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racter of the place has been described by George W. The lighter cements set more quickly than the Curtis in his Momes of American Authors, and by F. B. heavy ones, and the natural cements, of which RosenSanborn in his sketches of Emerson, Lowell

, and Tho- dale may be taken as a type, only bear in tension 40 reau. It is a quiet region, inhabited chiefly by farm- to 70 lbs. per sq. in. In mixing the cement for use in ers and professional men, on the banks of the Concord concrete, the best proportion of water is such as will River, and with Walden Pond and other small lakes make the mortar only moist, so as barely to cohere; near by.

the proportion will be about 1 of water to 4 of cement, Since 1878 the State prison for men, formerly at though English Portland may require a little more Charlestown, has been established in the western part water. Sand is always mixed with the cement for the of Concord, and about 800 of its present population are sake of economy and to prevent cracking; it lengthens the convicts, officers, and employés connected with the the period of setting and likewise diminishes the prison.

strength, in the proportion of one-half for an equal The town contains three churches—Unitarian and mixture, to one-fourth for a mixture of four of sand Trinitarian Congregationalist and Catholic-and two to one of cement. Ordinarily, in building, the natural chapels, one Episcopalian. The Hillside Chapel," cements, such as go by the name of Rosendale in the on the estate of Mr. Alcott, is used in the summer for market, are mixed with 1 to 14 part of sand, while the sessions of the “Concord School of Philosophy,"; Portland cement is mixed in the proportion of 2 to 3 which was opened in 1879, and in which lectures and parts of sand, the character of the work influencing conversations have been given by Emerson, Alcott

, Dr. the engineer in his decision of the ratio. The sand Jones, Dr. Harris, the late Prof. Peirce of Cambridge, and cement are mixed together dry with a shovel, and Pres. McCosh of Princeton, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, the water afterwards added. This is to obtain a Dr. R. G. Hazard, Mrs. E. D. Cheney, and others of thorough intermixture which would otherwise be diffithe Transcendental or the Hegelian schools in philoso- cult on account of the weight of the sand being less phy: The founder of this unique school (see ALCOTT) than that of an equal quantity of the cement, and, is Mr. A. Bronson Alcott of Connecticut, who has lived therefore, tending to float on top of it. The sand in Concord most of the time since 1840, and still flour- should be in coarse grains of unequal size, "pit' ishes there at a great age. His daughter, Miss Louisa being better than "bar" sand, if well washed. Alcott, is also a resident of Concord, and so is Prof. The best broken stone to use in the concrete is W. T. Harris, the chief Hegelian teacher in the School granite or basalt, or other hard rock, or brick-bats, of of Philosophy. Several eminent American journalists an irregular shape and not larger than a hen's egg, -Frederick Hudson, William S. Robinson, Robert and free from dust. It is spread out upon a platform Carter, C. C. Hazewell

, and F. B. Sanborn-have been of boards. If gravel is likewise used, it should be residents of Concord, and Hon. George F. Hoar, Sen- placed at the bottom and the broken stone on top, ator from Massachusetts, was born there, as were also and the layer should be from 8 to 12 in. thick. The his elder brother, E. R. Hoar, who was attorney-gen- mortar is then spread over it in the proportion, eral in Gen. Grant's first administration, and William usually, of one-half to two-thirds the broken stone, or Whiting, who wrote elaborately in favor of Pres. Lin. of the mixture with gravel. When gravel and broken coln's right to emancipate the slaves under the war- stone are used together, the gravel should be about powers of the Constitution. Concord was one of the one-half the bulk of the broken stone. All the macentres of anti-slavery opinion for twenty years before terials having been thus collected together, they are emancipation, and had been still earlier a focus of the mixed with shovels and hoes working from the outside Transcendental movement in New England. · See Al- to the centre and back again twice, by which time, if COTT, EMERSON, and THOREAU.

