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6. The Cotton Trade dispute was settled. (See English History, Chapter V.)

9. The battleship Collingwood was launched at Devonport, and named by Mrs. Asquith.

- The list of King's Birthday Honours was issued. Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace received the Order of Merit; Mr. J. A. Pease, M.P., Mr. Herbert Samuel, M.P., Sir C. B. Maclaren, M.P., and Sir Edward Clarke, were made Privy Councillors. Among the six new baronets were Sir G. A. Critchett, an eminent oculist, Mr. E. F. Hatch, a Unionist ex-M.P. who had recently been Chairman of a Committee for Investigating Industrial Diseases, and Mr. S. S. Clouston, general manager of the Bank of Montreal; among the twenty new knights were Mr. G. Frampton, a well-known sculptor, Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson, a distinguished surgeon, and Professor J. J. Thomson, President Elect of the British Association.

- The Lord Mayor's Show included a picturesque pageant representing the press, the poets, and the musicians of England from Chaucer to Milton. (For the speeches of Ministers, see English History, Chapter V.)

– The first woman mayor in the United Kingdom, Mrs. Garrett Anderson, was elected at Aldeburgh. Miss Dove, headmistress of an important school for girls at High Wycombe and a member of the Town Council, was defeated for the mayoralty of that town by two votes, after nearly three hours' debate.

- At Grisolles (Tarn-et-Garonne) a Bordeaux-Cette train was derailed ; ten persons were killed and twenty injured.

10. It was announced that arrangements had been made for a direct steamship line between German and Dutch ports and Canada.

11. In the Radbod coal mine at Hamm, Westphalia, an explosion of firedamp caused the loss of 360 lives. A message of sympathy was received from President Fallières. Prince Eitel Friedrich, sent by the Kaiser to make inquiries, was received with angry demonstrations against the management.

12. Copyright Convention adopted by International Conference at Berlin. (See Foreign History, Chapter II.)

14. Death of Kwang-Hsu, Emperor of China, followed next day by that of the Dowager Empress, Tze-Hi. (See Foreign History, Chapter VI.)

- At Cambridge the Australian Rugby Football team beat Cambridge University by 11 points to 9.

16-20. The King and Queen of Sweden visited England. (See English History, Chapter VI.)

17. Solution of the “Chancellor crisis” in Germany. (See Foreign History, Chapter II.)

18. At Oxford, the Australian Rugby Football team beat Oxford University by 19 points to 3.

18. In Sicily and Southern Italy serious floods and landslips took place, involving considerable loss of life.

20. At Greenwich Parish Church, Field-Marshal Sir George White unveiled a memorial tablet to General Wolfe, placed on the wall immediately above his grave.

23. In the House of Lords, Earl Roberts made a speech declaring German invasion possible and demanding the provision of an adequate land force. (See English History, Chapter V.)

– The two largest portions of the Cullinan diamond, which had been divided in cutting, were placed in the Tower,

24. A meeting of Unionist Peers at Lansdowne House decided on the rejection of the Licensing Bill. (See English History, Chapter V.)

25. The Sardinia, a British steamer of the Papayanni-Ellerman line, was burnt off Malta just after leaving for Alexandria; about 150 lives were lost, chiefly of Arab pilgrims from Algiers to Mecca, but including the captain and several of the crew.

27. The Licensing Bill rejected by the House of Lords by 272 to 96.

28. Agreement announced between Japan and the United States to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, the independence and integrity of China, and the principle of equal commercial and industrial opportunity for all nations in that Empire.

- The Court of Appeal, in Osborne v. the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, decided that it was illegal for a Trade Union to provide for Parliamentary representation by means of a compulsory levy, even though its rules had been so altered as to permit it to do so. It was stated that the defendants would appeal to the House of Lords.

30. A matinee in memory of the great Italian tragic actress, Adelaide Ristori, was given at His Majesty's Theatre.

- At Oxford, under Rugby Union Football Rules, Oxford University beat Dublin University by 29 points to nil.

DECEMBER 1. At the bye-election for the Chelmsford Division of Essex, due to the resignation of Major Sir F. Carne Rasch (C.), Mr. E. G. Pretyman (U.) was returned by 6,152 votes, Mr. A. H. Dence (L.) receiving 3,587. As compared with the general election, the Unionist poll had increased by 1,237 and the Liberal decreased by 847.

