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New York City. While Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, Senator Goldwater, and Governor Romney as well as a few others are ruminating as to their Presidential aspirations, intentions, or declarations, Symon Gould, the 1960 White House hopeful of the American Vegetarian Party has already announced his candidacy for that high office for 1964.
In particular, Mr. Gould takes issue with President Kennedy because of his uncertain approach to the racial crisis in view of the forthright position which the American Vegetarian Party has always taken with regard to the conditions surrounding the Negro citizen socially, economically, and as Americans deserving of every opportunity for self-development without any element of discrimination. Mr. Gould calls upon President Kennedy to take a firmer leadership in the crucial race situation which bids fair to increase in intensity and explosiveness and which calls for daily attention by every means of nationwide communication so that the understanding and support of the Nation as a whole may be enlisted before the situation gets out of hand. His European trip, Mr. Gould avers, should be canceled at this time while this condition affecting 10 percent of our population may boil over into revolution of some sort.
Mr. Gould is journeying to Barcelona on June 14 on the SS Saturnia to deliver the principal address at the annual International Vegetarian Congress which will be dedicated to world peace primarily. One of the main planks in the perennial platform of the American Vegetarian Party calls for the appointment in all the Cabinets and Ministries of governments, of a secretary of peace whose function would be to promote the ideal of peace among all nations. Such officials should not be diplomats or politicians but be selected from among the philosophers and humanists of each nation so that in their contacts and meetings, these secretaries of peace would foster a worldwide, global viewpoint rather than the narrow nationalistic concepts now in vogue and in conflict.
The vice presidential candidate on the American Vegetarian Party is Dr. Abraham Wolfson, aged 83, who is considered one of the finest examples of intellectual and physical specimens despite his octogenarian status, as attested by his writings, lecturing, and general civic activities. The headquarters of the American Vegetarian Party is 353 West 48th Street, New York City.
PLATFORM OF THE AMERICAN VEGETARIAN PARTY, 1960
For President: Symon Gould, New York City, N.Y.; for Vice President: Dr. Christopher Gian-Cursio, Miami Beach, Fla.
The philosophy of vegetarianism is synonymous with universal brotherhood and universal peace. Its fundamental principle of antikilling if internationally adopted would unconditionally eliminate wars. In furtherance of this antislaughter idea, vegetarians are opposed to the killing of animals for sustenance, sport, or style. Vegetarians contend that these barbaric practices in the name of "civilization” brutalize mankind and generates in human beings a blood-lust that ultimately finds its overall expression in annihilating fraticidal wars. Vegetarian ideals are rooted in an all-embracing reverence for all living entities. The pragmatic principles of vegetarianism are inspired by and directed by the inflexible laws of nature which mankind must and should accept as their guiding code and the eternal verities of existence on this planet. The American Vegetarian Party, emphasizes as it has for the past 12 years of its existence, that human beings must cease violating these natural laws to assure his continued presence which is now threatened by a hydrogen bomb holocaust in which as one eminent atomic authority predicts "none of us can count on having enough living to bury our dead." Nevertheless, despite this warning, missiles of intercontinental range are poised in all parts of the world awaiting a pushbutton signal ready to blot out civilization at the behest of little groups of willful men in high places motivated by material. istic, nationalistic, or ideological goals or concepts and embark on a campaign of global suicide. The American Vegetarian Party is unalterably opposed to such a contemplated cannibalistic sacrifice of youth on the fields of atomic warfare or mankind in cities and villages trapped by the inescapable effects of nuclear
weapons of destructive power which has increased more than a hundredfold in deadliness since the invention of the atom bomb. The happiness of the common man and the constant improvement of his living conditions should be the purpose of all governments and all their social and economic objectives should be subservient to man's natural needs.