(F. B. s.) skilfully done, each stone will be covered with mortar, CONCRETE. This name is given to any mixture and the mixture is ready for use. When put in its of mortar with fragments of stone or gravel, though permanent place it should be well rammed, a good it is now generally limited to that made with hydraulic size of rammer being 4 ft. long, 8 in. in diameter at mortar, or mortar made with a hydraulic cement. the foot, with a lifting handle, and shod with iron. Certain limestones, when calcined, produce a natural It is let fall about six inches. - See BÉTON and AQUEhydraulic cement. As, however, the proportions DUCTS.

(T. M. C.) of the elements vary in different pieces of the same CONCUSSION. The word concussion, originally rock, it is much better, in order to obtain a uniform applied in surgical writings to certain symptoms of product, to use the so-called Portland cement, in which several ill-defined conditions of the brain or spinal the constituents are mechanically mixed in the proper marrow, supposed to follow severe injuries not accomproportions. This consists of a double silicate of lime panied with external evidence of actual lesions, has and alumina-about 60 parts of lime and 10 of alumina gradually been narrowed down until now it has come to 24 of silica, with 1 of magnesia and 2 of other to signify rather the injury itself than the phenomena alkalies, in a total of 100 parts. Carbonate and resulting from it. At present, although it is at the sulphate of lime should be especially excluded. best a misnomer, by concussion of the brain or spine This mixture should weigh 115 lbs. per bus., and the majority of surgeons mean that, in consequence of bear 250 lbs. per sq. in. in tension. It should a severe blow, or some similar injury, generally unatlikewise be ground sufficiently fine for 85 per cent. to tended with fractured bones, or with extensive wounds, pass through a sieve of 50 meshes to the inch. It one of the following four conditions of the nerve censhould feel rough, and be of a bluish-gray color, and tres has been produced : 1. A disturbance in the when immersed in water of a uniform temperature molecular relations of the nerve tissue, not demonfor six days should show no cracks, but should set in strable, of course, but aptly compared to the change from one to six hours. If mixed with lime it will not in the particles of a magnet which causes it to lose its get so hard under water. As a test of its quality, it power when forcibly struck by a hammer. 2. An exis recommended that blocks 1} in. sq. and 10 in. long, travasation of serum into the nerve structures, due, it supported on edges 94 in. apart, should bear 150 lbs. is thought, to a temporary vaso-motor, paralysis. 3. at the centre; if more than 1 out of 3 are broken Actual contusion or bruising of the brain or cord with within one minute, the cement should be rejected. In extravasation of blood. 4. Laceration or tearing of Germany the usual test is for blocks of 5 sq. centimeters the substance of the brain or cord. It would be better section to stand, under tension, 8 kilogrammes per to limit the use of the term concussion to the first of bq. centimeter; the blocks having been for 24 hours these conditions, to which alone it is strictly applicable. in the air and for 27 days in water. It is there also The symptoms of the second and third are due either specified that when the cement is passed through a to pressure, compression, or to subsequent inflammasieve of 900 meshes per sq. centímeter, not more tory changes ; of the fourth to the actual disorganizathan 25 per cent. shall be too large to go through. tion of nerve structures. They may, however, be de

VOL. II.-U

scribed under this head. Although in respect to slow, and should be favored by perfect tranquillity of symptoms the first and slightest of these four degrees body and mind. of injury is easily distinguishable from the last and Concussion affecting the spinal cord is probably gravest, the diagnosis of the exact amount of damage always associated with some lesion either of the nerve to nerve tissue and the differentiation of true concussion fibres or of the smaller blood vessels of the cord. from that surgical condition known as "shock" are by The physical conditions are very different from those no means easy. At the other extreme an equal diffi- existing in the skull. There we have a large, inelasculty is experienced in separating those cases of serous tic, nerve mass completely filling a dense hollow or hemorrhagic effusions, or of tearing of nerve struc- sphere, to which it is closely connected throughout. ture, which, on account of the absence of certain Under these circumstances we can understand how symptoms, such as coma and paralysis, are included force suddenly applied to the cranium may be transunder the head of concussion, from cases of true ferred to its contents, producing great temporary discompression of the brain. Remembering, however, turbance or disarrangement of their particles. But that the lines cannot be drawn too strictly we may de- the spinal cord hangs loosely in a canal extending scribe as follows the characteristic symptoms of these through a segmented and markedly flexible column, four classes of injury : 1. After a blow of medium being connected therewith only at the points—the interforce upon the cranium, or a fall from a height, a pa- vertebral foramina--where its membranes are contient on attempting to rise staggers and falls

