharm., City, la.; Leroy Kime, Frederick, Northern Indiana School of 1907, 45, 638.

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MISSOURI EXAMINATION.

STRAY ITEMS AND COMMENTS.

The Mo. Bd. Ph. met at Jefferson City, January 13, The Baltimore Branch of the A. Ph. A. has elected and examined twenty-five applicants for registration, the following officers: of whom the following eleven passed a satisfactory President, Chas. Caspari, Jr.; Vice-president, H. A. B. Dunding; examination:

Secretary-Treasurer, E. F. Kelly, Chairman Committee on MemDon L. Adams, Brunswick, Mo.; E. 0. Barton, Laclede, Mo.;

bership, Chas. L. Meyer; Chairman Committee on Professional

Relations, Charles Feick; Chairman Committee on Science and W. S. Dorsey, Columbia, Mo.; Mrs. Myrtle F. Duckworth, Springfield, Mo.; Fred A. Hartman, St. Louis, Mo.; W.L. Hixon, Bill

Practice of Pharmacy, Philip I. Heiusler. ings, Mo.; John Allen Reed, Springfield, Mo.; Onas Smith, Ash The Use of the Red Cross sign in business is illegal Grove, Mo.; Eugene A. Sweet, St. Joseph, Mo.; R. L. Trimble, and lays the party or corporation liable to severe Kansas City, Mo.; Leland C. Yates, Kansas City, Mo.

penalties. This was explained in detail on pages 93, The board will hold its next examination at Kapsas

277, 322 of the MEYER BROTHERS DRUGGIST for 1907. City, April 13. The secretary is Charles Gietner, 203

Many firms have quietly complied with the law and South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo.

we advise all others to follow the example, as the red Missouri Board Examination Questions.

cross organization is determined to protect its rights The following is a set of written examination ques- in the matter. tions submitted at the January meeting:

Not Exactly Old Wine in new bottles but more like A. 1. What is extraction? 2. What is maceration? 3. What is digestion? 4. What is expression?

new wine in old bottles are the comments of the vetB. i. What is camphor? 2. By what process is it obtained? eran pharmacist, George C. Bartells, upon the rela3. Name three solids that liquify with it. 4. Name three official tions between pharmacists and physicians to which preparations.

we give space in our correspondence department of the C. 1. Give formula for Ungt. Potassii Iodidi. 2. Why is Carb Potassii used in same? 3. Name four official acids. 4. Give

MEYER BROTHERS DRUGGIST for February. The comchemical formula of each.

munication is to the point and contains much food for D. 1. From what is Citric Acid obtained? 2. How is it mental digestion. made from Calcium Citrate? 3. Name official preparations. 4. What is Talcum chemically and how purified ?

Reregistration has never been popular with MisE. Chloroform 1. How is it made? 2. How purified? 3. souri pharmacists, for every attempt to pass a law reChemical formula. 4. Medical properties. F. 1. Why is Borax used in making cold cream? 2. Why is

quiring annual or bi-annual registration has met with Stearic Acid used in making suppositories. 3. Why is Diluted much opposition and only mild support. Some claim Alcohol used in making bellad. ointment. 4. Why are preparations of Wild Cherry made by cold process.

that it is not only an injustice but such a law is unG. 1. What is the meaning of the term Halogen? 2. Name constitutional. A Minnesota judge of the Supreme the Halogen group. 3. Name four Halogen acids. 4. Give chemical formula of each.

Court recently had occasion to pass upon this point. H. 1. What is Phenol? 2. Give test to distinguish it from He holds the reregistration law to be constitutional. Creosote. Name official preparation, 4. Give chemical formula.

He says it is not a tax but merely a charge for the purI. 1. Give formula for Ceratum. 2. Give formula for Un- pose of maintaining the expense of the necessary gentum.

machinery required in carrying out the law. J. 1. What is an infusion? 2. Give formula and mode of preparing infusion digitalis.

