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(6 hrs. 43 min. 5 sec.); a Darracq car driven by A. Lee Guinness (6 hrs. 45 min. 21 sec.), and a Darracq car driven by George (6 hrs. 48 min. 26 sec.).

23. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, at a bazaar at Carnarvon, spoke on the influence of the Free Churches in steadying the Welsh character, which he regarded as not fickle, but volatile, and in educating and disciplining the nation to fight against intemperance, ignorance and vice. He ended with an eloquent vindication of the place of religion in human life.

24. At a meeting of the Carnegie Dunfermline trustees a letter was read from Mr. Andrew Carnegie, announcing that he would devote 250,0001, to establish a “Hero Fund” for the reward of those injured in an attempt to save human life, or provision for their wives and children.

– The first application forms for old age pensions were issued at all post offices throughout the United Kingdom.

- At the bye-election for Newcastle-on-Tyne, caused by the death of Mr. Cairns (L.), Mr. Renwick (U.) was returned by 13,863 votes, Mr. E. Shortt (L.) receiving 11,720, and Mr. E. R. Hartley (Soc.) 2,971.

25. The annual report of the Postmaster-General showed a surplus of revenue over expenditure of 4,135,6331.-slightly less than in the two previous years. The number of letters sent reached nearly sixty-five per head of population, the total number of postal packets 112.5 per head; and one in four of the population was a depositor in the Post Office Savings Bank.

25-29. International Moral Education Congress, at the University of London.

26. In a collision on the Berlin Elevated Railway sixteen persons were killed and about twenty injured.

27. A great demonstration against the Licensing Bill took place in Hyde Park. Seventy special trains were run from all parts of the provinces, bringing up some 70,000 men, who marched in processions to Hyde Park, where speaking took place from twenty platforms. The estimates of the numbers varied from 100,000 to 500,000.

28-30. Unusually warm and fine weather, accompanied with a high degree of moisture in the atmosphere, prevailed over England, the thermometer on the 29th reaching 73° in London, and 70-79° in various parts of England and Wales. On the 30th it was 77-79o.

29. Off Dungeness, the passenger yacht Argonaut, with 113 passengers aboard for Lisbon, was run into in a fog and sunk by the ss. Kingswell, from Bilbao for Middlesbrough ; no lives were lost. The passengers were brought into Dover by the ss. Southmoor, the Kingswell being seriously damaged.

-- Serious floods were reported from Haidarabad (Deccan), causing about 1,000 deaths and 1,333,0001. damage to property.

OCTOBER 1. The close of the “Book War” between The Times and the publishers was indicated by the announcement that a popular edition of the letters of Queen Victoria, issued by the King's command, would be published by Mr. John Murray in conjunction with The Times. (See ante, May 8, and ANNUAL REGISTER, 1906, Part II., p. 41.)

1. Penny Postage between Great Britain and the United States.

1-4. Very warm weather for the season reported throughout Great Britain and Northern France. In London on October 1 the temperature reached 77o; on October 2, 799, the highest October figure since that of 80° reached on October 4, 1886. In Aberdeen 77° was reached. The temperature fell rapidly on October 5.

3. Demonstration of the “Hunger Marchers,” in Trafalgar Square. (See English History, Chapter V.)

4. Bulgaria proclaimed her independence of the Porte, and it was announced that Austria-Hungary proposed to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina. (See Foreign History, Chapter III.)

5. The Report of the Chief Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police stated that on December 31, 1906, the authorised strength of the force was 17,919, of whom 1,884 were employed in special duties at dockyards and other Government stations or by private persons. The area of the Metropolitan Police District was 669:42 'square miles, the mean rateable value 53,790,2681. Two hundred and eighty-three persons were killed in street accidents and 16,772 injured.

6. The Church Congress opened at Manchester. (See English History, Chapter V.)

7. A rescript was issued by the Emperor of Austria announcing the grant of modified autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina. (See Foreign History, Chapter II.) Sir Edward Grey, speaking at Wooler, Northumberland, and Mr. Asquith, speaking at Leven, Perthshire, defined the attitude of the Government towards the situation in the Near East.