, his skin tinuous with the sheaths of the spinal nerves. It is becomes cold and bedewed with a cold perspiration, he evident that an injury producing a violent general is confused, or possibly even insensible for a short time, shock is much more likely to inflict damage by conhis face is pale and shrunken, his pulse is feeble and cussion" upon the brain than upon the cord, and it is intermittent, his breathing sighing and interrupted. very doubtful whether the latter structure ever suffers After a few moments, or at the most a few hours, in precisely that way. reaction sets in ; vomiting, indicating a return of reflex The symptoms said to be characteristic of succussensibility, occurs, the face becomes warmer, the pulse sion or perturbation of the medulla spinalis

, without stronger, the mental symptoms gradually disappear, recognizable injury to its structure or membranes, or and the patient in a short time is entirely well. 2. to the spinal column, are numbness, formication, loss After an injury of greater severity, we have the above of power in the extremities, pallor of the face, general symptoms much intensified, especially as regards sen- weakness and depression, nausea and vomiting. These, sation and motion. The patient is oblivious to the ex- however, may all be due to the shock of the injury, to ternal world, and can be aroused with difficulty. He contusion of peripheral nerves, to disturbance of the lies motionless, or drawn up into a peculiar position, sympathetic ganglia, or to other causes independent of with the legs flexed on the thighs, and the thighs on the spine or its contents

. The secondary results said the abdomen, and obstinately resumes it if he is forcibly to follow such injuries are distinctly due to inflammastraightened. The same conditions of pulse, skin, tory or degenerative changes affecting either the cord and respiration prevail, only more markedly, and the or the membranes. The chain of causation has never duration of the attack is greater, often extending over been satisfactorily demonstrated. An individual who several days. 3. If the brain is contused over a very sustains a severe shaking-up during a railway collision, moderate area, or if the accompanying, extravasation or in some other manner, may develop, after an interof blood is small in amount, diffused instead of cir- val of apparent health varying from a few hours or cumscribed, or situated in certain regions, we may have, days to two or three months or even some years, a instead of the phenomena of compression usually seen certain group of symptoms referable to his cerebroin cases of hemorrhage into the brain substance or spinal system, and in all probability originating at the ventricles, simply those of cerebral irritation. The pa- time of his accident. There is no evidence, however, tient has muscular tremors or spasms, is morbidly tac- justifying the assumption that the original trouble in iturn or foolishly loquacious, sometimes actively de- such a case was simply an uncomplicated concuslirious. The temperature is apt to be elevated, the sion. By the time death occurs the changes found patient obstinately unconscious, the breathing noisy. would of course be those due to long existing disease. It is evident that a very slight increase of these symp- In the only carefully recorded case of the kind the toms would convert them into those of compression, signs of spinal meningitis and myelitis were found coma succeeding to stupor, stertor to mere loudness together with a condition of the posterior columns of breathing, paralysis to convulsions. 4. Laceration closely resembling that seen in progressive locomotor of the brain, if not followed at once by sufficient ataxia. hemorrhage to produce apoplectiform symptoms, is The general conclusions warranted by these facts are, characterized by great restlessness, wild delirium, with 1st, That there is no evidence that uncomplicated conmoans or shrieks, general convulsions, and finally by cussion of the spinal cord has taken place, while there the motor and sensory phenomena of general encepha- are good à priori reasons for doubting the possibility litis.