The Microscope in the drug store is gradually gainK. 1. Give official vame. part of plant, active constituents, medicinal properties, official preparations and dose of bird

ing a more important and useful place. At the January pepper.

meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the A. Ph, A., L. 1. Name the active constituent in both bitter and sweet almond. Why is bitter almond poisonous? 2. Name four drugs

Prof. Henry Kraemer read a paper on “The Use of the containing emulsin.

Compound Microscope in the Valuation of Drugs,” in M. 1. Name two official preparation containing Potassium Iodide in combination with Iodine. Why is it used? 2 Give test

the course of which he reviewed the use and the practifor Iodine.

cal need for the examination of crude drugs as well as N. 1. How many grains of digitalis in 20 c. c. Tincture Digitalis? 2. How many grains of Cinchona in 10 c. c. Tincture

powders by means of the microscope. He referred to Cinchona Compound? 3. How many grains of Cimicifuga in the factthat practically all of the more recent European 5 c. c. Tincture Cimicifuga? 4. How many grains of opium in 2, c. c. Tincture Opium?

Pharmacopoeias had included descriptions of the 0.

Write the following prescriptions in Troy Weight giving microscopical appearance of powdered drugs and also amount of ingredients in each prescription.

discussed the reasons why equally satisfactory descrip1-R Salol Powd. Rhei..

.40 0.18

tions had not been included in the recent eighth deBismuth Subcarb Sodii Bicarb...

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cennial revision of the U. S. P. He pointed out that M., Ft. Pulv De. tal doses No. 30.

even at the present time the compound microscope Sig.

was generally accepted as being valuable in determinOne three times daily in water. 2-R Sodii Phos.,

ing the identity of many crude drugs that the identity Sodii Sulph..

and purity of powdered drugs could only be determined Sodii Salicylate.. M., Ft. Pulv.

by the use of this piece of apparatus. He believes De. tal doses No. 10.

that in the very near future the compound microscope Sig. One powder in water three times daily.

will be absolutely indispensable in detecting adulteraIn addition to the above, each candidate was given tions, sophiatications, contaminations and the numer. five chemicals, five pharmaceuticals and five drugs to ous other shortcomings of crude and powdered drugs identify and about which certain questions were asked.

of vegetable origin.

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EXAMINATION QUESTIONS.

iodide, and place the metric equivalents of each ingredient next to the ordinary measure.

9. (a) Explain the difference between weight and volume. (b) What is a hydrometer?

10. What are the requirements of the Louisiana State Board of Pharmacy for (a) registered pharmacists and (b) qualified assistants?

Louisiana Board.

Pharmacy.-1. (a) What is solution? (b) What is a saturated solution? (c) A supersaturated solution? (d) Give example wherein the presence of a dissolved body will favor the solution of another substance. (e) When it will not favor same?

2. (a) What are syrups? (b) How many official syrups are there? (c) What official syrup is made by maceration? (d) How many methods of making syrups are recogoized by the U. S. P.? (e) Describe the process of making syrup wild cherry bark, U.S. P.

3. (a) What are spirits? (b) In how many ways are the official spirits made? (c) What is the most usual method of making them? (d) In making spirits what is the object of maceration? (e) What official spirits are made by distillation?

4. (a) What are tinctures? (b) In what different ways are official tinctures made? (c) Give the official name, formula, and describe the process of making tinct. cinchona compound. d) For what purpose is glycerin used in tinctures? (e) What official tincture is made by simple solution?

5. (a) Describe the method of making syrup ferrous iodide. (6) Give perceptage strength of ferrous iodide in finished product. (c) What impurity is it liable to contain, and how may its presence be detected?

6. (a) What are collodions? (b) How many are official and what are their names? (c) Give formula and mode of making collodion.

7. (a) What is filtration? (b) How does filtration differ from clarification? (c) How does it differ from colation? (d) Name five filtering mediums. (e) What is the liquid that passes through the filter called?