The American Vegetarian Party supports and approves of all social concepts and projects which implement the program that is based on the humanitarian precept that no human being shall hunger, want for decent shelter or be without the simple necessities that will assure him and his family a normal, natural way of life. Vegetarians subscribe to the ethical principles that all natural resources upon which human life depend were intended for the equal use of all human beings in accord with their requirements. They should, therefore, be made available to them as equitable and rightful rewards for their proffered labor. The American Vegetarian Party maintains that the present maldistribution of resources in foodstuffs, clothing, housing which is witness to the fact that the greater part of the world's peoples suffer in varying degrees from tragic lacks in these categories of simple needs must continue to be a prime and ever-fruitful source of dissatisfactions with different types of government which discontent generates the hatreds that explode into civil strife, revolutions that eventually ripen into international conflicts. The social morality and economic corrective which would eliminate these unequal conditions that breed hostilities between classes of humans have been embodied in the humanitarian teachings and moral strictures of Buddha, Christ, Pythagoras, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Shelley, Tolstoy, Thoreau, Gandhi, Shaw, and others of equal eminence, all of whom are vegetarians with the exception of Jesus. In view of their viewpoints, it is high time that diplomats and political leaders should give way to philosophers and ethical guides if mankind is ever to reach a plane of living in amity with his fellow-beings which will confer upon him a dignified and decent place in the design of nature. Vegetarian agronomists have demonstrated that there is an abundance for all in the plenteous produce of this good earth if the vegetarian social concepts as enunciated by its exponents were incorporated as the fundamental procedures in national and international relationships and if peoples everywhere are permitted to fulfill their natural heritage in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in accord and concord with their simple needs and natural desires.
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS,
Boston, August 12, 1963. Hon. WARREN G. MAGNUSON, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
DEAR SENATOR MAGNUSON : Governor Peabody has asked me to reply to your letter requesting comment on public accommodations laws now in effect in Massachusetts; enclosed please find a statement which was solicited from and prepared by the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination.
I hope that this reply is not too late to be of some help to the committee or as background material for future deliberations. Very truly yours,
RICHARD L. BANKS, Secretary for Intergroup Affairs.
THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS,
Boston, July 22, 1963.
DEAR SIR : The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, the agency established by law to administer the Massachusetts public accommodation statutes, has as a result of research and its own personal knowledge, made the following evaluation at your request.
It is of the opinion based upon fact and historical experience that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is probably in the incontrovertible position of being best qualified to comment upon the efficacy of public accommodations legislation directed toward the elimination of discrimination because of race, color, religion, or national origin.
Variant with the current trend of many States toward adopting some form of such legislation the Commonwealth enacted a public accommodations statute in 1865 which imposed a fine of $50 for discrimination in any licensed inn, public place of amusement, public conveyance, or public meeting because of religion, color, or race.
A statute was enacted in 1933 which prohibited owners, proprietors and those in control of places of public accommodation from publicly displaying or advertising information which discriminated against anyone because of religious sect, creed, class, race, color, denomination, or nationality.
In 1950 legislation was enacted providing for the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, an administrative-adjudicative agency, to administer a law prohibiting the discrimination by places of public accommodations against persons because of their race, color, religion, or national origin. Amendment to this law in 1953 provided magnitudinous augmentation so as to cover nearly all places seeking public patronage.
The Massachusetts attorney general by an advisory opinion in 1959 added real estate agencies as places of public accommodation when he held wherein "'a place of public accommodation, resort or amusement within the meaning hereof (C. 272, S. 92A) shall be defined as and shall be deemed to include any place whether licensed or unlicensed, which is open to and accepts or solicits the patronage of the general public', real estate agencies fall within the statutory provision and come within the jurisdiction of the commission."
The commission has found in the administration of these public accommodations statutes and other civil rights legislation not cited hereinbefore that contrary to the arguments advanced by the adversaries, the experience of the Commonwealth has been one of complete encouragement and satisfaction. Every prophesy and reason advanced by the adversaries against such legislation have failed to materialize. There has been absolutely no racial strife nor incidents resulting from the enactment of these laws. There has been no loss of prestige or business, no injury nor detriment to the places of public accommodation.