of its occurrence. In the treatment of all these conditions the first in- 2d, That the symptoms described as following raildication is to keep the patient quiet and at rest. way concussion of the spine probably originate in some Nearly all the dangers of these accidents from first to actual though slight involvement of the tissues of the last arise from consecutive inflammation, and every cord or of its membranes at the time of the accident, thing which might conduce to this should be sedulously but in their full development are certainly due to wellguarded against. Stimulants, therefore, even during recognized and by no means peculiar pathological the early stages, should be avoided. Where there is conditions. such profound depression as to threaten death, they The medico-legal importance of these latter cases, may be given in small doses-preferably, as spirits of upon which are often founded suits for damages, makes hartshorn or carbonate of ammonium—and should be them especially interesting. Among the earliest pheaccompanied by the application of external dry heat, nomena observed after the interval of apparent health by sinapisms, hot-water bottles, warm flannels, or a which has been alluded to is an alteration of the mancurrent of hot air conveyed beneath the bed-clothing. ners or temperament of the patient, who, whatever his After reaction has begun, cold to the head, absolute original disposition, is apt to become gloomy, morose, rest in a darkened room, sedatives such as bromide of and ungracious ; defective vision, hearing and speech potassium, a diet chiefly of milk and farinaceous arti- ensue; the sense of touch is affected, its delicacy being cles, attention to the various secretions, the use of small greatly destroyed ; muscular movements are irregular, doses of mercurials, or of an occasional purgative and the gait awkward or unsteady; paralysis of motion dose, and catheterism, if necessary, are the essentials and of sensation may supervene, or there may be tremor of treatment. Convalescence in the graver cases is associated with pricking, burning or tingling sensations. Emaciation, general paralysis, and death usually Conditions are also either precedent or subsequent. terminate the case.

A condition precedent is one which requires the perPassing from these cases to those in which some formance of some act before the estate or interest can definite spinal injury exists, we find that here even vest. Conditions precedent are said to be favored in more than in the brain it is difficult to dissociate the law. Conditions subsequent are such as upon their phenomena of so-called concussion and those of com- happening divest an estate or interest which has already pression or of inflammation. Just as in cases where vested. Conditions subsequent are not favored in law. serous or bloody exudation has taken place within the By the rules of the common law no person was entitled skull the symptoms of cerebral irritation pass insensibly to take advantage of the breach of a condition subseinto those of compression or of traumatic encephalitis, quent except the grantor and his heirs. If, however, so in spinal injuries the alteration of sensation and a limitation was annexed to an estate, a third party motion and the disturbance of function, sometimes could take advantage of it. Hence the origin of what connected with very slight exudations or trifling hem- are known in real-estate law as conditional limitations, orrhages, deepen into more or less extensive and pro- which are in substance conditions after the nature of found paralysis, or give rise to spasms or convulsions, limitations. dyspnoea, retention of urine, fecal incontinence, If a condition precedent be unlawful, and therefore priapism, and other symptoms of pressure upon or dis- void, the estate depending upon it can never vest, and organization of the spine. The fact that each segment is never entirely defeated. ff, on the contrary, a conof the cord is really a distinct nerve centre makes it dition subsequent be void, the estate, having once vestpossible to determine accurately in these cases the ed, can never thereafter be defeated. exact seat and area of the lesion involved. So, too, the Where performance of a condition was possible at the time of appearance and degree of severity of certain time of its creation, and afterwards through the act of symptoms, such as motor paralysis, afford valuable evi- God has become impossible, the law will excuse it. dence of the amount of involvement of the cord.

(L. L., JR.) If after a spinal injury complete paralysis comes on CONDONATION, in general language and someimmediately and persists, the

cord is probably divided times in legal proceedings, is used to indicate a forgiveor compressed by an extensive blood-clot or by a ness of almost any offence; but it is technically applied broken vertebra. If it is merely transitory.the con- in law to the forgiveness of only one or two particular dition has in all probability been one of slight hem- offences. In this sense it is a forgiveness of the orrhage into the substance of the cord. Such a case matrimonial offence of adultery or cruelty, known by might be described as one of simple “concussion," the party forgiving to have been committed, on the but the term, though convenient, is pianifestly in- condition that the party forgiven shall ever afterwards accurate.

conduct himself or herself properly in the marital reGradual paralysis, slowly advancing, is due either to lation. The word is usually employed in reference to continuous hemorrhage from a small vessel or to in- adultery and is best considered from that standpoint, flammatory extravasation. It sometimes slowly dis- though it is equally applicable to cruelty. When a appears. "If it does not, or if it increases, the inference husband or wife has been guilty of adultery, the party is that some progressive disorganization of the cord is offended against has generally the right to a divorce taking place and will finally cause death.

