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type that has given the Clarksville tobacco its most distinguishing characteristics.
German Spinning fillers are of the same character of tobacco as the wrappers, differing only in grade, and consist of very fat, clean and heavy-bodied lugs, which are also supplied from the Clarksville and upper Green River districts.
Germany also takes most of the Spangled tobacco of West Virginia and Ohio, and also that of Maryland. This is a leaf of full breadth, moderate length, and small stem. It is deficient in oil, ha? a medium strength in texture, and in color is yellow, yellow spangled with red, red spangled with yellow, and fine red. It is cured with open fires, but has a mild, sweet flavor. The fine yellow and yellow spangled go to Bremen, where it is rehandled, and packed in lighter casks, and sent to Russia for consumption. A portion, however, is taken to Austria and England, the two latter named countries taking also the red spangled. England takes the fine red. Germany takes all grades for consumption or distribution, mostly, however, dark tobacco. It now takes about 500 hogsheads of bright fillers. Very little of the French and Italian types are taken; and only scraps of these types which are used in the country for smoking tobacco. Germany is also a large market for Burley lugs, and for seedleaf for cigars.
Next to the United Kingdom, Germany is the best customer for American tobacco. Tobacco is sold in »n open market, and is not a government monopo'y. There were 48,055,408 pounds sent to that country from the United States in 1801; 53,116,734 pounds in 1892; 61,235,195 pounds in 1893; 51,632,897 rounds in 1894; and 54,184,621 pounds in 1895.
Russia takes some Maryland tobacco directly from this country, but nothing else of consequence. Southern Russia is supplied from Greece, Turkey and North Africa. Sweden and Norway take direct from the United States, from 1,629,755 pounds in 1892, to 351,495 pounds in 1895. Portugal takes a very variable quantity, running from 2,657,256 pounds in 1893, to only 5091 pounds in 1895. The demand for Gibraltar was, for 1893, 1,470,916 pounds; for 1894, 2,301,883 pounds; for 1895, 1,896,332 pounds. Much of this is re-exported to Africa. The Azores and Madeira Islands take annually from 3000 pounds to 320,000 pounds of the tobacco of the United States.
Snuff Lugs and Smokers —The very fat, heavy and oily lugs of the Clarksville and other heavy-producing districts are consumed largely in the United States and Germany in the manufacture of common snuff, and for baling and spinning fillers, as noted elsewhere. They are also used on the Continent for the manufacture of common cigars.
Switzerland takes from the United States only one type, known as Swiss wrapper. This is a broadleaf, twenty-six to thirty inches in length, silky, of fine fiber and stem, and of a dark brown or chestnut color. The spaces between the lateral fibers should be wide, and a combination of thin web and strong fiber is desired, so that the largest number of wrappers may be obtained from a given quantity. It is used in Switzerland as a cigar wrapper, and is supplied principally from the Clarksville district, but to a small extent from other heavy-producing districts. It must be cured by fire. The quantity of tobacco grown in the United States, taken directly to Switzerland, is very small, perhaps from five hundred to seven hundred hogsheads annually.
The Netherlands take one distinct type from the United States, known as Dutch Saucer, which is similar in all respects to the German Saucer, except that it is thinner and more silky in texture. The other types taken are very much like those required for Germany, including Barley lugs. The quantity of tobacco of the growth of the United States required for exportation to the Netherlands was, 18,791,146 pounds in j 1891; 17,188,641 pounds in 1892; 18,168,278 pounds in 1893; 18,974,661 pounds in 1894; and 20,651,086 poujnds in 1895. Black, fat and heavy tobacco, and a small percentage of light tobacco, are the types required for consumption in the Netherlands.
Belgium likewise takes one special type, known as Belgian Cutter, which is a short leaf of a mottled, or piebald color, and of fair body, without fat or oil. The general quality and structure are such as have been noted as characterizing the German and Dutch Saucers, except that the grade is lower. It is used in Belgium for cutting purposes. Belgium also buys largely of Burley lugs. Tho export of American tobacco to Belgium was, 18,108,975 pounds in 1891; 16,644,542 pounds in 1892; 12,509,366 pounds in 1893; 17,695,375 pounds in 1894, and 25,104,707 pounds in 1895. Most of the tobacco taken belongs to the low grades.
Denmark, Norway and Sweden.—The tobacco consumed in these countries is for the most part grown in the United States, but rehandled and prepared for their markets, mainly in Bremen. A bright mottled, or red, fleshy, sweet leaf, not fat, prepared in Germany from the product, usually, of Virginia and the Clarksville, Tennessee, districts, is a great favorite in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. In addition to this, many of the heavy Clarksville types cured with fire are largely consumed in these countries. The leaf is dipped in sweet preparations of licorice and sugar, redried, repacked and shipped to Norway and Sweden, where it is said to be "first chewed, then smoked and then snuffed." The direct exports from the United States to Denmark vary from 138,567 pounds in 1893 to 430,976 pounds, in 1895,
Plate Ziii. Bright Yellow Tobacco (Silky Pryor, seed plant).
Right to tip of seed,7$ feet; height to top leaf, 2 feet 10 inches. Bright type of tobacco grown in Coffee county, Tennessee, and on the Cumberland plateau, 1070 feet altitude.
Yellow Tobacco.—Of yellow tobacco, a large quantity is exported to Europe, ranging in quantity with the different districts, from one-third to one-half of the product grown. The following grades are chiefly taken for export:
1. Cutters: Usually thin and bright, occupying a position, as to grade, intermediate between a wrapper and a lug. This grade contributes about one-fourth of the amount exported. Used for cigarettes and smoking tobacco.
2. Bright, greenish yellow and lemon colored stripping leaf, used for fillers and partly as an English cutter. It is shipped both in leaf and in strips. All this grade, for the most part, is exported, and makes nearly half the quantity that goes abroad. It is used for plug and plug cut.
3. Leafy cutting lugs, three grades, which make( nearly one-fourth of the foreign shipments of yellow tobacco.
In addition to these grades, a very small per cent of bright wrappers go abroad.
African Shippers.—These are usually divided into three classes:
1. Those which are suitable for the western coast of Africa, embracing Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegambia and those French and Portugal possessions bordering on the gulf of Guinea, known as the Guinea coast The tobacco for these markets should be of long, dark leaf, strong body, small tie, packed into hogsheads of small size, and made to weigh about 1500 pounds gross. The tobacco must be neatly handled.
2. The tobacco suitable for the coast further south should be of long leaf, medium to light color, fine fibers, nearly of the same length of leaf as class one, and handled neatly. The hogsheads should weigh 1450 pounds gross.