More significantly this legislation has produced a healthier, more wholesome atmosphere within the Commonwealth. It has diminished fear, hate, suspicion, and belligerence that is directed toward and exercised against minority groups. It has afforded additional dignity and respect for all of us. It has promoted improved health, safety, and morality rather than the evils of racial strife, ghettos, slums, disease, increased crime, and the other festering maladies that evolve from discrimination and segregation. It has insured freedom of movement. It has put the State government in the sound constitutional position of protecting the rights of all rather than the gravely untenable and unconstitutional position of enforcing and perpetuating social systems and practices which make for the degradation of some citizens through the denial of their civil rights,
Inasmuch as unqualified equality is one of the cherished aims of the American philosophy and the Founding Fathers of this country, it is an integral and fundamental part of the American tradition, and has been from the incipiency of the Declaration of Independence, that every possible effort be exerted at all times to ascertain that such equality exist and endure in fact with regard to all citizens.
Massachusetts, the State possessing more civil right legislation than any other, has found the public accommodation legislation to be invaluable in providing the assurance of true democratic practice as well as principle. Therefore, the commission emphatically and unreservedly recommends similar legislation on a Federal level. Very truly yours,
OSWALD L. JORDAN, Acting Executive Secretary.
AN ACT CHANGING THE NAME OF THE “MASSACHUSETTS FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICE
COMMISSION" TO THE “MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST DISCRIMINATION" AND RELATIVE TO ITS POWERS AND DUTIES
Be it enacted, etc., as follows:
SECTION 1. Section 17 of chapter 6 of the General Laws, as most recently amended by section 1 of chapter 637 of the acts of 1948, is hereby further amended by striking out, in lines 12 and 13, the words “Massachusetts fair employment practice commission” and inserting in place thereof the words :—Massachusetts commission against discrimination.
SECTION 2. Section 56 of said chapter 6, as amended, is hereby further amended by striking out, in lines 2 and 3, as appearing in section 3 of chapter 368 of the acts of 1946, the words “Massachusetts Fair Employment Practice Commission” and inserting in place thereof the words :-Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination,—and by striking out the caption immediately preceding said section 56 and inserting in place thereof the following :-Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination.
SECTION 3. Chapter 272 of the General Laws is hereby amended by striking out section 98, as amended by chapter 138 of the acts of 1934, and inserting in place thereof the following :-Section 98. Whoever makes any distinction, discrimination or restriction on account of religion, color or race, except for good cause applicable alike to all persons of every religion, color and race, relative to the admission of any person to, or his treatment in, any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement, as defined in section ninety-two A of chapter two hundred and seventy-two, or whoever aids or incites such distinction, discrimination or restriction, shall be punished by a fine of not more than three hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, and shall forfeit to any person aggrieved thereby not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars; but such person so aggrieved shall not recover against more than one person by reason of any one act of distinction, discrimination or restriction. All persons shall have the right to the full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities and privileges of any place of public accommodation, resort or amusement, subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to all persons. This right is recognized and declared to be a civil right.
SECTION 4. Chapter 151B of the General Laws is hereby amended by striking out section 5, as appearing in section 4 of chapter 368 of the acts of 1946, and inserting in place thereof the following:Section 5. Any person claiming to be aggrieved by an alleged unlawful employment practice or alleged violation of cause (e) of section twenty-six FF of chapter one hundred and twenty-one or sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight of chapter two hundred and seventytwo may, by himself or his attorney, make, sign and file with the commission a verified complaint in writing which shall state the name and address of the person, employer, labor organization or employment agency alleged to have committed the unlawful employment practice complained of or the violation of said clause (e) of said section twenty-six FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninetyeight and which shall set forth the particulars thereof and contain such other information as may be required by the commission. The attorney general may, in like manner, make, sign and file such complaint. The commission, whenever it has reason to believe that any person has been or is engaging in an unlawful employment practice or violation of said clause (e) of said section twenty-six FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight, may issue such a complaint. Any employer whose employees, or some of them, refuse or threaten to refuse to co-operate with the provisions of this chapter, may file with the commission verified complaint asking for assistance by conciliation or other remedial action.