from the bonds of matrimony, on the ground that the The treatment of cases of spinal injury in which other party has failed to adhere to the obligations there is no paralysis consists in rigid confinement to entered into on the marriage. But this right may be bed, preferably in the prone position so as to favor the given up, if the party so wills, and the husband and gravitation of blood away from the back; the applica- wife may agree to live together again. In order to tion of ice-bags, hot poultices, or strong counter-irrita- constitute a condonation, however, it is not enough tion along the spine; careful attention to the bowels that the party offended shall merely make an offer of and bladder, the former being emptied by enemata, forgiveness, in case the offending party will return to and the latter, if necessary, by catheterization ; and the relation of man and wife, but the offer must have the administration of small doses of iodide of potassium been actually accepted and the marital relation reand mercury.

The patient should rest on a water established ; but it is not necessary that the parties bed, the skin should be kept scrupulously clean, and shall continue to live constantly together in that relathe parts exposed to pressure often bathed with as- tion; as to the husband, at least, it is enough if they tringents or with stimulating liniments. Where par: have once slept together. The mere fact of living toalysis exists, the supine position is preferable, and all gether in the same house of course creates a presumption these precautions must be even more rigidly observed. that the parties have resumed the marital relation, but

(J. W. w.) this presumption will be rebutted by showing that they CONDITION, in law, a clause in a contract or agree- have occupied different beds. It is considered in law ment which has for its object to suspend, rescind, or that, where the marital relation is so re-established, modify the principal obligation, or in case of a will to there is an implied condition annexed that the party suspend, revoke, or modify a devise or bequest. In forgiven shall in the future conduct himself properly real-estate law a condition is a qualification or restric- --with conjugal kindness in all respects—and, in case tion annexed to an estate, whereby it is provided that he or she fails to do so, the original offence is revived in case a particular event' does or does not happen, or and can be alleged as a ground for a divorce. And in case the grantor or grantee does or omits to do a par- this is not only so, if the adultery is committed again, ticular thing, the estate shall commence, be enlarged, the rule is much stronger and the party must in all be abridged, or be defeated.

ways behave himself in accordance with the duties of Conditions are of various kinds. They may be affirm- the relation. Even an offence which is cause only for ative or negative, copulative or disjunctive, consistent a divorce from bed and board has been held to be a or repugnant, express or implied; all of which are suf- reviver of an adultery which has been condoned; and ficiently defined by their names. Conditions may also comparatively slight cruelty will also give the right to be lawful or unlawful. A lawful condition is one which break off the condonation and reassert the first wrong. does not contravene public policy or the express pro- The rule as to cruelty especially is less severe against visions of a statute. An unlawful condition is such as the wife than the husband, owing to the greater diffiis forbidden by law. Unlawful conditions are-1, such culty for her to take the means of avoiding the cruelty. as require the performance of some act which is forbid. Condonation may be shown in other ways than by den by law or which is malum in se; 2, such as require continuing to live together in the relation of man and the omission of some act which the law requires to be wife; thus, the abandoning or long neglect of properformed; and 3, such as tend to encourage such acts ceedings instituted for a divorce, and perhaps mere or omissions.

words of forgiveness, are sufficient evidence that the party offended has condoned the offence. The subject Confectionery is usually classed among the luxuries, of condonation has not been largely the subject of but in the United States custom has rendered some legislation, and the doctrine remains generally as above forms of sweetmeats indispensable adjuncts to the fashstated; but its conditional quality has been abolished ionable dinner and lunch, thus placing them in the in a few of our States.

