Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors][ocr errors]

aspect of affairs. Gen. Wood, on the right centre, being explicitly directed to close up to the left on Reynolds, did so, and thus unwittingly left a gap in the Union front, which Longstreet was not slow to perceive. Into this he poured his troops, rolling up the Union right and centre, sending both flying toward Chattanooga and lossville. Thus Thomas seemed left to his fate, with no possibility of success; and if Thomas were routed, no one could estimate the disaster of the broken army in flight across the Tennessee and void of all elements of reorganization. But help was at hand. The first unlooked-for aid came in the form of Sheridan's division, which, held firmly in hand amid the flying troops, joined the right of Thomas with a defiant front to the enemy, and checked the flank movement. Upon Thomas, thus reinforced, the brunt of a new and more vigorous attack fell; he stood like a rock, and received, as he deserved, the appellation “The Rock of Chickamauga." With the rapid dispersion of the right and centre McCook and Crittenden had been swept along in the tide of flight, and with them Rosecrans and his staff. Thomas was left to command the field. Far to the rear, disengaging himself from the fugitives, Rosecrans found himself with his chief of staff, Gen. J. A. Garfield, at a crossing of roads, one of which led to Thomas's position and another to Chattanooga. They could still |. the heavy firing. Hoping against hope that Thomas might still hold out, the i. general sent Garfield to join him or to bring tidings of him, while in person he set out for Chattanooga to make the best arrangements for holding it at all hazards. Meantime, heroic Thomas, slowly falling back to better ground, had been able to repel every attack. In his last position his troops were drawn up in a line curved slightly inward, with its flanks resting upon spurs or slight elevations of Missionary Ridge. Polk was still pounding on his left, and Longstreet, on his right. Again there came a critical moment. Another slight opening was made in the Union right, upon which ngstreet rushed as before. But Gordon Granger sent his reserves immediately to reinforce the weak point; the enemy were driven back in confusion, and thus ended their last charge. Again night came down upon the scene of carnage; the firing ceased. Thomas fell back slowly and in good order to Rossville, leaving, indeed, his dead and wounded on the field, but capturing 500 prisoners in retiring. The next morning, in his new position, he confronted Bragg and offered him battle. The offer was not j, although he remained in position throughout the day. On the following night he joined the rest of the army in Chattanooga. It does not appear why #. when urged, by his generals, did not continue the fight on the of. of the 20th, when there was a brilliant moon and Thomas's tenacity had been tried to the utmost. It is difficult to characterize this battle. To the Union army, as a whole, it was a great disaster, but to Gen. Thomas it was a victory. In technical terms, the Confederate army had won a victory, but they had lost Chattanooga. secrans was there fortifying it, so that it could only be retaken, if at all, by a painful siege. The Union losses were in all 16,351 men and ns. Unnecessarily great as they seem, they were fi, too great to pay for the prize gained and kept. The Confederate losses, according to Bragg's report, equalled two-fifths of his entire force. On the 16th of October, Rosecrans was relieved from the command of the Army of the Cumberland, which was given to Thomas. On the same day Gen. Grant was placed in command of the Departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, and the Tennessee, all constituting the Military Division of the Mississippi. On the 23d he was at Chattanooga with the mission, to defeat Bragg, who was now !. the town, and to render that stronghold impregnable. See CHATTAwoogA, BATTLE OF. (H. C.)

CHICKASAW INDIANS-CHICOPEE.

