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461. The Public Lands.-Beginning in Southeastern Ohio, in 1786, the Government has caused the public lands to be surveyed according to a practically uniform system. They are first cut up into townships six miles square, and then these are subdivided into sections of 640 acres, which again are divided into lots of 160, 80, and 40 acres. The sections are now numbered, back and forth, in the following manner:

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Such a township as this is called a Congressional township. As a rule, the States have based their divisions of counties and townships on the Government surveys, and it is this fact that gives the maps of the Western States such a checker-board appearance. In general Congress has followed a very liberal policy in respect to the public lands, selling them at low prices, giving them away as bounties to soldiers and to settlers under the homestead law, and granting them to States and railroads and other corporations to stimulate education and public improvements.

462. School Lands.--Beginning with Ohio, admitted to the Union in 1803, and continuing to Wisconsin, ad

mitted in 1848, Congress gave section No. 16 in every Congressional township to the people of the township for the use of common schools. Beginning with California, in 1850, and continuing to the present, it has given sections 16 and 36 in every township for that purpose. Congress has also given every public-land State, or State formed out of the domain, two townships of land for the support of a State university, and some of them more than two. It has also given lands for agricultural colleges and normal schools, and for other educational purposes.

463. New States. The following table contains the names of the new States, and the dates of their admission to the Union:

Vermont, March 4, 1791. Wisconsin, May 29, 1848. Kentucky, June 1, 1792. California, September 9, 1850. Tennessee, June 1, 1796. Minnesota, May 11, 1858. Ohio, February 19, 1803. Oregon, February 14, 1859. Louisiana, April 8, 1812. Kansas, January 29, 1861. Indiana, December 11, 1816. West Virginia, June 19, 1863. Mississippi, December 10,1817. Nevada, October 31, 1864. Illinois, December 3, 1818. Nebraska, March 1, 1867. Alabama, December 14, 1819. Colorado, August 1, 1876. Maine, March 15, 1820.

North Dakota, Nov. 2, 1889. Missouri, August 10, 1821. South Dakota, Nov, 2, 1889. Arkansas, June 15, 1836.

Montana, November 8, 1889. Michigan, January 26, 1837. Washington, Nov. 11, 1889. Florida, March 3, 1845.

Idaho, July 3, 1890. Texas, December 29, 1845. Wyoming, July 10, 1891. Iowa, December 28, 1846. Utah, January 4, 1896.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

RELATIONS OF THE STATES AND THE UNION. The American Government. Sections 419-445; 578-583; 598-603;

608-620; 623-631; 644-654; 763-772. Part II of this work describes the government of a single State. The preceding chapters of this Third Part describe the Government of the Union in its general features. It is very obvious that either one of these governments, by itself, would be very imperfect. It is equally obvious that they supplement each other. Each one is essential to the other and to society, and neither one is more essential than the other. The two together make up one system of government. The governments of the States are part of the Government of the Union, and the Government of the Union is a part of the governments of the States. The citizen is subject to two jurisdictions, one State and one National. Both of these jurisdictions have been created by the American people, and each one is exclusive and independent within its sphere. In other words, the United States are a federal state, and their Government is a federal government. Moreover, experience shows that such governments are complicated and delicate, and that they will not work well unless the two parts, local and general, are well adapted each to each like the parts of a machine.

464. The State Sphere.—The sphere of the State is well marked off. Matters of local and State concern are committed to its exclusive authority. Within its sphere,

the State is perfectly free to do what it pleases, taking good care not to infringe upon the sphere of the Union. It is the great business of the State government to preserve the peace and good order of society within its borders. It defines civil and political rights; defines and punishes crime; protects the rights of property, of person, and of life; regulates marriage and divorce; provides schools and education for the people, and does a hundred other things that it deems necessary to promote the physical, intellectual, and moral well-being of the people.

465. The National Sphere. - This is equally well defined. Matters of general, common, or National interest are committed to the Union. Here are the powers to levy taxes and borrow money for National purposes; to regulate foreign commerce; to conduct war; to carry on the post-office; to manage foreign relations, and to exercise the many other powers that are delegated by the National Constitution. It will be seen that these are matters in which the whole American people are interested. Within its sphere, the Nation is just as free and unlimited as the State is within the State's sphere.

466. The State and the Union.-Neither one of these jurisdictions is, strictly speaking, limited to matters purely local or purely national. The State does more than merely to look after local interests. The Union does more than merely to see to National affairs. Either authority does some things that, at first thought, might seem to belong exclusively to the other. In this way, great strength is imparted to the whole system, and it is made to do its work more thoroughly. This a series of paragraphs will show.

467. National Functions of the States.—The State participates directly in carrying on the Government of

the Union. It defines the qualifications of electors, establishes Congressional districts, conducts the elections of Representatives, elects members of the United States Senate, and appoints Presidential Electors. All these things are purely voluntary. The States cannot be compelled to do them, but if they should refuse or neglect to do them the whole National system would fall into ruins. But, more than this, the Union employs the State militia, and imposes duties upon the governors and judges of the States.

468. Prohibitions Laid on States.—The successful working of the National system makes it necessary that certain prohibitions shall be laid on the States. No State can enter into any treaty, alliance, or federation; coin money, issue paper money, make anything but gold and silver a tender in payment of debts, pass any law interfering with contracts, or grant any title of nobility. No State, without the consent of Congress, can levy duties or imposts on imports and exports, beyond what is necessary to pay the cost of its inspection service. No State can, without the consent of Congress, lay any tonnage tax on ships, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, or enter into any compact or agreement with another State or a foreign power.

No State can engage in war, unless it is actually invaded or in immediate danger of invasion.

469. Duties of State to State.If the National System is to work smoothly, it is obvious that a good understanding among the States is necessary. The Constitution accordingly lays various commands upon the States in respect to their relations one to another. The acts, records, and judicial processes of any State are respected by every other State, so far as they can have any application. For example, a marriage contracted or a

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