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The darkened part of section 24 would be described as the N. W. 14 of Sec. 24, Tp. 89 N., R. 14 W., of the 5th Principal Meridian.

The darkened part of section 25 would be described as the N. E. 14 of the N. E. A of Sec. 25, Tp. 89, N., R. 14 W., of the 5th Principal Meridian.

The darkened part of section 28 would be described as the N. 72 of the S. W. 74 of Sec. 28, Tp. 89 N., R. 14 W., of the 5th Principal Meridian.

NOTE.—A large map is published by the Federal Government, showing all the Congressional surveys in the United States. By means of this map, students may locate any city or village in his own or any other State where Congressional surveys exist. Smaller maps of Iowa can be purchased giving the surveys for Iowa, and a student should practice locating the towns of Iowa. We would suggest the location of the following cities: Atlantic, Boone, Burlington, Cedar Falls, Clinton, Cedar Rapids, Council Bluffs, Charles City, Creston, Des Moines, Dubuque, Fort Dodge, Grinnell, Indianola, Iowa City, Keokuk, Le Mars, Marshalltown, Oskaloosa, Ottumwa, Sioux City, Waterloo, Webster City, and Winterset.

2. The officers of the board of directors are a president, elected by the board from its own members at the annual organization in March, a secretary, and a treasurer. * The president acts as chairman of the board, signs all contracts with teachers, draws all drafts for county money, and signs all orders on the treasurer. The secretary keeps a record of the proceedings of the board, makes a report to the county superintendent, countersigns all orders on the treasurer, and keeps an account of the expenses of the school township, reporting the same to the board.

3. School Funds.—The school moneys are kept in three separate funds, the teachers', school house, and contingent funds. The treasurer keeps a separate account with each fund, and the secretary draws from each, as the case may demand, having a check-book for each fund.

4. INDEPENDENT DISTRICTS.-Besides the school township, there are various kinds of independent districts. Independent districts in cities of the first class and in cities under special charters have a board of directors consisting of seven members. Independent districts in cities of the second class, towns and villages have boards of five members, and rural independent districts have boards of three members as a rule, but five in districts which were formerly allowed six. (Code $ 2754 as revised by the Laws of 1898.)

* In districts composed in whole or in part of towns or cities, the treasurer is elected by the people for a term of two years. (Code § 2754 as revised by the Laws of 1898.)



134. The Civil Township.-The State government, with certain restrictions laid upon it by the State constitution, and, of course, by the United States supreme law, has complete control of the county and township; but the State legislature has by law allowed the local governments much discretion in the managing of local affairs, only prescribing the general plan of government in each. Every county is divided into civil townships for purposes of government.

The number and boundaries of these townships are determined by the supervisors, and may be changed by the supervisors when occasion demands it. See map of townships in Black Hawk county (158). “If the congressional township lines are not adopted and followed, the board shall not change the lines of any civil township so as to divide any school township or district, unless a majority of the voters of said school township or district shall petition therefor.” Code $ 551.* If there be within the limits of any township an incorporated city or town of over fifteen hundred inhabitants, such city or town may, on the petition of a majority of the voters in the rural part of the township, be set apart by the board of supervisors as a separate township. Code $ 554.

135. Officers of the Civil Township.—As a rule, * References to the Code are uniformly to Code oj Iowa,


any legal voter is eligible to any local or county office. The eligibility of women to certain offices, notably the county superintendency of schools, has been formally recognized. The requirements in candidates for the various State officers will be mentioned in the proper place.

The officers of the civil township are given in the following table:







3 3 yrs. Per diem & fees. By the people, one

each year.


1 2 yrs, Per diem, per By the people.

centage, fees... Assessor.

1 2 yrs. Per diem...... By the people. (Tax Collector)* 11 yr. Percentage..... By the people. Road Supervisorst 2 yrs. Per diem

By the people. Constables.. 2 2 yrs. Fees...

By the people. Justices of the Peace 2 2 yrs. Fees

By the people. * This office is not mentioned in the Code of 1897. + One for each road district.

When a city or incorporated town is situated in a township, the township may order the election of one or two additional justices and constables, and at least one justice and one constable must reside in the town. The rural part of the township and the municipality must have separate assessors, each choosing its own officer. If a person refuses to serve when he has been elected to a township office, he must forfeit the sum of five dollars to the use of the school fund, but he cannot be required to serve as a township officer two terms in succession.

Code, $ 575 136. Bonds. Most officers of the State and local

government have to give a bond for the faithful performance of their duties; that is, they have to find some one who will sign an agreement to pay to the State a certain sum of money, if it is needed to make good to the State, county, or township any loss caused by the unfaithfulness of said officer. Of late years there have been formed great fidelity companies (Code, $ 360), like fire insurance companies, which will give such a bond for any man of good standing, if he will pay

them a certain sum, small in a single case, but affording a large revenue in the aggregate. This plan has proved a very good one for all parties, and such a bond is coming to be preferred to a private bond inasmuch as it is a purely business affair, and the company is personally interested to capture the criminal in case a fraud is perpetrated by an officer for 'whom the company has given its bond. nor, lieutenant governor, members of the General Assembly, judges of courts, county supervisors, township trustees, and aldermen and councilmen of towns and cities are not required to give bond. All other civil officers, except as especially otherwise provided, inust give bond. Code SS 1182-1183.

137. Remuneration. The civil officers of Iowa are paid in various ways: first, by yearly salaries; second, per diem (so much a day for actual work); third, by fees, or specific sums for specified services; and, fourth, by a percentage on collections. It is hardly worth the effort required to memorize the exact amounts paid in each case, but it may be well to keep in mind the way in which each officer is paid, whether by fees or salaries.

The gover

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