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kinds, colds and similar troubles. When the wet tobacco is applied, says General Clingman, the first effect is stimulating. In twenty or thirty minutes, however, the sedative effect is perceived. When it is placed on the eyelids, as some of the juice gets into the eye, there is usually an itching sensation and a little pain, but in a few minutes this passes off and there is no more feeling than if a wet cloth were applied. Most persons sleep under the influence, but some do not, as it is a nerve tonic as well as a sedative. If the tobacco be applied only to the affected parts, no nausea will be felt until the inflammation has been subdued, when the bandage should be removed. Generally, two hours after application a sedative effect is attained, but in obstinate cases a much longer time may be required.

Leaf tobacco should be used for the poultices, but if this is not practicable, manufactured, or plug tobacco, well softened in water, may be applied, but the latter frequently contains drugs that may interfere with its usefulness. The darker leaves are stronger and better than the light yellow leaves. Leaves of plants cut last year are better than those freshly cut, as tobacco seems to gather strength with age. A bunch of these leaves, thrown into a bowl of cold water, will become moist and soft, so that the large stem in the center may be taken out. Hot water will answer the purpose sooner than cold, but either will do. When this is done, not less than two thicknesses of the leaf should be placed directly on the part to be relieved. As, however, the heat of the skin tends to dry the tobacco in a few minutes, a wet bandage must be laid over it. About four thicknesses of common white cotton cloth will be sufficient, but this should be well soaked in the water before it is put on, then a bandage of the same cloth may be tied over it, and water from time to time should be applied by pressing a wet rag on it, so as to keep the

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tobacco moist. When one wishes to cure a bunion or corn, after the tobacco has been applied as above directed, it is easy to get the sock over it, and by moistening the sock from time to time, a cure is usually effected in a single night.

General Clingman, speaking of cases coming under his own observation, says: "All cases of erysipelas, whether on the head or face, or any other part of the body, are cured. In some cases, where the head was swollen to almost double size, and the patient was supposed by the attending physician about to die, an application of tobacco effected a complete cure. Again, all cases of sore eyes, whether caused by injury or disease, and whether old cases, or fresh ones, have been cured. In some cases, where there was total blindness, a cure was at once effected and the sight restored perfectly. In the third place, all wounds, whether cuts, bruises or contusions, have been easily cured. Sprains of the knee or ankle joints, where they were swollen to double the natural size, have been completely cured by a single night's application. Old cases, where the patient has suffered for months and years, have been cured. Cases of sore throat are cured, whether caused by diphtheria, croup, scarlet fever, or quinsy. In more than one instance, the patient was cured when seemingly at the point of death, and the case pronounced hopeless by the attending physician. Bone felons have been cured, usually by a single night's application of the tobacco."

General Clingman was informed of a number of cases in which the tobacco was applied as a remedy for hemorrhoids, and in every instance a single night's application is represented to have effected a cure. If tobacco should be applied to a wound, neither mortification nor lockjaw would ever supervene. In one case of lockjaw, where the surgeon had pronounced the case hopeless, according to the public statement of a gentleman, a cure, it is asserted, was effected by the application of a tobacco poultice to the stomach.

For cholera morbus, an application of tobacco to the stomach, it is said, gives relief. A senator told him that when suffering constipation most terribly he had

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ViG. 137. A PEEP INTO THE "DURHAM" OFFICE (See Page 463).

two physicians with him for two days and nights, with no advantage from their remedies, and when the pain became so intolerable that he felt that he would not get through the night, he caused a poultice of tobacco to be applied to his side and back, and in half an hour he was relieved and immediately recovered. Again, a great many cases of neuralgia, whether the case was accompanied with inflammation or not, General Clingman says, have been cured by tobacco. In one case, the patient said his eye was so much inflamed that it seemed about to burst, and the application effected a complete cure. Physicians in some parts of North Carolina aver that all cases of orchitis are cured by tobacco, and usually in one night.

Tobacco is a very valuable insecticide for use against vermin on domestic animals, and in the greenhouse, as well as for other pests. It may be used in the form of a decoction, in smoke, or dry. The refuse stems and powders from the cigar factories are very valuable as insecticides and fertilizers, and frequently, in the Middle Western States, they may be obtained for little, or nothing. The decoction is made by boiling refuse tobacco stems or dust in water, or pouring water over them. This gives a concentrated liquid, which is to be diluted with cold water, until there are two gallons of water for each pound of tobacco used. It is a good remedy for plant lice. A stronger formula, recommended b: Mr. M. V. Slingerland, is to steep five pounds of tobacco stems in three gallons of water for three hours; then strain, and dilute with enough water to make seven gallons, when the decoction is ready to use. A cheap grade of tobacco is employed in making a sheep wash. About 20 pounds of tobacco is steeped, or boiled, in 40 gallons of water, and the sheep dipped in the liquid. This is a sure remedy for ticks and other vermin; and is of frequent use by the flockmasters of the West.

No application to young fruit trees is so effective in destroying grubs and other pests as tobacco. Tobacco stalks may be used for the purpose. They are piled up around the roots of the trees, about a large armful to each tree. These stalks are also an excellent fertilizer

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