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carried through a legislature because they are attached to a good bill. Such measures are called "riders."

230. Their Passage.-Sec. 16. Every bill which shall have passed the General Assembly shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor.

If he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to the house in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon their journal, and proceed to reconsider it; if, after such reconsideration, it again pass both houses, by yeas and nays, by a majority of two-thirds of the members of each house, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the governor's objections. If any bill shall not be returned within three days after it shall have been presented to him, Sunday excepted, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the General Assembly, by adjournment, prevent such return. Any bill submitted to the governor for his approval during the last three days of a session of the General Assembly shall be deposited by him in the office of the secretary of State, within thirty days after the adjournment, with his approval, if approved by him, and with his objections, if he disapproves thereof.

Sec. 17. No bill shall be passed unless by the assent of a majority all the members elected to each branch of the General Assembly, and the question upon the final passage shall be taken immediately upon its last reading, and the yeas and nays entered upon the journal. There are three ways

in which

may

become a law. Study the sections above, and then describe each of these three ways. Notice that, by section 17, a bill requires an absolute majority of each house; that is, a majority of all the members elected, not simply a majority of those present. Every bill, before it passes each house, must have three separate readings, the second and third of which must be on different days. Immediately after the third reading, the bill is voted upon by a yea and nay vote, which is formally entered

a bill

upon the journal of the house. In each house, there are various committees appointed for the consideration of the different kinds of bills. These committees are appointed by the speaker of the house and by the lieutenant-governor who acts as president of the senate.

231. How Bills Fail to Become Laws. When a bill is proposed by a member, it is referred to the proper committee, which may report to the house, favoring its passage, amend it in some particulars and then recommend its passage, or reject it entirely. In the last case, the bill is said to be killed in the committee, and this is the first way in which a bill may

fail to become a law. If the bill is returned by the committee with a favorable report, it may fail to secure enough votes in the house, and so be killed in the house where it originated. This is the second way in which a bill may fail to become a law. If the bill passes by a majority vote in the first house, it may be rejected in the second house. This is the third way of failing to become a law. Having passed both houses, it may be vetoed by the governor, and fail to secure a two-thirds vote in one or both of the houses, and so not be passed over his veto.

If a bill passes both houses and is presented to the governor for consideration less than three days before adjournment, he need not return it until after the General Assembly has closed its session. He is then required to file it with his signature or veto in the office of the secretary of State within thirty days; but if he vetoes it, the General Assembly, having adjourned, cannot pass it over his veto, and so the bill fails to become a law.

This last is similar to the pocket veto of the President of the United States.

232. Report of Finances.-Sec. 18. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be attached to and published with the laws at every regular session of the General Assembly.

This is a requirement evidently fitting and proper, and the statement is drawn from the books of the State auditor and treasurer.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS. 1. Look up the history of special sessions of the General Assembly in Iowa (50).

2. From what does the pocket veto derive its name? See Johnston's American Politics, p. 115.

3. Have any of the States ever had legislatures consisting of one house? Fiske's Civil Government, p. 155

4. Was a uni-cameral Congress considered by the Constitutional Convention of 1787 ?

Hinsdale's American Government, $ 186.

5. May any kind of bill originate in either house of Congress?

6. How are committees selected in the General Assembly? See Rules of the Twenty-sixth General Assembly of Iowa, pp. 3 and 27.

CHAPTER XVIII

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT—(Continued) 233. Impeachment. — Sec. 19. The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the Senate. When sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

The plan of impeachment is similar to the same process in the government of the United States. The impeachment or indictment is by the lower house and the trial by the upper house. Notice that the number of votes necessary to conviction is two-thirds of those present.

234, Parties Liable Punishment. Sec. 20. The Governor, Judges of the Supreme and District Courts, and other State officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under this State; but the party convicted or acquitted shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors and malfeasance in office in such manner as the General Assembly may provide.

Notice carefully what officers may be impeached; also the limits set upon the punishment which the Senate may inflict. The fact that the party impeached may afterwards be tried by the regular courts of the State seems to conflict with the article in the bill of

a

rights (Art. I., Sec. 12), but really the party is impeached and tried for conduct unworthy of a public official, while in the courts he is tried for a crime against the laws of the State. Touching the misdemeanors of county and local officers, the General Assembly has passed various laws providing for the punishment of such offenses.

235. Accepting Appointments. — Sec. 21. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this State which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased during such term, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people.

If, during the first month of a new senator's term, bill is passed providing for the appointment by the governor of an inspector of State institutions with a large salary, the senator may not resign his position to accept the appointment until after the four years of his senatorial term have passed. If the salary of the president of the State University were increased during his term, could the senator resign and accept that position?

236. Disqualification.-Sec. 22. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or this State, or any other power, shall be eligible to hold a seat in the General Assembly; but offices in the militia, to which there is attached no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmaster whose compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, or notary public, shall not be deemed lucrative.

If the salary of the superintendent of public instruction were increased by the General Assembly, could any member of the assembly become State superintendent without resigning his place in the

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