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There are seventy-three cities of the second class in Iowa. Of these Keokuk, with a population (1895) of 14,287, is the largest, and Anamosa, with a population of 2,006, is the smallest. Ten towns of over two thousand inhabitants seem not to have complied with the requirement to incorporate as cities of the second class, but still remain incorporated towns. (See Iowa Official Register for 1896, p. 108).

Cities of the First Class.-Cities of fifteen thousand inhabitants are required to organize as cities of the first class, and the list of officers varies with the size of the city. The election of city officers occurs on the last Monday in March. (Code § 642.). The following table shows the principal officers in a city of the first class:

OFFICERS IN A CITY OF THE FIRST CLASS,

2 years.

OFFICERS.

No. TERM. How CHOSEN. Mayor

1 2 years.

Popular vote. Council

2 years.

Popular vote.
Auditor

1
2 years.

Popular vote.
Treasurer

1 2 years. Popular vote. Assessor

1 2 years. Popular vote. Solicitor

1
2 years.

Popular vote.
City Engineer

1

Popular vote.
Police Judge

1
2 years.

Popular vote.
Clerk

1

By the council. Physician

1

By the council. Street commissioner

1 1

By the council. Judge of Superior Courtt 1

4 years.

Popular vote. Marshal

1 Pleasure Appointed by Mayor

of mayor. * One for each ward and two at large. † Determined by council.

+ This court is established, at the option of the people, in place of the police court in cities of over 7000. There are three in the state (See Judiciary), located at Cedar Rapids, Council Bluffs, and Keokuk.

The mayor in cities of the first-class is the presiding officer of the council, with the power to vote only in case of a tie, (Code 8 658, (5) and the veto power.

The council is divided into two classes, those belonging to one class being elected in the odd years, and those belonging to the other class being elected in the even years.

As in other municipalities, they have charge of the peace and the prosperity of the city. They pass such ordinances (city laws) as they think wise, and provide for the enforcement of the

They act as a board of review for the city.

same.

DIAGRAM SHOWING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITY

GOVERNMENT IN IOWA.

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154. Number. There are nine cities of the first class in Iowa. The names of these cities and the population of each is given in the following list: (Census of 1895.)

FIRST CLASS CITIES. 1. Des Moines......

..56,359 2. Dubuque.....

.40,574 3. Davenport...

.30,010 4. Sioux City.

..27,371 5. Burlington.....

25, 246 6. Clinton (and Lyons).....

.23,377 7. Cedar Rapids.......

.21,555 8. Council Bluffs..

.20,189 9. Ottumwa....

........ 16,761 There are many cities in Iowa whose governments are outlined in special charters granted them in the early history of the State. Among these cities are Cedar Rapids, Dubuque, Keokuk, Glenwood, and Winterset.

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS. 1. The marshal was formerly chosen by the council, and could be removed only by their votes. Is the present plan an improvement?

2. Would it be a good plan to allow the mayor to choose the marshal without the consent of the council?

3. What appointing power was granted to the mayor of Brooklyn by the charter of 1882? (Bryce's American Commonwealth, Vol. I., pp. 625-627.)

4. What vital relation is there between authority and responsibility ?

5. What do you know of the municipal reform movement ?

1

CHAPTER XIV

COUNTY GOVERNMENT

155. County Government.--The State of Iowa is divided into ninety-nine counties. They usually

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LYON 11684

SIOUX 21406

M
N N E S от A

MAP OF

IOWA
OSCEOLA DICKINSON

EMMET
WINNEBAGO! WORTH

MITCHELL

HOWARD WINNE-
7377 6023 7619
10707

Showing Countles
10285
14431 13221 SHIEK

ALLAMAKEE with Population.
O'BRIEN

KOSSUTH
CLAY

CERRO

22748 17981
PALO ALTO 18345

HANCOCK
GORDO
FLOYD

State Census of
15609 11277
12109
11141

!CHICKASAW 18302 17114 15696

1895.
BUENA

CLAYTON
HUMBOLDT!

FAYETTE
CHEROKEE VISTA
POCAHONTAS

WRIGHT
FRANKLIN
BUTLER

BREMER
,11431

24794 26570
15664
15029 12442
16024 13679

15403
16966

PLYMOUTH 21991

49905

BLACKHAWK BUCHANANL, DELAWARE
WOODBURY

DUBUQUE
IDA SAC CALMOUNWEBSTER

HAMILTON HARDIN

GRUNDY

26941 46202

20539

13418 111425i 15868

18103 į 60171
15788 26945 18514 i 20576

JACKSON
MONONA

JONES
CRAWFORD CARROLL GREENE
BOONE STORY MARSHALLİ TAMA BENTON CINN

23471
16005

20088 20069 19493 16299 27039 19930 27320 22966 24244

CLINTON
HARRISON

CEDAR
LAUOUBON

43398 SHELBY

GUTHRIE
DALLAS

JASPER
23091

POLK

POWESHIEK TOWA ! 12836

JOHNSON 19008
17798

17958
21023
72888
25891 18524

SCOTT
18964 23563

45669

MUSCATINE
CASS
POTTAWATTAMIE
.ADAIR

MARION

KEOKUK WASHING-
MAHASKA

25339

TON
20926 15504
16597 18506 23191 32496 23732

18845 LOUISA

712786
MILLS
MONT-

ADAMS UNION
GOMERY

CLARKE LUCAS

MONROE

WAPELLO | JEFFERSON HENRY
15187 17119
12934 17043 11515 13545 15790 33293

DES
16405 !

18278! MOINES FREMONT

37629
TAYLOR

• L L.
APPANOOSEI DAVIS !VAN BUREN
PAGE
RINGGOLD! DECATUR

WAYNE
17176
22026
17347 i 14065 16639 16155

25383
15015 16829 LEE

39528

MADISON I, WARREN

46042

N E BRA S K A

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contain sixteen Congressional townships, and the constitution forbids any new counties to be organized

containing less than four hundred and thirty-two square miles, or twelve Congressional townships. (Constitution, Art. XI., Sec. 2.) Any change in the boundaries of a county requires the consent of the State Legislature, as well as that of all the counties affected. (Constitution, Art. III., Sec. 30.) There is a capital, or county seat, in each county, where the county buildings are located, and where the officers keep the records and attend to all necessary business. This county seat is located by the vote of the people, ind can be changed only by a popular vote, which has been demanded by a petition from a majority of the legal voters.

156. Two County Seats. Some counties, like Pottawattamie and Lee, have two county seats. This occurs because of the size of the county or inability of the people to agree on one location.

In Lee county, one of these county seats is at Fort Madison, and the other at Keokuk. There are two sets of books or records kept in the offices of the clerk, recorder, and treasurer, i.e., one set at either county seat, and the sheriff has a deputy at each place. The district court meets at Fort Madison in January, April, September, and November, and at Keokuk in March, May, October, and December. The board of supervisors meet at Fort Madison, and the auditor's office and its records are there, though there is a deputy auditor at Keokuk. The county superintendent usually has his office at his home, in whatever part of the county that

may be.

157. The County Officers.—The officers of the county are mentioned in the following table :

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