- Mr. Balfour delivered his Presidential address at the annual meeting of the Labour Copartnership Association, dealing inter alia with its applicability to agriculture and its value as increasing the interest of the worker in his work.

- Admiral Sir G. H. Noel became Admiral of the Fleet, vice Admiral Sir J. G. Erskine retired.

2. The sixtieth anniversary of the accession of the Emperor of Austria was celebrated throughout Austria. At the illuminations on the previous evening in Vienna five persons were crushed and 106

injured in the crowd ; and at Prague, owing to German and Czech rioting, a state of siege was proclaimed.

3. In the German Reichstag, a debate began on various proposals for the amendment of the constitution.

– Dr. E. de Sélincourt, lecturer in modern literature at Oxford, elected Professor of English language and literature at Birmingham University vice Churton Collins deceased.

- The Report of the Select Committee on the Reform of the House of Lords was published. (See English History, Chapter V.)

- An “experimental election "intended to test the system of transferable votes gave satisfactory results, which were announced at the Caxton Hall, Westminster.

3-6. At Sotheby's, the first portion of Lord Amherst of Hackney's library was sold by auction. A Mazarin Bible brought 2,0501., a Dutch block-book 2,0001., and King Charles I.'s Bible 1,0001. A number of Caxtons were withdrawn and sold privately, it was stated, to Mr. Pierpoint Morgan.

4. Mr. Asquith announced the impending withdrawal of the Education Bill. (See English History, Chapter V.)

– The International Naval Conference to elucidate certain points in the maritime law of nations was opened at the Foreign Office by Sir Edward Grey.

- Lord Rosebery spoke on unemployment at Edinburgh, and at Leith on the possibility of an unprovoked German attempt at invasion, in which he expressed his disbelief.

- At the Central Criminal Court, after a six days' trial, six men and one woman, representatives of the Poplar Board of Guardians on the governing body of the Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum, were convicted of conspiring to defraud that body and of receiving gifts under the Corrupt Practices Act, and were sentenced to terms of imprisonment varying from three to twelve months, and disqualified for seven years from holding office.

5. Sir G. R. Le Hunte, Governor of South Australia, was announced as the new Governor of Trinidad and Tobago vice Sir H, M. Jackson deceased.

- At the Albert Hall, Mr. Lloyd-George addressed a meeting of the Women's Liberal Association to consider women's suffrage, and despite incessant interruption by militant suffragists succeeded in finishing his speech. (See English History, Chapter V.)

- The appointment was announced of Admiral Sir D. H. Bosanquet as Governor of South Australia vice Sir G. R. Le Hunte, appointed to Trinidad and Tobago.

- The celebration of the Tercentenary of the birth of John Milton began with a special meeting of the British Academy, at which a poem was read by Mr. George Meredith and addresses were given by Professor A. W. Ward and Sir F. Bridge, the latter accompanied with special performances of the incidental music to Comus. The subsequent celebration included a lecture by the Poet Laureate, a special service at Bow Church, Cheapside, a banquet at the Mansion House and a performance of Samson Agonistes.

7. In the Divorce Court, the President, Sir Gorell Barnes, gave judgment in favour of the petitioner in the case of Venugopal Chetti v. Venugopal Chetti. The petitioner, an Englishwoman, claimed a judicial separation from her husband, a district judge in India and a Hindu, on the ground of his desertion. The respondent pleaded that he was not lawfully married to the petitioner, being a Hindu domiciled in India, and asked that the marriage might be declared void. The decision affirmed the validity of marriages contracted in England with British subjects by foreigners or British subjects, even though domiciled abroad.

9. It was announced that the Nobel prize for Chemistry had been awarded to Professor G. Rutherford, Manchester University; for Physics to Professor G. Lipmann of Paris ; for Medicine, divided between Professor Metchnikoff (Paris) and Professor Ehrlich (Frankfort-onMain); for Literature to Professor Eucken of Jena.

