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on the successful practical experience of Col. P. B. Moodie, president of the Florida tobacco growers' association; A. Alonzo Cordery, vice president of the Cuban tobacco growers' company in Southern Florida, and to Dr. Jenkins' careful studies of the extensive operations with tobacco in Florida.

It is also to the gentlemen enumerated that we are 'mainly indebted for the large number of original photo- rrsphs from which the engravings for this work have been produced. Pardonable pride is felt in the completeness of our illustrations. We especially commend the reader's attention to the plates illustrating the most perfect plants of the leading varieties of tobacco. These plants were grown specially for this purpose by experts, from the finest strains of seed true to the perfected varieties, and are believed to faithfully present, for the first time in w- w- Sanderson, Mass. print, truly lifelike portraitures of variety-standards. Even the cursory reader will observe that, after nearly four hundred years of tobacco growing, there is yet much to be learned. The increasing competition in raising this crop in various parts of the world makes it necessary that American tobacco planters employ to the utmost the teachings of practical experience and applied science. This, combined with good management and the closest economy throughout the business, will enable the United States to hold its lead for another century in the world's tobacco markets, besides supplying its own consumption, with the cigar leaf heretofore imported,

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PART I.

Essentials In Tobacco Culture

ESSENTIALS IN TOBACCO CULTURE.

CHAPTER L

ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF TOBACCO CULTURE.

The truth of the assertion made by the Chinese that they cultivated and knew the use of tobacco long anterior to the discovery of America by Columbus, is not sustained by any records entitled to credit by civilized nations. When or where it was first cultivated or used is one of the mysteries which rest in the unrelieved darkness of unlettered history. Pipes from prehistoric mounds in the United States, Mexico and Peru prove the extreme antiquity of tobacco, and pipes are found only in American ruins or mounds. Columbus, during his first voyage, saw the natives smoking it, and in subsequent voyages the fact was noted that it was used by the aborigines in smoking, chewing and snuffing. It is supposed to have taken the name tobacco, by which the Spaniards called it, from the tobacco, which was the inhaling apparatus of the Caribbees. Benzoni, who traveled in America in 1542-1556, says the Mexicans called the plant "tobacco." On the continent of America it was usually called "petum"; by the West India islands, "yoli."

In 1558, Francisco Fernandes, a physician who had been sent to Mexico by Philip II to investigate and report on the natural productions of that country, brought back with him the tobacco plant. The next year Hernando de Toledo carried some tobacco from San Domingo to Europe.

During the same year Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal, sent some seeds to his sovereignmistress, Queen Catherine de Medici, and from this circumstance it was called herla regina. To commemorate the services rendered by Nicot, in spreading a knowledge of the plant, the generic name Nicotiana was given to it.

Sir John Hawkins carried it from Florida to England. Harriot, who was in the expedition under the command of Sir Richard Grenville, sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, which discovered Virginia and North Carolina, mentions the fact that the Spaniards called the plant tobacco. In 1586, tobacco was first carried into England from Virginia by the agents of Sir Walter Raleigh, and its use soon became fashionable among the courtiers, and the persons of quality.

John Rolfe, in 1612, became the

first civilized tobacco grower. He was no. l. Tobacco , , j . T. 1 j

Smoked Through A the husband of Pocahontas, and grew

Tube, As Kikst Seen tobacco for export to the mother counFrorXr*H.8s*toryfcry- Shortly afterwards Sir George of Plants," 15-6. Yeardley, the deputy governor, encouraged the colonists to grow it for profit. In 1617, the streets, market places and all the open lots of Jamestown were planted in tobacco. But for tobacco, the settlement of Virginia at that period would have proved a failure, for it became the currency of the country, the measure of all values and the sole product of Virginia that would command articles of value in exchange.

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