8 Give the official names of the finished preparations and state the ingredients which enter into each of the following: (a) Sydenbam's Laudanum: (b) Brown Mixture: (c) Fowler's Solution; (d) Lugol's Solution; (d) Donovan's Solution.

9. Complete the following formulas and name the official preparation represented in each case: (a) Compound Ext. Colocynth. ..60 grammes Ext. of

...30 grammes -Jalap....

30 grammes -Leptandra

.15 grammes Resip

. 15 grammes

.8 Cc.
Diluted Alcohol.q. s. to make 1000 pills.
(b)
in No. 60 powd..

111 grammes
Powd. opium

...10 grammes Sugar of milk in No. 30 powder....80 grammes Mix and make.....

..... 100 grammes 10. (a) Define extraction. (6) Name the operation by which it is accomplished. (c) What is percolation? (d) What is the object of moistening a powder before subjecting it to percolation? (e) What is the liquid called that is used in extracting a drug?

Weights and Measures.-1. Write a prescription calling for two dozen capsules of phenacetine and salol, each 2. graios, giving amounts in both 'apothecaries' and metric system of weights.

2. What is the percentage strength of a solution made by dissolving 62.5 grammes of KI in 187.5 cubic centimeters of water?

3. Explain the difference, if any, between 0.003 gramme, 1-20 grain, avd 3 milligrammes.

4. Write out a description of the metric system embracing answers to the following: its origin and history; what are the units of measure, capacity, and weight, and their equivalents in ordinary measures?

5. Find the total value of the following, giving amounts in avoirdupois ounces: 0.6 of a centigramme, 10.0 kilogrammes, 5 milligrammes, and 2 hectogrammes.

6. How many degrees Fahrenheit in 65° C., and how many degrees Centigrade in 17° Fahrenheit?

7. How much of each ingredient would you take in making 5 pounds apothecaries' of a mixture of talcum, 87 parts; starch, 8 parts; and salicylic acid, 5 parts.

8. Write a prescription for a 4-fluidounce mixture containing potassium iodide, compound syrup of sarsaparilla, and mercuric

Chemistry.-1 (a) From what is carbolic acid obtained and how? (b) Give its chemical formula.

2 (a) What chemical reaction takes place in making official liquor magnesii citratis, and why should it be made fresh? (b) What chemical reaction takes place in making liquor potassii arsenatis, and what is the dose?

3. Give the official source and chemical formula of each of the following: (a) borax, (b) plaster of paris, (c) salol, (d) cream of tartar.

4. (a) Give an example of an official preparation containing iron in the ous condition and explain its manufacture. (b) Give au example of an official preparation containing iron in the ic condition and explain its manufacture. (c) Discuss chemically the ous and ic compounds of iron.

5. (a) Mention a chemical test for detecting impurities in gossypium purificatum. (b) Mention a chemical test for detecting impurities in acidum salicylicum.

6. Explain the chemical difference, if any, between the official forms of alumen,

7. (a) Give the source of lead. (b) What is litbarge? (c) What is red lead? (d) Explain the chemical or physical difference, if any, between the above substances.

8 (a) To what class of oils does oleum morrhuæ belong? (b) What is its chemical composition?

9. Mention an official basic hydroxide, an acid hydroxide, and a neutral salt.

10. Give the chemical definition and official requirements of aqua destillata.

Materia Medica.-1. Name eight official alkaloids, each from a different drug, giving the source and dose of each.

2. (a) What are volatile oils? (b) Give the general method for preparing them. (c) Give a simple test to distinguish them from fixed oils. (d) Name five that are official. (e) Name two that are heavier and two that are lighter than water.

3. (a) What are fixed oils? (b) Give general method of preparing them, (c) How do they differ from volatile oils? (d) Name four of vegetable and one of animal origin that are official. (e) Name two that are soluble in alcohol.

4. Frangula: Give the common name, natural order, habitat, part of the plant used, constituents and properties. Why should the official part of the plant be kept one year?