10. The House of Lords dismissed with costs the appeal of lady graduates of St. Andrews University from a judgment of the Court of Session in Scotland that they were not entitled to vote in the election of a member of Parliament for the University. The appeal had been supported on November 10 and 12 by two lady graduates.

- Mr. Asquith and Mr. Balfour spoke at the Church House in support of the winter relief work of the Church Army.

11. Dinner to the Prime Minister at the National Liberal Club. (See English History, Chapter V.)

12. The Rugby Football Match between Oxford and Cambridge resulted in a draw, each side scoring a goal.

14. At a meeting of the General Council of King Edward's Hospital Fund, it was announced that the net receipts for the year to December 10 were 156,7451. ; 135,0001. was allotted among hospitals, and 5,0001. among convalescent homes.

15. At Liverpool Assizes, Messrs. Lever Brothers recovered 5001. damages from the Leeds Mercury for statements made in connection with the alleged “ Soap Trust.” (ANNUAL REGISTER, 1907, Chronicle, p. 23.)

- On the Wanganui River, N.Z., a sculling race between W. Webb, the sculling champion of the world, and R. Arnst, was won by Arnst by 12 lengths in 19 min. 51% sec. Both competitors were New Zealanders.

16. In Madison Square Garden, New York, a “ Marathon race" between Dorando Pietri and Thomas Longboat, a Canadian Indian, resulted in the collapse of Dorando during his 26th mile.-At Hastings, a “Marathon race” of about 25 miles was won by W. T. Clarke in 2 hrs. 37 mins. 16 sec. Four other competitors finished within 2 hrs. 41 mins. Several other long distance cross-country races took place about this time.

17. The Right Rev. Dr. Walsh, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, elected by the Senate Chancellor of the New Dublin University.

- The new Turkish Parliament opened by the Sultan. (See Foreign History, Chapter III.)

- It was announced that the Right Rev. W. M. Carter, D.D., Bishop of Pretoria, had been elected Archbishop of Capetown in the place of the late Archbishop Jones.

- A Private Bill was deposited providing for a working agreement under a joint Committee of the Great Northern, Great Central and Great Eastern Railway Companies, and for a division of the net earnings. -A provisional agreement for the working of the North London Railway by the London and North-Western was approved by the shareholders of the former company.

18. At Maldon, Frederick Cole, sen., a contractor and town councillor, and his son-in-law, Major Kitchen, were shot dead late at night by Frederick Cole, jun., who afterwards shot himself. Two other sons were charged with aiding and abetting in the murder, but the charges were withdrawn.

21. Parliament was prorogued.

22. The steamer Irada, from Galveston to Liverpool, went ashore near Mizen Head on the south coast of Ireland : four lives were lost, including the captain.

23. At the Headmasters' Conference a resolution was carried deprecating the study by the average boy of more than two languages besides English before attaining the age of 14. This and other resolu. tions tended to place Greek later in the scheme of education.

25. President Fallières assaulted in the Champs Elysées by a café waiter, Jean Mathis, an ante-Republican fanatic.

26. At Sydney, N.S.W., the boxing contest between Tommy Burns and Jack Johnson (an American negro) for the championship of the world was won by Johnson. The police stopped the fight as dangerous to Burns, and Johnson was declared winner on points. 18,000 persons were present.

- At Johannesburg, Mr. R. T. G. Walker won a 100 yards race in 93 sec., and a 120 yards race in 113 sec.—both records.

27-30. After an exceptionally mild season during which many flowers were in bloom at Kew and elsewhere, snow and sharp frost occurred throughout Great Britain and in France and Central Europe. On the 28th there was the heaviest snowfall since January, 1881. Traffic was disorganised, many sheep were lost, and trains in Scotland, Wales, and Yorkshire were snowed up. The 29th in London (max. 23:30 ; min. early on Dec. 30, 14:4°) was the coldest day though not the coldest night since January 4, 1867. A rapid thaw began in London early on the 31st.

28. At 5.20 a.m. the most destructive earthquake on record destroyed Messina and Reggio, and devastated an area about 100 miles in length in Southern Calabria. Much damage was done by tidal waves both in the Straits of Messina and at Catania and other places on the east coast of Sicily. The loss of life was estimated at 200,000.

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