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giving the results of the experience of prominent stock raisers throughout the State.

5. THE IOWA STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.—This association is a voluntary organization of educators from the various lines of work in the State. It was first organized in Muscatine, May 10, 1854, and holds an annual meeting of several days' session. The object of the association is the mutual benefit of its members educationally, and the improvement of the schools of the State. Fifteen hundred copies of its proceedings are published and distributed to the members and interested parties by the State superintendent of public instruction.

6. THE Iowa ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.—This society was organized in 1887. Its annual report of 1,000 copies is published and distributed by the State. Its object is to encourage scientific work and to collect a library for the State consisting of the publications of the scientific societies of the world. Its membership consists of (1) fellows, residents of the State who are engaged in scientific work; (2) associate members, residents of the State who are interested in such work; (3) corresponding fellows whose residence is in other States and who are engaged in scientific work. It is a prosperous and successful society, holding annual meetings at the same time and place as the State Teachers' Association.

NOTE.—The legislatures of Iowa are called General Assemblies and are known by number, the one that existed in 1896–97 being the 26th General Assembly. After the adjournment of each assembly, the new laws are published in book form, under the title, “Laws of Iowa;" the year of passage being attached to distinguish the volumes. The laws as a whole have been occasionally collected, revised, and published in one volume. These are known by the names, Code of 1851, Code of 1860, Code of 1873 and Code of 1897,




The Rate of Progress.—Iowa's record of advancement, in material and industrial development is a marvelous page in history, while her progress in education, religious ideas, and moral reform has not been surpassed by any other state in the Union. Her political, social, and moral policies have been in the front rank of great enterprises, while her stability of policy and the persistence in efforts to secure for her people all the benefits of civilization, without its most serious abuses, is a proud chapter in the history of the last half century. Fifty years of Statehood sees her standing side by side with the oldest States in the Union, equaling them in educational development, in industrial enterprises, and in opportunity, while surpassing many of them in moral reforms, religious activity, and true ideas of living.

THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL.-In October, 1896, occurred a week of festivity and celebration in honor of the first half century of Iowa history. This celebration was held at Burlington, the first Territorial capital, and was managed by commissioners appointed by the State and also by the city. This combined interests that made the whole week a notable event. Addresses were given by prominent men and women of both State and Nation. Those persons who had been the makers of Iowa history and institutions, and were still living, were asked to tell the story of progress, development and sacrifice. An attempt was made to pay tribute to all the forces of culture, education and politics that had a hand

in determining present Iowa, and, at the same time, to preserve to history the deeds of the heroes and great characters who had so firmly established the governmental foundations. The programs were assigned to different days, each evening being devoted to electrical displays, fire-works, parades, etc., to give effect and glory and make an impressive occasion. The whole city was beautifully decorated with bunting, arches of triumph were erected over the principal streets, and all the means of modern invention and illumination were employed to make the celebra. tion long to be remembered. The program of days was distributed as follows: An official day, a pioneer's and old settler's day, an educational day, a woman's day, a secret society day, a republican day, a democratic day, a religious day, in all of which the different addresses and other exercises were so planned as to pay tribute to the memory of the fifty years of development and progress that had come to Iowa for her people in prosperity, happiness, freedom and civil government.

103. Growth in Population.—From the beginning of settlement, there has been a constant growth in population. The largest percentage of growth occurred between 1850 and 1856, when the increase was 169

Between 1840 and 1846, the rate of increase was 138 per cent. In 1840 the

census gave

the total population as 43,1 1 2; in 1860, 674,913; in 1880, 1,620,615; in 1890, 1,91 1,896; and in 1895, 2,058,069.

104. The Early Modes of Travel.-The settler came to Iowa from the States east of the Mississippi river as soon as the treaties with the Indians permitted. There were no public roads, and he did not wait for Governmental enterprise to open the way. He came in the traditional covered wagon, with his household goods and his little store of money and of live stock, and opened up a farm and built his own house. There were no Government roads, and, as there are few rivers

per cent.

of any size, it was possible to cross the State in almost any direction with very little trouble. The Mississippi river was his means of reaching market with his produce, and the Government stage coach transferred the mail and the passengers at stated intervals, to the limits of civilization from the cities on the Mississippi border.

105. Urban Population.—The people of this State are chiefly devoted to farming and grazing. The kind of crops raised, as well as the kind of live stock that is most successfully produced, are adapted to the conditions imposed by nature.

There are no large cities in the State, such as most of the states of the Union have, the most populous cities having less than 75,000. In 1880, Iowa had nineteen cities with a population of 4,000 or more; in 1895 there were twenty-nine cities of such grade of population. The urban population has been continually on the increase, and the census of 1895 shows that 42.36 per cent. of the people live in cities and towns. This development is due to the better school facilities of the towns, to increase of wealth, and to the growth of manufacturing, mining, and other industries.

106. The First Effects of the Railway.—The covered wagon of the mover, the freight wagon of the teamster, and the stage coach did not long hold the supremacy they had held in older states. Good public roads, such as are common in the older communities, did not become a necessity in Iowa, as the construction of the railways early brought every man a home market for his produce, and deferred the proper grading and paving of highways to a later time.

Few States have made less provision by law for the development of public highways, and probably no other State to-day has less genuine interest in such improvements.

107. Railway Building.–The first railway was begun in 1854. The close of the year 1855 found sixty-seven miles in operation. At the opening of the war of 1861, there were but 331 miles constructed, but when peace came in 1865 there were 847 miles of railway in Iowa. Then came the era of speculation and railway extension that projected lines, heretofore unthought of, and caused railways not to follow but precede the settlement of the country. Parts of Iowa were so far from market and so poorly supplied with fuel and means of subsistence that it would have taken several decades, without the railroad, to do what was accomplished, in a few years with its aid. The year 1875 closed with 3,765 miles in operation, the year 1885, with 7,496 miles, and the year 1895, with 8,481 miles, so that every county and almost every town and hamlet, has at present daily mail and regular passenger and freight communication through the steam railway.

108. State Control of Railways.—The railways became, as a matter of course, a prominent factor in the industrial development and the material progress of the State. They were constructed by United States donations of land, by contributions of the people, by taxes voted upon townships by the electors as an aid to encourage construction and development, and by money obtained by selling bonds in eastern markets. While they were mostly local and State enterprises in

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