- Sir Christopher Furness, M.P. for Hartlepool, summoned a Conference at West Hartlepool, consisting chiefly of representatives of the shipbuilding and allied trades, and made two alternative offers : (1) that the Trade Unions should purchase and work the shipbuilding yards of his company ; (2) that the employees should become copartners by the purchase of special shares, receiving a fixed interest and a share in profits. Disputes would be referred to a Works Council, and ultimately to arbitration, and there would be a provision against a strike. On November 4 the members of the Trade Unions concerned resolved on a twelve months' trial of co-partnership.

8. The Jubilee of the Oxford University Museum was celebrated at Oxford.

9. At the annual meeting of the Classical Association, at Birmingham, Mr. Asquith delivered his Presidential Address. He dealt with the great advances made by classical archæology and declared that the classics had come to be treated in a more scientific spirit and with a quickened consciousness of their relation to other forms of knowledge.

- At Dundee, Mr. Winston Churchill declared that unemployment required special remedies which would carry us into “new and untrodden fields in British politics."

9. It was announced that Mr. W. Hall-Jones had succeeded Mr. W. Pember Reeves as High Commissioner for New Zealand in London.

10. It was announced that the Marquess of Ripon, through advanced age, had resigned the office of Privy Seal, and that the Earl of Crewe would hold it, remaining Secretary for the Colonies.

- At Matlock, Derbyshire, after the presentation of an address of thanks to the new Duke of Devonshire for his services (as Mr. Victor Cavendish) in the House of Commons, the temporary floor over a swimming bath collapsed; several persons were injured.

– A second “Marathon race," from Windsor to the Stadium at Shepherd's Bush, for prizes offered by the Evening News, was won by Henri Siret, the French long distance champion, in 2 hr. 37 min. 23 sec.; P. White, Ireland, was second ; J. Keywood, Bromley Common, third. Eighty-nine started.

11. M. Isvolsky, the Russian Minister, who was in London to consult with Sir Edward Grey on the Near Eastern crisis, was received by the King and dined at Buckingham Palace.

12. Both Houses of Parliament reassembled for the autumn session. Considerable numbers of the unemployed assembled in Parliament Square, but there was no disturbance.

- An international conference on electric units and standards, convoked by the British Government and representing eighteen countries, was opened by Mr. Churchill at Burlington House.

- In Paris, an International Road Congress, due to the development of motor traffic, and representing twenty-nine countries, was opened by the Minister of Public Works.

- In the match for the Sculling Championship of England, rowed on the Thames from Putney to Mortlake, Ernest Barry (England) beat George Towns (Australia). Time, 21 min. 12 sec., the fastest on record.

13. Disorderly scenes took place in Parliament Square as the result of a handbill issued by the militant women suffragists inviting the public to "rush ”the House of Commons. One woman actually entered and addressed the House, but was promptly removed. A suffragist deputation, attempting to force its way towards the House of Commons, was arrested. (See English History, Chapter V.)

- At the London County Council, Mr. Frank Smith attempted to force a discussion on employment, and the meeting was adjourned after some disorder.

- Two brothers, Mr. A. M. Sprules and Mr. F. A. Sprules, were killed while climbing the Pillar Rock, Scawfell, Westmoreland.

14. It was announced that Viscount Wolverhampton had been appointed Lord President of the Council, and Lord Fitzmaurice Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

- At Newmarket, the Cesarewitch Stakes were won by Lady de Bathe's Yentoi.

15. Publication of awards at the Franco-British Exhibition.

15. Serious forest fires took place in Michigan and Wisconsin, clearing 100 square miles. Over fifty deaths; a relief train burnt.

– The Council of the Royal College of Surgeons determined to admit women to its examination for the Fellowship and the licence in dental surgery, and to take steps to admit them to the examination of the Joint Board in England and to the examination for the diploma in public health.

17. A Royal Commission, with Lord Burghclere as Chairman, appointed to make an inventory of historical monuments down to A.D. 1700, and to specify those most worthy of preservation.

- Mr. G. G. A. Murray, Fellow of New College, appointed Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, vice Bywater resigned.

- The tercentenary of the election of Francis Bacon as Treasurer at Gray's Inn was celebrated by a luncheon given by the Benchers in the Banqueting Hall.