(w. M. M.) rank of articles of diet, and their use is becoming CONDOR. See CATHARTIDÆ.

common among all classes. Many causes have conCONEY ISLAND, a seaside resort in the vicinity tributed to this result, such as the custom of making of New York, is a narrow island, 5 miles long, in the gifts of boxes of candy at Christmas and other holiday Atlantic ocean, off the S. W. corner of Long Island. seasons, the multifarious forms which modern confecIt is included in the township of Gravesend, Kings tionery has assumed, the variety of materials introco., N. Y. Coney Island creek, a narrow strait winding duced into their composition, and the skill and attenthrough a salt marsh, separates the island from the tion devoted to the delicate task of flavoring them. mainland and connects Gravesend and Sheepshead They are thus made to conform with every taste and Bays. The island, according to old records, was once appetite. three separate islands, and at another time two; more Few industries have experienced more radical than a century ago it extended two miles farther than changes during the last thirty years. Up to the year at present, and is said to have abounded in foxes and 1851 boiled sweets were almost exclusively an English rabbits

. About 1800 it was used for farming and pas- specialty, and it was the novel display in this line of ture, and cedars were cut from it for building small the London confectione at the first International vessels. The first hotel was built in 1819. Two years Exhibition of that year, that led to their introduction later, during a violent storm, the tide rose to a height into other countries. The Germans appear to have never since equalled ; everything was swept away and been the first, or at least the foremost, to emulate the the island left almost level and perfectly barren. A example of their insular rivals, and so well did they turnpike road was constructed from Brooklyn to the improve the occasion that in the Exhibition in 1862 island in 1830, and later there was communication by two confectioners from across the Rhine created no a daily stage as well as by a steamboat to New York little surprise by their superior display of boiled sweets city. About 1865 a horse-carline was laid from and rock candies. The French artists in sugar have Brooklyn, and soon a steam railroad followed. But not developed any special skill in this branch, but have the island did not become a popular resort until 1874, devoted themselves assiduously and with surprising when the Prospect Park and Coney Island Railroad success to the manufacture of chocolate and sugar was opened, and capitalists did much to increase the bonbons, liqueurs, pastilles, and comfits, in all of which attractions of the place, especially the east end. Six they greatly excel. In the United States, less than steam railroads now run trains at frequent intervals forty years ago, confectionery, both as an art and a from Brooklyn and from various points on New York business, was in a very crude state. With few exBay and East River, where connection is made by boat ceptions, each confectioner was his own manufacturer, for New York city. Large iron steamboats also leave and his stock in trade was limited to the common New York every half-hour for the island. The Park varieties of stick candy, plain sugar-plums, sugared Commission of Brooklyn own 70 acres of land near seeds, and molasses candy. Candied fruit was only the centre of the island, with a frontage of 2750 feet made to order," and was sold at $2.50 per lb. All on the ocean, and an avenue 210

feet wide and 51 miles the fancy, goods were imported from France, chiefly long has been laid out from Prospect Park to the from Paris. In the more pretentious stores of those “Concourse on the island. Near the latter, two days the rear portion was fitted up as a saloon-parlor. large iron piers extend 1000 feet into the ocean, end- where cake and ice-cream, cold meats, tea and ing in 14 feet of water. The piers have a general coffee were supplied to customers. For parties, icewidth of 50 feet, but one is in part 85, and the other cream was served only in the form of plain pyramids, 125 feet wide. They are used for promenades, restau- the moulds being delivered in long, painted tin pails. rants, and popular concerts. Brighton Beach Hotel In the workshop, too, simplicity prevailed. The tools is five stories high and 450 feet long, and near it is a and utensils were of the most primitive style, such as race-course, which for five months of the year is used the hard candy kettle and brick furnace, the finger almost daily for horse-races. The Manhattan Beach gauge, the old mortar and pestle. Company own 500 acres of land, with an ocean frontage In all these respects there has been a complete revoof two miles. They have two large hotels, a marine lution. To the plain candies mentioned above have railway, and an elevated railway running to the centre succeeded the dragées, patées, nougats, pastilles, fonof the island. During the summer season the rail- dants, fruits au sucre and liqueurs sucrés of the modern roads carry over 2,000,000 passengers to Coney Isl- confectionery art, Chocolate occupies a prominent and, but few persons stay there more than a day at a place, and is produced on a very extensive scale and time.