7. Give the dose and antidote of each of the following: (a) tinct. aconite, (b) sulphate strychnia, (c) arsenous acid, (d) tartar emetic, (e) tinct. iodine, (f) corrosive sublimate, (g) creosote, (b) cocaine, (i) tinct. opium, (j) sugar of lead.

6. Give the official name of each of the following: burdock, croton oil, spirits of nitroglycerin, ox-gall, soft soap, litharge, castor oil, wahoo, cold cream.

7 (a) From what plant is ipecac root obtained? (b) Upon what constituent does it depend for its physiological action? (c) How may it be distinguished physically from all other roots? (d) Name its chief preparations. (e) Give the dose of each.

8 Give the common name of each of the following and state what part of the plant is used: rhus toxicondendron, lappa, asclepias, eupatorium, carum, rhamnus purshiana, ficus, santa. lum, rubrum.

9. Define the following terms and give an example of each: (a) aphrodisiac, (b) clyster, (c) emollient, (d) revulsive, (e) vulnerary.

10. Digitalis: (a) What part is official? (b) What are the U. S. P. requirements as to age of leaf? (c) What is its habitat? (d) Give its medicinal properties. (e) Give official preparations and dose of each.

Oil...

Experience is one teacher that takes no vacation.[POOR RICHARD, JUNIOR.

four applicants for registered pharmacist, sixteen out ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT.

of a class of eighteen candidates for assistant pharmacist and four of the five candidates for local registered

pharmacist passed successful examinations. Their W. 0. N. A. R. D. Chapter No. 2, of Chicago, held

names follow: what might be called a rousing meeting in January.

Registered Pharmacists.-Arthur E. Brown, Ralph H. Cohen, Already the members of the organization are beginning Chas. Forman, Jos. O. Forman, Leo A. Ginnsy, Wm. H. Guthrie, to feel like one large family, the interests of each B. F. Jusajtus, Samuel Katz, David A. Monheit, Jos. J. Stern,

Geo. J. Toussieng and Alfred Wickstrom, all of Chicago and being identified with those of all, and this must lead

James P. Beckley, Clay City; Reuben R. Gasen, Springfield; to steady growth. As we tell others of the warm

Wm. O. Hearn, Carbondale; Geo. A. Kelso, Orchardville, John C. friendships that are being formed and the happy hours Kehoe, Waukegan; John P. Lester, Rochelle; E. M. McGipley, that are spent in our endeavors to uplift the social as Decatur; F. Wm. McNess, Freeport; Perry F. Rice, Browning; well as the business life of retail druggists and their James H. Riffey, Girard; H. G. Seyfrath, Springfield; G. F. Smith,

Keokuk, la.; Chas. A. Steinmeyer, Carlinville; L. T. Waggoner, families our influence can not fail growth. While the Jerseyville and Robert T. Wallace, Pontiac. meeting of the Chicago Chapter was in progress the Assistant Pharmacists.-Ernest Bernstein, Max Feldman, Sam Philadelphia Chapter was celebrating its first birthday Simon and Wm. S. Spencer, all of Chicago and Ray A. Cone,

Momence; B. F. Degenhardt, Alton; Fred J. Frison, Urbana; and sent greetings to its older sister. . The wonderful

Edw. J. Haffner, Bloomington; H. J. Hearrington, Danville; Roy growth of the Philadelphia Chapter is a matter of sin

L. Irwin, Decatur; Wm. J. Laird, Good Hope; Frank A. Rychman, cere pride to us and we congratulate our younger sis- East St. Louis; Fred E. Schinz, LaSalle; Alois C. Strunk, Cairo; ter that her first year has been so full of good works. Ralph W. Thorpe, Clinton and Emil F. Woller, Campaign. Truly the National Association of Retail Druggists

Local Registered Pharmacists.-Eugene E. Craw, Sardorus;