After the filing of any complaint, the chairman of the commission shall designate one of the commissioners to make, with the assistance of the commission's staff, prompt investigation in connection therewith; and if such commissioner shall determine after such investigation that probable cause exists for crediting the allegations of the complaint, he shall immediately endeavor to eliminate the unlawful employment practice complained of or the violation of said clause (e) of said section twenty-six FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight by conference, conciliation and persuasion. The members of the commission and its staff shall not disclose what has occurred in the course of such endeavors, provided that the commission may publish the facts in the case of any complaint
which has been dismissed, and the terms of conciliation when the complaint has been so disposed of. In case of failure so to eliminate such practice or violation, or in advance thereof if in his judgment circumstances so warrant, he may cause to be issued and served in the name of the commission, a written notice, together with a copy of such complaint, as the same may have been amended, requiring the person, employer, labor organization or employment agency named in such complaint, hereinafter referred to as respondent, to answer the charges of such complaint at a hearing before the commission, at a time and place to be specified in such notice. The place of any such hearing shall be the office of the commission or such other place as may be designated by it. The case in support of the complaint shall be presented before the commission by one of its attorneys or agents, and the commissioner who shall have previously made the investigation and caused the notice to be issued shall not participate in the hearing except as a witness, nor shall he participate in the deliberations of the commission in such case; and the aforesaid endeavors at conciliation shall not be received in evidence. The respondent may file a written verified answer to the complaint and appear at such hearing in person or otherwise, with or without counsel, and submit testimony. In the discretion of the commission, the complainant may be allowed to intervene and present testimony in person or by counsel. The commission or the complainant shall have the power reasonably and fairly to amend any complaint, and the respondent shall have like power to amend his answer. The commission shall not be bound by the strict rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law or equity. The testimony taken at the hearing shall be under oath and be transcribed at the request of any party. If, upon all the evidence at the hearing the commission shall find that a respondent has engaged in any unlawful employment practice as defined in section four or violation of said clause (e) of said section twenty-six FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight, the commission shall state its findings of fact and shall issue and cause to be served on such respondent an order requiring such respondent to cease and desist from such unlawful employment practice or violation of said clause (e) of said section twenty-six FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight and to take such affirmative action, including (but not limited to) hiring, reinstatement or upgrading of employees, with or without back pay, or restoration to membership in any respondent labor organization, as in the judgment of the commission, will effectuate the purposes of this chapter or of said clause (e) of said section twentysix FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight, and including a requirement for report of the manner of compliance. If, upon all the evidence, the commission shall find that a respondent has not engaged in any such unlawful employment practice or violation of said clause (e) of said section twenty-six FF or said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight, the commission shall state its findings of fact and shall issue and cause to be served on the complainant an order dismissing the said complaint as to such respondent. A copy of its order shall be delivered in all cases to the attorney general and such other public officers as the commission deems proper. The commission shall establish rules of practice to govern, expedite and effectuate the foregoing procedure and is own actions thereunder. Any compaint filed pursuant to this section must be so filed within six months after the alleged act of discrimination. The institution of proceedings under this section, or an order thereunder, shall not be a bar to proceedings under said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight, nor shall the institution of proceedings under said sections ninety-two A and ninety-eight, or a judgment thereunder, be a bar to proceedings under this section.
SECTION 5. Clause (e) 26FF of chapter 121 of the General Laws, as amended by chapter 51 of the acts of 1948, is hereby further amended by inserting after the word “discrimination”, in lines 2, 8 and 9, and 12, in each instance, the words :—or segregation,-so as to read as follows:-(e) There shall be no discrimination or segregation; provided, that if the number of qualified applicants for dwelling accommodations exceeds the dwelling units available, preference shall be given to inhabitants of the city or town in which the project is located, and to the families who occupied the dwellings eliminated by demolition, condemnation and effective closing as part of the project as far as is reasonably practicable without discrimination or segregation against persons living in other sub-standard areas within the same city or town. For all purposes of this chapter, no person shall, because of race, color, creed or religion, be subjected to any discrimination or segregation.
SECTION 6. Nothing in section one or two shall be deemed to affect the terms, powers and duties of any of the present members or employees of the Massachusetts fair employment practice commission.