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affairs not involving money claims or the election of a school officer. An appeal may be taken from his decision to the State superintendent. The State provides fifty dollars a year for each county to aid in defraying the expenses of the county institute, and each teacher in attendance pays a membership fee of one dollar, and one dollar for an examination fee. The county superintendent receives reports from the secretaries of the various school districts, and sends an abstract of the same to the State superintendent on the first Tuesday in October of each year.

171a. The County Surveyor. — The surveyor makes all surveys of land in his county, and transcribes field notes and plats into a book provided for the purpose.

The law holds these records presumptively correct. He receives a per diem and fees from the person requesting the survey. Code, § 534 and 543.

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS. 1. What two types of township government are found in the states west of the Alleghanies ?. Hinsdale's American Government, $$ 80-82, and Fiske's Civil Government, p. 92.

2. What two eastern states furnished these types ?

3. Which state did Iowa follow in her township government ?

4. Which did Illinois follow ?

5. How was the county board of supervisors organized in New York by the law of 1703. Fiske, p. 79.

CHAPTER XV

OF THE

STATE GOVERNMENT 172. The Constitution.—The State government of Iowa is outlined in the Constitution of 1857. The circumstances under which this Constitution was substituted for that of 1846 have already been described in the history of Iowa (62-64). It opens with what is called the preamble, but is really both a preamble and an enacting clause. It reads as follows:

173. The Preamble.— WE, THE PEOPLE STATE OF Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him for a continuation of those blessings, do ordain and establish a free and independent government, by the name of the State of Iowa, the boundaries whereof shall be as follows:

Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river, at a point due east of the middle of the mouth of the main channel of the Des Moines river, thence up the middle of the main channel of the said Des Moines river, to a point on said river where the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri—as established by the Constitution of that State, adopted June 12, 1820-crosses the said middle of the main channel of the said Des Moines river; thence westwardly along the said northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established at the time aforesaid, until an extension of said line intersects the middle of main channel of the Missouri river; thence up the middle of the main channel of the said Missouri river to a point opposite the middle of the main channel of the Big Sioux river, according to Nicolett's map; thence up the middle of the main channel of the Big Sioux river,

according to said map, until it is intersected by the parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude ; thence east along said parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, until said parallel intersects the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi river ; thence down the middle of the main channel of the said Mississippi river to the place of beginning.

MAP OF IOWA SHOWING THE CONGRESSIONAL DIS

TRICTS FROM WHICH REPRESENTATIVES ARE
CHOSEN FOR CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.

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In connection with the boundaries designated here students of the history of Iowa will do well to review what is said about the Constitution proposed in 1844 (31-40). The citizens of a proposed state may suggest its boundaries, but the Federal Congress alone can determine what those boundaries shall be. Congress has power to cut up a territory into several parts,

making one part a state and reorganizing the rest into a new territory, as was done with the old Territory of Nebraska, which furnished the State of Nebraska and the Territory of Dakota; or it may make two states of one territory, as was done afterwards with Dakota. After a state has once been admitted, Congress has no power to change its boundaries, to make a new state out of part of an old one, or to unite two states in one without the consent of the state or states affected. 1 Twice in the history of Iowa has this state had a dispute with Missouri as to the boundary line between the states, and on both occasions the dispute was referred to the United States courts as the only authority having power to interpret the act of Congress by which the boundary line of northern Missouri was determined as stated in the Constitution of that state (25)

174. The Bill of Rights. It is very common in making a new Constitution to state in an article by themselves the rights which the government must concede to the people. We shall consider this bill by. sections :

ARTICLE I.
Inalienable Rights of Men,-Section 1.

All men are, by nature, free and equal, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.

Notice the similarity of language here and in the Declaration of Independence : We hold these truths

1 For the seeming contradiction of this statement, in the case of West Virginia, see Hinsdale's American Government, Sec. 597.

to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.'

175. Political Power Inherent in the People. Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people, and they have the right, at all times, to alter or reform the same, whenever the public good may require it.

Political power, or authority over citizens, is necessarily derived from those citizens. Notice the threefold purpose of government. Only the main features of the government are determined by the constitution. A vast number of details are arranged by the General Assembly and described in statutes, which may be changed at any session of that body.

176. No State Religion.-Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; nor shall any person be compelled to attend any place of worship, pay tithes, taxes, or other rates for building or repairing places of Worship, or the maintenance of any minister, or ministry.

The purport of this section may be remembered by the following outline : Religion:

1. Establishment.
2. Prohibition.
3. Compulsion as to

(a) Attendance.

(b) Financial support. 177. Religious Tests.- Sec. No religious tests shall be required as a qualification for any office of public trust, and no person shall be deprived of any of his rights, privileges, or capacities, or disqualified from the performance of any of his public or private duties,

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