J. Ottis Hart, Benton; Elmer F. Seany, Oblong and R. O. Stratton "builded better than it knew" when it laid the foun

Hunt City. dation for an organization that would draw together in

The next meeting of the Board of Pharmacy for the bonds of fraternity such earnest men and women all examination of applicants for assistant pharmacist over the country. As the women broaden the scope

will be held in Chicago on Tuesday, March 10. An of their work the druggists will understand and ap- examination will be held for registered pharmacists on preciate better the good they are accomplishing and the day following. they will gratefully acknowledge the wisdom of the

The next apprentice examination in the various formation of the Woman's Organization. With this counties in the state from which applications have thought as a stimulus it is not difficult to give of our been received will be held on Friday, March 6.-[F.C. time and effort that we may make successful our meet- DODDS, Secretary, Springfield. ings, whether for business or pleasure.—[COMMITTEE ON PROMOTION AND PUBLICITY, LOUIS T. WOOTEN,

Good Advice.-Applicant--What is the first thing to Chairman.

do before you get a marriage license? Illinois Board of Pharmacy.-At the meeting in License Clerk—Think it over, young man; think it Springfield, January 21-23, twenty-seven of the thirty- over.

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the theory given to account for the heat at the VirARKANSAS DEPARTMENT.

ginia hot springs, is not probable, for the folding at

Hot Springs is not more intense than elsewhere in the What the A. Ph. A. Will See at Hot Springs, Sep-, mountain regions of Arkansas, and no evidence of hot tember 3, 1908.

spring action has been found at any other localities

except where igneous rocks are present. Theory of the Hot Waters.-Where the hot waters

“It is believed that the heat comes from a great come from has been the theme of many scientists and body of still heated igneous rocks intruded in the many theories have been advanced. Everybody is earth's crust by volcanic agencies and underlying a entitled to a guess, but nobody has been able to look great part of Central Arkansas. The existance of such deep enough into the earth's crust to say positively

a mass is shown by the great bodies of granite seen at just what is taking place down where the hot waters Potash Sulphur and Magnet Cove, where the rocks come from.

have been exposed by the wearing down of the overGovernment scientists in a special work on Hot lying sediments, though the igneous rocks seen were Springs, advance the theory that they flow from or

long since cooled. At Magnet Cove, moreover, there over a mass of igneous rock far down in the earth, are tufa deposits which show the former occurrence of which is true gives them a volcanic origin. The fol

hot springs. Deep-seated waters converted into vapors lowing is taken from the government's report:

by contact with this 'batholith' of hot rock probably “While there have been many theories advanced to ascend through fissures toward the surface, where they account for the source of the hot waters, the only probably meet cold spring waters which are heated by hypothesis that stands the test of scientific inquiry is

the vapors.” the one which ascribes the heat of the water to still It has been demonstrated by Government scientists hot but concealed bodies of igneous rock. It seems that the waters of Hot Springs are radio-active. Prof. scarcely necessary to call attention to the absurdity Bertram B. Boltwood, of Yale College, made a thorough of the idea that either slacking lime in the depth of test of the waters of each of the forty-four Hot Springs the earth or chemical reaction of the waters with the during the summer of 1904 and summed up his report atmosphere could be the cause of the heat. That the to the Interior Department with the following conwaters come from a depth sufficient for their heating clusions: by the normal increment of the earth heat (1 degree “1—The waters of the springs, on the Hot Springs for every 50 feet) seems unreasonable, since it would Reservation, are all radio-active to a marked degree. necessitate a depth of nearly 5,000 feet to give the 2—The radio-activity of the waters is due to a diswaters their present temperature, even assuming that solved radium emanation (a gas) and not to the presthey were not cooled in their course upward. The ence of salts of radium or other radio-active solids." composition of the gases given off by the waters shows Whether there is anything in the radium cure or not that they contain atmospheric air as well as carbon is a mooted question, but if there is, no doubt the curadioxide. That the heat of the waters is due to the tive effects of the hot water are explained in a considheat developed by the folding of the rocks, which is erable measure by Prof. Boltwood's discovery.

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