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ROME, January 1, 1848. My Lord,—I received your Lordship's kind letter after I had set out on my road to the Eternal City. This was the reason that impeded me from answering you ere now. I regretted very much not to have been able to visit Derry. I am, however, extremely grateful to your Lordship for your kind invitation, and I would, I am sure, have been delighted with the North, had I had time to enjoy your hospitality, but the winter was advancing so rapidly that I thought it necessary to get to the South, lest at a later period I should be impeded altogether from travelling. Here in Rome I find all things quiet. The Pope is well, and going on calmly and determinedly with his reforms. The great bulk of the people are with him; but there are some who are greatly adverse to any changes, and there is a small but violent faction which would drive things to extremities. This faction is very active; they have all the newspapers, and they expressed the greatest delight at the destruction of the Catholics of Switzerland. They are as bad as the old French demagogues, or as our own Orangemen. They will give the Pope a thousand times more trouble than the Austrians; however, I trust His Holiness will be able to keep them in order. If they once get the upper hand, we shall have sad work in Italy. I dare say the English agents are encouraging this faction. They are bad enough to do anything. Lord Minto is still in Rome. There is do doubt but that his object in remaining here is to open diplomatic relations with Rome. How far he will succeed is as yet uncertain ; but if Parliament revokes the old laws against communications with the Pope, I dare say an ambassador will be sent immediately. The English here are most busy in circulating the usual calumnies against the Irish clergy; they even carried their accusations to the Pope. After my return from Ireland, His Holiness sent for me and questioned me on the matter. I explained everything to him, and he remained perfectly satisfied. He is warmly attached to poor Ireland. The object of the English appears to be to destroy that sympathy which the famine of last year excited everywhere in favor of our country, and at the same time to poison the minds of the authorities here in such a way as to dispose them to hand over the Irish clergy to the tender mercies of state management. I think they will not succeed in Rome; but they have bribed all the newspapers of Europe to propagate their lies. Well, we must console ourselves with the promise of our Saviour, Beati estis cum vos calumniari.
I believe Lord Minto attempted to speak to His Holiness about the College question, but the Pope stopped him, and said that that was a spiritual matter, which was between himself and the Bishops. His Holiness appears quite pleased with the decision he gave.
I believe I did not express myself sufficiently clearly in my last regarding the pastoral; what I meant was that your Lordship should publish something in your name to the people of Derry regarding the Pope, just as the French Bishops have done in their respective dioceses. If your Lordship would do something in that way, it would have a good effect not only at home but here in Italy. It is necessary to support the Pope, to show that he should be kept independent both of despotic powers and of popular parties, in order to govern the Church as he ought.
I never undertook to write the address against proslytism; the thing would have been useful, but the arrival of the condemnation of the colleges made the Bishops forget it. Rev. Mr. Dooley engaged to get some one to write, but the matter was neglected.
Excuse, my Lord, the haste with which I have written these lines. If you publish the letter to your people on the Pope's authority and independence, be so good as to send us a copy. I have the honor to be, with profound respect, Your devoted, obedient servant,
PAUL CULLEN. P. S. An English. gentleman translated your letter on tenant-right to show that you were violent. See what mischief they are intent on.
April 8, 1848. My Lord,—I am sorry that I have only a moment to write you a line. I gave the substance of your Lordship’s letter to His Holiness. He said that you would know his sentiments from the letter he had sent to the Bishop. I hope that letter has not been lost; it was posted on the 29th of February and entered, so if lost it can be traced out.
Here things are quiet still, but there is great excitement—all the Italians are in arms to drive out the Austrians. The Pope's troops have entered Lombardy. God grant things may end well. The Austrians deserve to be chastised as they were great enemies of the liberty of the Church. I hope Russia too will be punished, and England that she may be converted and live.
Lord Minto is expected in Rome to-day—he will not be able to do much mischief. The Italians in general are now against English influence. They have more reliance on the French. I think Lord Minto's money was thrown away in buying popularity. He will get no more applause from the people.
Excuse this hasty scroll. I will write more at length by next post.
I have the honor to be with profoundest respect, your devoted obedient servant,
ROME, May 8, 1848. My Lord,—I write a line, and a hurried one, to your Lordship, to inform you about the state of things here. The two Bishops arrived here, and had a most satisfactory interview with the Pope. He is a real friend to Ireland, and I think he will actively defend the cause of our Church. The Rev. Dr. Ennis has just arrived. His mission is to get the statutes of the colleges approved. No one as yet has seen them. I hope he will not be able to make any impression.
The state of things in Rome is very sad. You are aware of all the revolutionary movements that have taken place in Lombardy. The people of the Pope's states sympathized very deeply with their brethren of the North, and many volunteers set out to join them. The Pope's troops, too, were so enthusiastic in the cause, that their general could not impede them from crossing the Po and entering the Austrian dominions. When things were at this stage, the radical and violent party here called on the Pope to declare war on Austria. The Pope answered in a magnificent allocution of the 29th April, declaring that it was not his intention to assail any power, that he was the minister of the God of peace, and that he could not desire war. However, he did not say a word against the Italian movement, nor against his own subjects for having entered Lombardy. The radical party, which is the same that was encouraged in Switzerland and elsewhere by England, became fu. rious after the Pope's allocution, and we were on the point of having a civil war in the city. Several cardinals were arrested, and the Pope himself threatened by the mob. Things remained in this way for one or two days. The Pope acted most courageously; he addressed the people, and threatened to use his spiritual powers against his assailant. The conduct and determination of the Pope overawed the radicals, and things have returned again to their usual tranquillity. It is hard to know how long they will remain quiet. The clubs are at work, and they can conjure up a storm any day they wish. The great bulk of the people of Rome are for the Pope, but they are passive and not organized; the