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people paid tuition for the support of the teacher, and coöperation among the people in the maintenance of schools had yet only gone as far as the building of school houses. December 9, 1854, Governor Grimes in his message recommended the adoption of the tax system, whereby teachers and contingent expenses were to be paid by a tax levied upon the assessed property of the districts. While his suggestions received large attention, and were considered with much favor, yet this plan was not adopted and did not take effect until 1857, at the close of Governor Grimes' administration—the time of the beginning of the school system at present prevailing in the State of Iowa.

60. The Hungarians in Iowa.—Previous to 1859, civil war had been in progress in the province of Hungary, under the leadership of Louis Kossuth. The Hungarians made great effort to throw off the Austrian yoke and establish a free government. The people of the United States watched this struggle with a great deal of solicitude. When Austria, with the help of Russia, succeeded in subduing the rebellion, many of the Hungarians were compelled to flee from their country. A large party of these refugees, escaping from the vengeance of the Austrian government, came to the United States and settled in Iowa, on Grand river, in the southern part of Decatur county. From the number that came there, it was supposed that they would build a large town and establish an extensive settlement. Always in sympathy with the oppressed, the people of Iowa gave them a hearty welcome, and the general assembly adopted a memorial to Congress


to have the United States make a donation of public lands for their benefit, and thus give them a home with the hospitable welcome already accorded. The prospects for this being done were excellent, as the President witheld the lands from sale, but the winter that followed was so much colder than they were accustomed to in their native country, and besides since they were by occupation accustomed chiefly to grape culture, they became discouraged and abandoned the Iowa settlement, and removed to Texas.

61. The Great Seals of Iowa.—The use of a seal to give legal authority to official and governmental papers has long been a custom. For the attesting of all papers issued by the governor, the great seal is used by the secretary of state in countersigning all. proclamations and commissions issued by the State. Iowa has had two great seals, differing in a marked way as to design. The first was used during the Territorial times, and the design consisted of an eagle bearing in its beak an Indian arrow, and clutching in its talons the unstrung bow. This simple seal was provided by the first Territorial secretary, William B. Conway, at the request of the legislative council, and was adopted by that body November 23, 1838. This design is popular and is still admired by many good judges of this kind

It afterwards appeared on the State geological reports, and was also placed on the Iowa National bank notes furnished by the government


of art.

to lowa banks. This original seal was lost in the removal of the State property from Iowa City to Des Moines. The second seal was authorized by law, February 25, 1847. It was intended to represent civilization, liberty, industry, progress, and valor. The design was prescribed by law as follows: “It shall be two inches in diameter, and have engraved around its edge the words, The Great Seal of the State of Iowa.' It shall consist of a sheaf and field of standing wheat, with a sickle and other farming utensils, on the left side near the bottom; a lead furnace and pile of pig lead on the right side; the citizen soldier, with a plow in his rear, supporting the American flag and liberty cap with his right hand, and his gun with his left in the centre and near the bottom; the Mississippi river in the rear of the whole with the steamer Iowa under way; an eagle near the upper edge holding in his beak a scroll with the following inscription upon it: 'Our liberties we prize and our rights we will main

With such explicit orders, the artist had little to do with the design, except to conform to law. The ingenuity of skill and cunning has been very severely taxed to place so much upon so small a space. Because of its complexity of design, the coat of arms thus adopted is but little used by the people of Iowa, and has never had a chance, therefore, to be either popular or appreciated as has been the case with those adopted by many other States.

Note.—The census of 1854 gave the first indication of the rising tide of immigration, and also betrayed, through its accounting for the sources of this population, that there were material modifications in progress that would eventually change the political sentiments and policies of the State. The earliest settlers had come from southern


Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and also from the more northerly Southern States. This accounts for the political tendencies of the early State policies. The next people came in large numbers from Pennsylvania, and after the failure of the revolutionary movements in Europe in 1848, many of the people of those countries came to the United States, and Iowa attracted, for a time, a large proportion of the agriculturalists. Finally the majority of the immigrants came from northern Ohio, from New York, and from New England, while Pennsylvania and Europe still continued a fair proportion. The story of the origin and modification, through immigration, of the Iowa people answers many inquiries that will arise concerning social and political progress, moral reforms, and permanent changes in public policy. The character and the training of a people are the proper explanation for the chief differences that exist between states, both as to fundamental theories and actual practice. The year 1854 united Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river by the completion of a railroad. Iowa at once began similar public improvements and every train westward carried its contingent of immigrants to still add to the growing population of energetic and enterprising citizens. The census of 1856 and likewise of 1860 each tells a remarkable story of increase of population, of development of resources, and of multiplication of wealth.

QUESTIONS AND TOPICS. 1. How are public lands sold ? When could people settle upon the public lands? What is a squatter? What is a government patent? Difference between warranty deeds and government patents?

2. What is the use of a seal? Origin of the use? Compare the Iowa territorial seal and the seal of the United States ?




1857–1896 62. The Change in State Policy. - From the beginning of Territorial government in 1838 to the year 1854, the Democratic party was in power, controlling all the legislation and dictating the policy of Constitution and laws. With the advent of a school of politics, represented by the supporters of Governor James W. Grimes and the Republican party, there came a growing conviction that a new constitution, more in accord with modern notions, should be framed. Under the Democratic party there was no National money except silver and gold, called by the supporters of this policy, “the money of the Constitution." All other currency of any kind was left to the several States to provide, the Democratic party believing quite thoroughly in state rights. For the reasons heretofore given, the Democratic party was absolutely opposed to having any banks in the State, and it was likewise much opposed to any policy that would organize any permanent corporations that might have, through long continuance, the power to interfere with the public good. Hence, during these years there was no chance for anything of such kind to be organized.

63. Other Things that Hastened the Change.In addition, the Democratic party had, in fact, been very

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