manipulated into an endless variety of forms, giving CONFECTIONERY denotes a class of prepara- employment to hundreds of workmen, requiring special

tions in which sugar is a principal ingre- machinery and great skill in casting the subjects, glazSeeVol. VI. dient. It comprises all kinds of sugar ing and covering them. Among the most popular ed. (p. 256 candies, cream and fancy içes, compotes or types are figures of fruits, vegetables, spiders, and Edin. ed.). stewed fruits, fruit and animal jellies, etc. other smaller insects, made in moulds of hammered Two centuries

ago the art of making sweet sheet copper. Powdered sugar, beaten with the white preparations was for the most part confined to apoth-of eggs, also enters largely into confectionery, the comecaries and physicians, who used sugar and honey to position being stamped, or cast in moulds. The exmake nauseating medicines palatable, and pharma- cellence of these productions is largely due to mechanceutically, in making syrups, electuaries, etc. ; but the ical improvements in triturating, and grinding the preparation of conserves and the compounding of materials. In the class of goods known as nougats, drugs have now become distinct arts, though the sepa- the kernels of nuts, especially of almonds, are incrusted ration is not entirely complete, the drug trade being with honey. The patées and pastilles, also, are a dependent on the manufacturing confectioners for favorite specialty, and they call for great ingenuity and what are usually called medicated candies.. Of these skill in the intricate interlacing of the fruits, and in there are upward of a hundred varieties, chiefly in the the crystallizations. Preserved sugared fruits and form of drops and lozenges, and containing many of fruits in syrup are now important articles of diet, and the standard medicines. Thus we have cachou lozen- they include all the favorite products of the orchard, ges, quinine lozenges, anti-bilious lozenges, cough marmalades and jellies. Much attention is given to drops, bronchial troches, etc. These goods are manu- fruits in jellies and liqueurs sucrés, the latter being factured in very large quantities.

graded according to quality. The low grade has about 20 per cent. of sugar and glucose, and the same pro- the candy, the cake and ice-cream, the outside orders, portion of alcohol, the remainder being water. A and the restaurant or café. The latter is conducted on finer quality contains 40 per cent. of sugar and 30 per a more or less extended scale, the bill-of-fare often cent. of alcohol, and the highest grade 50 per cent of comprising fifty to sixty kinds of cake and twenty to pure sugar and 30 per cent. of alcohol. This class in- thirty varieties of ices. For party orders the latter cludes spirituous bitters, such as absinthe, elixir de are served up in plain and fancy bricks, in melon longue vie, vulneraire, etc., which have been brought moulds or other elaborate designs, with or without to great perfection in France, American confectioners fruit ices, colored and set in spun sugar. manifest their superiority chiefly in the manufacture As may be expected, competition among the trade of comfits, containing fruit essences, candied fruits, has led to numerous frauds and adulterations in mapreserves and jellies; in cocoanut cakes