– The Australian Rugby Football Team were beaten for the first time on their tour by Llanelly, by a goal and a try to a try.

20. It was announced that Mr. T. McKinnon-Wood, M.P., had been appointed Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and Mr. C. P. Trevelyan Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education.

22. At Berlin, Prince August Wilhelm, fourth son of the Kaiser, was married to Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.

23. At Bow Street, Mr. Will Thorne, M.P. for South West Ham, who had advised a meeting to “ rush the bakers’ shops," was bound over to be of good behaviour for twelve months.

24. A letter was published from Lord Curzon of Kedleston stating that he meant to propose that all Oxford degrees should be open to women on exactly the same basis as to men.

- At Edinburgh University, Mr. George Wyndham, M.P., was elected Lord Rector by 826 votes against 727 given for Mr. Winston Churchill, M.P., and 614 for Professor Osler. At Glasgow, Lord Curzon of Kedleston was elected by 947 votes, Mr. Lloyd-George receiving 935 and Mr. Keir Hardie 122.

- At Hampstead, at a bye-election for the London County Council, Mr. Taylor (Moderate) was returned by 3,948 votes, Miss Balkwill (Progressive) receiving 2,203. The election was the first for the London County Council at which a woman was candidate under the Act of 1907 admitting women to seats on borough and county councils.

- In the final Association Football match in connection with the Olympic Games, the United Kingdom beat Denmark by 2 goals to nil. -- In the Lacrosse match, Canada beat England by 14 goals to 10.

25. At Debenham and Freebody's, Wigmore Street, the strong room was broken open and 5,0001. worth of jewellery stolen.

26. General election throughout Canada. (See Foreign and Colonial History, Chapter VIII.)

26. In the Final “Olympic" Rugby Football Match, the Australians beat Cornwall (representing England as its champion county) by 32 points to 3.

27. At a Mansion House Conference, the Lord Mayor presiding, a resolution was carried demanding fresh legislation for the protection of the public from motor traffic.

- In the King's Bench Division, Messrs. E. Cook & Sons, Limited, soapmakers, were awarded 23,0001. damages against the proprietors of the Daily Mail and Evening News for libel in connection with the alleged " Soap Trust." An action against the Daily Mirror was settled out of court. (Cf. ANNUAL REGISTER, 1907, Chronicle, p. 23.)

- The Great Eastern Railway Company's cargo steamer Yarmouth, from the Hook of Holland to Harwich, foundered with all hands near the Gabbard lightship; twenty-three lives were lost. The vessel was believed to have rolled over.

28. The Daily Telegraph published a remarkable interview with the German Emperor. (See Foreign History, Chapter II.)

– Suffragist disturbances in the Ladies' Gallery of the House of Commons. (See English History, Chapter V.)

31. The text was published of the message of the King as Emperor of India to the Princes and people of that Empire on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the assumption of its government by the Crown.

– Mr. Asquith was elected Lord Rector of Aberdeen University by 434 votes, Sir Edward Carson receiving 370.

– The Franco-British Exhibition closed. The total number of visitors was stated to have been about 4,800,000.

NOVEMBER 2. The resignation was announced of the Most Rev. W. D. Maclagan, Archbishop of York, to take effect on December 31.

– The municipal elections took place throughout England and Wales. The Unionists gained 131 seats, the Liberals 33, Labour candidates 11, Socialists 9, and Independents 4. Women candidates were returned at Oxford and Manchester. (See English History, Chapter V.)

3. The Presidential election in the United States resulted in an overwhelming success for Mr. William Howard Taft, Republican. (See Foreign History, Chapter VIII.)

- The award of the Royal Society's medals for the year was as follows: The Copley medal to Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace; the Rumford medal to Professor H. A. Lorentz for investigations in optical and electrical science; Royal medals to Professor John Milne and Dr. Henry Head for seismological and neurological investigations respectively; the Davy medal to Professor W. A. Tilden, for chemical discoveries; the Darwin medal to Professor August Weismann, and the Hughes medal to Professor Eugen Goldstein for discoveries on the nature of electric discharge in rarefied gases.

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