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11. July 12, 1838, the Territory of Iowa was organized, including also the present State of Minnesota and parts of North and South Dakota.

12. December 28, 1846, Iowa was admitted into the Union as a State.

7. The First White Settler.-In 1788, the first white man settled within the present limits of the State of Iowa. This was just one year after the famous "Ordinance of 1787,'

1787,” whose promise of liberty, freedom, and education exerted such a great influence upon the great Northwest. Julien Dubuque, this first white settler, was a Frenchman, a native of

nada, and, previous to this, a resident of Prairie du Chien, where Fort Crawford was located and where a trading post had already been established. September 22, 1788, Dubuque purchased from Blondeau and other chiefs of the Fox Indians the right to occupy a tract of land covering the site of the present city of Dubuque. In 1796, the Spanish governor, residing at New Orleans, confirmed this grant and thus established the title in a civilized way. Dubuque operated the lead mines found here for several years, and had in his employ ten white miners. With the assistance of two of them, he laid out a village and planned for the future of his settlement.

8. Miner of the Mines of Spain.—Dubuque was a prominent man of adventure and business in his time in this frontier town. He called the tract of land by the name “ Mines of Spain,” as a compliment to the Spanish governor who had granted him privileges and business favors. He married a Fox Indian squaw, Potosa by name, and so prospered in his busi

ness pursuits as to be the wealthiest and the most influential citizen of his time in Iowa. He died in 1810 as a victim of his own vices, and was buried in the high bluff overlooking the Mississippi river, at the mouth of Catfish creek, a mile or more below the present city of Dubuque. A leaden coffin was made to hold his remains, and a vault was constructed of roughly dressed lime stones taken from the edge of the bluff, only a few feet distant from the site of the grave. Over the grave was erected a cedar cross hewn square and about twelve feet high. On the arms of the cross was inscribed in French the following: '“ Julien Dubuque, Miner of the Mines of Spain. Died March 24, 1810, aged 45 and a half years.' The grant of land thus confirmed to Dubuque by the Spanish authorities was afterward contested in the United States courts, and the decision reached, after a full and careful investigation, was that the title claimed by Dubuque as conferred by the Indians was merely a lease or permit to work the mines, and that the title to the lands themselves was in the United States and the purchasers from the land offices of the United States (16 Howard Rep. 224).

9. Other Early White Settlers.-In 1795, the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Louisiana granted Basil Girard, a Frenchman, a tract of land amounting to 5,000 acres. This tract was located in Clayton county, and was called the “ Girard Tract." Girard occupied this land with others under the Spanish, French, and American governments, and was finally granted a patent in his own right by the land office of the United States. The oldest legal title to land in

Iowa is that of the site of Montrose, Lee county. March 30, 1799, Louis Honore-Tesson obtained from the acting governor of Upper Louisiana, “a permit to establish himself at the head of the lower rapids for commerce in peltries and to watch the Indians, and keep them in fidelity, which they owe His Majesty." Here he took immediate possession, planted an orchard of apple trees, built a cabin and kept control until 1805, when the property passed to Thomas F. Roddick, whose heirs were confirmed in the original title by the United States Supreme Court in 1839 (14 Howard Rep. 513), as the owners of one mile square of the original league of land.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS.

1. Give the origin and the development of the word Iowa.

2. Give an account of Marquette, Joliet, Hennepin, and La Salle.

3. Origin and application of the term Louisiana.

4. What was the object of the numerous government expeditions sent into the unsettled part of the country?

5. What nations and States have had control of Iowa soil ?

6. What was the Louisiana purchase ?
7. What was the “Ordinance of 1787"'?

8. What is a title to land? What is a “grant of land”?

CHAPTER II

THE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS

10. The Indians.—The original inhabitants of Iowa, at the coming of the white man, were the Indians known in history by the tribal names of Sioux, Sac, Fox, and Iowa. There were other minor tribes, but these were the strongest, the most contentious over their rights of ownership, and therefore in history the best known. By repeated treaties, the United States extinguished their titles to the lands they occupied and removed them further westward, until in 1870 there were but four hundred and sixty-six Indians remaining in the whole State of Iowa. These tribes were divided into clans or families, and usually selected the name of some animal as their family type or characteristic designation. Hence the names Eagle, Pigeon, Wolf, Bear, Elk, Beaver, Snake, etc., were thus applied. The number of clans in a tribe was an even number, eight in the Fox tribe, twelve in the Sac tribe. These clans were made up of lodges, each lodge consisting of one family. The husbands of a clan were all known as brothers, the wives as sisters, and the children recognized each of the brothers as father and each of the sisters as mother; hence there were no cousins, nephews or nieces known among them. These several clans or families were also accustomed to have peculiar ways of cutting their hair so as to designate to which one of these families they belonged. Over

tribes chiefs were placed; sometimes hereditary, sometimes by election, as braves who distinguished themselves in war were made war chiefs, and thus it happened that there were often two or more chiefs in the same tribe.

The more prominent chiefs of these several tribes have left their names on the map of the State as Black Hawk, Keokuk, Tama, Mahaska, Waukon, Osceola, Decorah, Winneshiek, Wapello, Appanoose and Poweshiek. The tribal names are represented by Sioux, Winnebago, Sac, Iowa, Fox, Osage, Pottawattamie, Cherokee, and Chickasaw. Other names derived from the Indians are Anamosa, Monona, Okoboji, Pocahontas, Oskaloosa, and Ottumwa.

11. The Government and the Indians.—There were many treaties with these Indians from time to time after the organization of the United States government. As years went by, the White man time and again desired to encroach upon the hunting grounds of the Red man, and hence induced his government to change its demands and modify greatly its treaties. It was always the strong dictating to the weak, and every time the White man had his way and the Red man was required to move on to a new and undesired home. From the most early beginnings, the United States legally treated the Indians as the owners of the soil, and conducted its affairs as if it was necessary to purchase these lands at a price satisfactory to the original owners. With these business dealings, came treaties that governed them, and also promises of future guarantees and protection. Notwithstanding the good faith of the government was pledged at these treatymaking meetings never to molest the Indians in their

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