, bars, biscuits, terials used, in order to cheapen production. Baking and paste, stick candies, caramels, gum drops, and powder, which is used in many kinds of confections, walnut candy. Most of the above are of American is often found to contain starch and alum. Ultraorigin. Comfits have been brought to great perfection marine is sometimes employed in adulterating sugar during the last ten years, owing to the introduction of and saccharine preparations, to offset the yellow machinery in their production. In the days of the old color of inferior grades of sugar ; cotton seed, walnut, copper pan, fifty, pounds of well-finished comfits or and chestnut oils are sold for olive oil. Oil of lemon, dragées were considered a full day's work, whilst at the as well as others, are adulterated with fixed oils and present time a skilled workman can superintend a alcohol, and sometimes with turpentine, the latter dozen revolving steam-pans, capable of turning out being difficult to detect on account of its similar comfrom three to four tons a week. The new system has position and specific gravity. Chocolate is often mixed not only cheapened production, but is much cleaner with starch, wheaten flour, and other articles, and gluthan the use of fire-heat, and is attended with less risk cose is made to do duty for sugar in making caramels. of fire. These advantages have thrown the manu- Gelatine and glue often find their way into gum goods, facture into few hands, who make this class of goods a especially those known as “A. B. goods," starch into specialty. The new comfit or dragée pans are made lozenges, lard into chocolate ; terra alba, or plaster of either to oscillate or revolve, both forms being equally Paris, is used in adulterating candies solely to increase suitable for the purpose. In the packing and wrap- their weight, and certain much more dangerous chemping of confections great taste is displayed, the style icals are sometimes used in coloring candies. The of boxes used being an important item in the make- most of the above-named adulterants are comparatively up of the bon-bons. The manufacture of boxes and harmless, and their introduction is mainly due to the other goods of this class is a separate industry, and of popular demand for cheap candies ; but certain coloring late years has grown into large proportions. Steam- matters are positively pernicious, and their use deserves appliances are in use in all large establishments, as the severest penalties. well as benches, containing six, eight, and even ten Sugar is the base of all confectionery, and it therefore machines, with rollers of various patterns, all set in ranks first in importance among the materials used by gear. Each of these machines is provided with a lever the trade. There are two kinds—namely, the natural and clutch wheel, so that one or all can be worked at product of the cane, sugar beet, maple tree, and a few once. Then there are machines for beating, kneading of the palms; and glucose, or grape sugar, which, as and mixing materials ;,. for cutting, chopping, and known to commerce, is artificially produced from slicing; for grinding, rolling, and grating ; ice-crushers, starch by the action of sulphuric acid.“ Glucose is uncream-freezers, corking machines for bottling fruit doubtedly destined at no distant day to become a juices and preserves, revolving ovens, steam-kettles, prime factor in the confectioner's economy. Glucose the saccharometer for testing sugar, etc., etc. These differs from cane sugar in not being readily crystallizcontrivances effect a vast economy in time and labor, able, and also in the smaller yield of sweetness. Its as compared with the old methods. Twenty years great value in the confectionery art consists in the fact ago, for instance, it was quite an exploit to cut a seven- that when added in the proportion of seven to ten per pound boil of acid drops with scissors and round and cent. to cane sugar, and boiled with it, it destroys the press them flat in half an hour, whilst with the machine tendency of the latter to return to the crystallized now in use a boy can do the same work and turn out form ; in other words, it removes the grain, and thus the goods in better shape in five minutes. These im- dispenses with the employment of cream of tartar or provements cover all the details of the laboratory, acids for this purpose. On this account it is extenexcept where hand-work is indispensable to the quality sively used in the manufacture of "A. B. gum goods,' of the goods, and have completely revolutionized the lozenges, " kisses,” cocoanut preparations, and creams. business. The quality of standard goods is greatly It also gives to cream and pulled candy a certain waximproved, necessitating corresponding changes in clas- iness—a desirable quality and adds to the keeping sification. Articles which a few years ago were im- properties of caramels, cough candies, and clear fruit ported from Paris or Vienna are now manufactured drops, all of which have a tendency to become sticky here in excess of the home demand, and are being ex- when exposed to the air. Though its introduction ported to London and to Central and South America. has encountered much opposition, on the ground that Even ornamental work which a few years ago was pre- it is an unhealthy adulterant, it is now conceded by pared only by Parisian confectioners has become a competent chemists to be harmless and even nutritive; home industry, the importations being mostly confined whilst in making confections of the class referred to to samples. In pastillage work there are at least two above it is decidedly an advantage when not used to hundred hands employed in the United States, chiefly the comparative exclusion of cane sugar. American in New York and Philadelphia. The product is glucose is made from corn, and has been greatly imshipped to all parts of the United States and the proved of late by being thoroughly freed from the British Provinces.

sulphuric acid with which it is prepared. In Europe In the management of the mercantile parts of the there are some ninety glucose factories, but there it is business the same progress is everywhere perceptible. produced from potatoes. That manufactured in Stately warehouses, filled with an almost endless France stands higher in the market on account of its variety of goods, and crowded manufactories attest being freer from acid; but it does not appear to posthe magnitude of the wholesale branch of the busi- sess any more sweetening power than the products of ness, whilst handsome retail stores, with their bewil- the United States or of Germany. On the other dering display of confections in every conceivable style hand American glucose has the advantage of being and form, give equal evidence of the increased popular fifty per cent. cheaper. demand. The retail branch, in the leading establish- One of the first requisites in the successful producments, is usually divided into four departments, viz. : |tion of confectionery on a large scale is a knowledge

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