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ship and good will of the savages, paid the penalty with their lives—none that fell into their power being sa ved. In the meantime, the United States troops at Fort Ridgely and the citizens of Fort Dodge were informed of the terrible fate of the settlers, and notwithstanding the heavy snows,

the stormy season, and the raging streams, relief expeditions were sent from both places, and the Indians with drew to their Da ko ta wilderness. Nothing was ever done by the United States to redress these grievances and

SPIRIT LAKE MONUMENT. punish these marauders. The State of Minnesota purchased the free

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dom of two of the captives, the others having perished.

83. The Monument.-- July 26, 1895, there was dedicated at Spirit Lake a monument erected by the State of Iowa to the memory of the victims who perished there in 1857. It is a granite monument fifty-five feet high, and is of graceful and pleasing proportions. Thus Iowa bore testimony to the brave deeds of the pioneer of civilization, who not only had to contend against the hardships of the wilderness in the struggle for subsistence, but who also sacrificed his life in the attempt to open up the wilderness to the progress and spirit of the times.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS. 1. Democratic national money? Republican national money? “Wild Cat” currency ? State bank paper of 1853?

2. What is a legislative special or extra session ? Effect upon the railway corporations as to control by the State through accepting land grants ?

3. What was the state banking system of 1858? What are the functions of national banks ? Of state banks ?

4. What was the Missouri compromise? Who was a “free soiler?”

5. How are amendments made to the State constitution ?

6. How are United States Senators elected ? How many from each state?

7. When can the state debt legally exceed the constitutional limit? 8. What were “sanitary commissions"

” during the war?

9. What was Iowa's part in the Great Rebellion ? Why was Iowa so decidedly in favor of maintaining the Union ?

CHAPTER IX

THE STATE INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES

84. The Policy of the State.Numerous lines of public work are in charge of the State. These consist : (1) of charities, such as the care and medical treatment of the temporary insane, the reform of the erring, the restraint of the criminal and vicious, the education and training of the unfortunate, and the support of the helpless and indigent; (2) of higher and professional educational institutions that grant an enlarged opportunity to the youth of the State; (3) of the recognition of such societies as are voluntarily organized and maintained for the purpose of advancing the interests of the people in respect to agriculture, horticulture, education, stock breeding, etc.; (4) of the maintaining of boards that control the practice of medicine, the practice of dentistry, the profession of teaching and the dispensing of medicines. There has been much difference of opinion concerning the province of the State regarding these matters. Most of the charities began with movements that depended upon public sympathy and general contributions of money for support, and were afterwards transferred to the State for maintenance and management. Dissatisfaction regarding public health and public interests have led to the establishment of most of the boards of control, while interest in public welfare has caused the encouragement of the public societies that

exist and are engaged in distributing knowledge in reference to progress, improvement, and development.

85. The Penitentiaries.- In the original act that established the Territory of Iowa, provision was made for the National Government to appropriate money for public buildings. From this appropriation came the stone building at Iowa City, now used by the State University, and the penitentiary at Ft. Madison, whose main building was completed in 1841. Iowa was probably the only State in the Union that was provided a penitentiary at National expense. Since that time, an additional penitentiary has been erected at Anamosa, by convict labor, work beginning in 1872. This institution has also a department for the criminal insane.

86. The Soldiers' Home. This institution was completed and opened November 30, 1887, and is for the soldiers and the sailors, residents of Iowa, who are incapable of self-support or of taking care of themselves. Persons who have property, or who draw a pension sufficient to support them, are not admitted as inmates, and those who are granted pensions, or whose health recovers so as to enable them to support themselves, are discharged from the Home.

87. The Hospitals for the Insane.—This State has four hospitals for the insane. The oldest is located at Mt. Pleasant, and was established in 1855, receiving patients for the first time March 6, 1861. The second is located at Independence, and opened for the reception of patients in May, 1873. The third is located at Clarinda, and was opened December 15, 1888. The fourth is under construction at Cherokee.

All these institutions are the equals of any such hospitals anywhere in the United States, and are among the greatest and noblest charities of this sympathetic age. Persons are admitted, at the expense of the counties from which they come, and are kept until recovery or until it is decided that insanity is permanent, when they are returned to the care of the counties. There is no hospital or State institution for the permanent insane in Iowa; hence county hospitals are becoming almost universal.

88. The Industrial Home for the Blind.—This institution is located at Knoxville, and was opened in 1892. The object of the Home is to provide a working home and means for the blind to earn and provide their own subsistence. It has capacity for two hundred workers, but has never been largely patronized, not over one-fourth that number being there at any one time. As the years go by and the number of helpless blind increase, the need for this young institution will be more apparent.

89. The College for the Blind.—The College for the Blind was first opened in temporary quarters in Iowa City in 1853. In 1858 provision was made for a permanent institution at Vinton. This institution is a well-appointed school, equaling in amount of apparatus, in thoroughness of instruction, and in fullness of its curriculum, the best public schools in Iowa. During the forty-two years of its existence (1853-1896), it has received from the State treasury and paid out in expenses and maintenance over $1,000,000.

90. The School for the Deaf.—This school for the care and education of the deaf was first organized

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