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sticks of tobacco. This, added to the capacity of the pen, will give a total capacity of 3748 sticks, equal to the housing of between eight and nine acres of tobacco.
In the heavy-shipping districts of Kentucky, Virginia and Tennessee, very few log barns are now built. They are more troublesome to build than framed barns,
and cannot be provided with so many conveniences. At present, framed barns are constructed of all dimensions, from 20 to 48 feet square, with doors entering through the three divisions of the barns high and wide enough to pass through with a loaded wagon. Figs. 29, 30 ana 31 give a good idea of a modern framed barn in the heavy-tobacco regions. The passageways are about 12$ feet wide between the sills, though from outside to outside is 40 feet. These passage ways are separated by sills set on stone pillars. The posts set on the outside sills are 15 feet high, capped by a stout plate 4x6 inches. At the hight of nine feet from the level of the sill, the first set of girders, 4x3 inches, is let in the posts from the outside. The second set of girders is placed three feet above the first, and the plate, which answers in the place of a girder, three feet higher on
FIO. 40. CIGAR LEAF BARN.
The type most commonly used in the Connecticut valley.
the top of the outside set of posts. The two sets of posts set on the inside sills are 21 feet high, and girders are let in at 9, 12, 15 and 18 feet from the level of the sills, and stout plates put on the top of these central parts. Tier poles are arranged 3 feet 10 inches apart on the girders. Between the high central posts there are 10 tiers arranged horizontally and 5 vertically, besides the collar beams in the roof, thus giving 50 tier poles in the center of the barn and 10 collar beams, each of the latter 7 feet long.
On each side there will be 10 tier poles arranged horizontally and three vertically, giving for both sides 60 tier poles 13 feet long. Add the collar beams, which will average about half the length of the tier poles, and there will be 10 additional ones. These, all added together, will give 125 tiers, capable of holding each about 20 sticks, making the capacity of such a barn about 2500 sticks, or with room enough to house * about six acres of heavy tobacco. c In such a barn, doors are made B to enter between the four sets of sills. Th makes a great
convenience in driving a load of rio. «. Cboss-skotion Ok tobacco immediately under the BAKN Shown In Fig. «. . tiers to be filled. There are no end sills. The planks, or boards, for inclosing the barn are nailed to the sills, girders and plates. In arranging the tier poles, which are 3x4 inches, every alternate one should rest on the girder beside a post, the posts on the sides of the barn being eight feet apart. The tier poles are arranged perpendicular to the sides. The entire cost of such a barn is about $250 to $300, varying somewhat according to the prices of lumber and the wages of rough carpenters.
Many barns are constructed Fio. 42. Sectional View, without any silla whatever, the posts resting upon flat rocks. These seem to be as durable as those in which sills are used. The bracing must be well done, however. Several of this style are shown in Figs. 32, 33 and 34.
A method of building barns with excavations, or cellars, has recently been practiced in some of the heavy tobacco districts. A log or framed barn is erected, with the first tier poles put in about three feet from the surface of the ground. The center is then excavated to the depth of seven or eight feet. It is claimed that the fires built in the bottom of such an excavation or cellar may be better regulated, that they are not disturbed by
FIG. 43. BASEMENT OF SNOW BARN, SHOWING STOVES SET IN BRICK ARCHES, AND PiPES THROUGH WHICH HOT AIR IS DISTRIBUTED.
winds, and that the danger of setting the barn on fire is greatly lessened. A large amount of valuable space is secured also. It is likewise claimed that the moisture arising from the cellar will bring the tobacco in condition to be handled without the necessity of waiting for rains or humid weather.
Experiments made as to the best localities for building barns justify the conclusion that low places, free from overflows or standing water, are to be preferred. High situations dry cut tobacco too rapidly, and it is much more difficult in such places to have the cured product come into uniform condition for handling. Land sloping to the east is thought to be a good situation for a barn, if furnaces are to be used for curing the
tobacco. The reason for such a selection is that the western winds are most prevalent during tie curing season, and the smoke issuing from the chimneys or flues should be blown away from the barn.
In the White Burley district all the tobacco is air cured, and the tobacco houses are, or should be, so constructed that the air may be freely admitted or excluded,