CHICKASAW INDIANS, a tribe of North Amerisee vol. v. “” aborigines belonging to the stock known p. 533 Am... as Appalachian, and j in language and #!” ... traditions with the Choctaws and Musco* * gees, or Creeks. Their language is, in fact, only a marked dialect of the Choctaw tongue. Soto visited their town of Chicaca in 1540. In colonial times they were seated in what is now the northern part of Mississippi, their country at one time reachin north to the Ohio River. They were, as usual § lmdians, divided into clans, or gentes. They had a king, or mico, besides inferior chiefs. They were often at war with the French colonists, but were almost constantly friends of the English. The formal cession of parts of their country to the whites began in 1805, and somewhat earlier than this the people had begun to remove across the Mississippi, looking for better huntinggrounds. The final cession of their lands took place in 1834. From 1837 to 1855 they were settled with the Choctaws, and formed a part of that nation. But, though they had a large money-annuity from the United States, they did not prosper. Since 1855 they have had a separate tribal organization, and have done much better. Being slaveholders, they sided with the South in the war of 1861–65, and, in consequence, lost a large part of their surplus lands and had their government annuity very greatly reduced, much to their real advantage. The Chickasaws in 1882 were reported to number 6000. They have 7267 square miles of good land. Their country lies west .. the Choctaw nation, with which it has a certain alliance; but the Chickasaws are self-governing, having laws and a system of administration based upon that of the various States. Their country lies on the Red River, which divides it from Texas on the south. The tribe is, for its numbers, the most wealthy in the Indian Territory. This wealth has come partly from the practice of hiring white laborers, artly from their former great funds and annuities, partly Tom their rich soil, and latterly from the facilities afforded by the railway which crosses their lands and has caused the o of coal-mines, the latter affording a revenue to the tribe. The Chickasaws have repeatedly asked for a distribution of their lands in severalty, but Choctaw influence has thus far prevented it. The Chickasaws have good schools, including four academies and an orphan asylum. Most of the people can speak English, and a large number are communicants in Christian churches. There are many freedmen among them, who are well treated, but are not adopted as members of the tribe. These negroes are regarded as United States citizens, and their schools are sustained by the United States government. CHICO, the largest town of Butte co., Cal., is on Chico Creek, 5 miles E. of the Sacramento River and 95 miles N. of Sacramento, on the California and Oregon Railroad. Though laid out in 1860, improvements scarcely began till 1869, owing to the previous uncertainty of title in lands covered by the Spanish grants. Since that time it has io rapidly, the country around being noted for its beauty, fertility, and salubrity. Large quantities of lumber from the lower hills of the Sierra Nevada are shipped to San Francisco by boat and rail. Chico was incorporated in 1872, and now has gas-works, water-works, and a park. It has three large hotels, two banks, three daily newspapers, four churches, three public schools, an emy, a foundry, two grist-mills, two planing-mills, a sash-anddoor factory, carriage-factories, a fruit-canning factory, and some minor works. Population, 3300. CHICOPEE, a town of '...io, in Ham den county, 4 miles north of Springfield. It is on the Chicopee River, near its junction with the Connecticut River; also on the Connecticut River Railroad, at the junction of the branch, which extends two miles to hicopee Falls, a village which is under the same town government. Both villages are supplied with waterpower by the Chicopee River. There are very extensive manufactures of cotton goods, farm-implements per, alpacas, locks, cutlery, machinery, brass an ronze castings, firearms, and other goods. The public school system is well organized and efficient. The town has several churches and schools, a national bank, two savings-banks, a convent, and Catholic parish schools. Population, 11,286. CHICORY has been naturalized in various parts see vol. v. of the United States. . It came originally p. 531 Am. from the East—probably from Asia; and #ho Pliny mentions o it was cultivated in " Egypt. It seems to be a wayside companion of man in his migrations. According to Dodonaeus, the eminent German botanist of the sixteenth century, its German name ( Wegwart) is due to this fact. In Europe its flowers are usually described as blue, but in the United States the white-flowered variety is nearly as common as the other. Near Philadelphia its flowers open about 9 A. M. and close at noon. Its frequency in the vicinity of Philadelphia is ascribed to its cultivation by the early settlers of Germantown and their descendants, though now it is regarded only as a weed. It was cultivated as a salad and for its supposed medicinal virtues, especially in case of ague. ithin the past century it has been chiefly used as an adulterant for coffee, but sometimes as an entire substitute. What is used for this purpose is grown to a small extent in the older parts of the United States, but is chiefly imported from Europe. When mixed with coffee it modifies the stimulating effect, but in excess it acts as a diuretic. In. 1882, although there was a duty of two cents per pound on chicory, while coffee was free, 1905 tons of chicory was imported into the United States. Even chicory, however, is sometimes adulterated, carrots and various barks being used for this purpose. The analysis of chicory shows the following constituents: Water, 9.09; mineral salts, 4.20; soluble extractive substances, 41.29; soluble gummy resinous substances, 5.22; dextrine,6. 12; saccharine matter, 11.36; cellulose, 19.40; caramel, 2.10; carbon, 1.18; empyreumatic oils, 0.04. In Europe chicory has found some favor as a forage§. In the early part of this century it was introuced into the Southern States as such, but it afterward fell into disuse. It may yet found serviceable in the drier parts of this country, as cattle are fond of the herbage and its long roots enable it successfully to resist periods of drought. Arthur Young, the English agriculturist, in the latter part of the last century cultivated it largely for feeding purposes. It was found to start into growth under a very low temperature, making seven inches in three weeks, and to afford three or four cuttings a year. It is superior in Fo to lucerne, and even to the alfalfa of the acific Slope. In the first year after sowing Young obtained 19 tons 4 cwt., per acre at two cuttings, and in the second year 38 tons 9 cwt., and the same field in four years gave an annual average of 30 tons per acre. The objection to it as a hay-plant in England seems to have been the difficulty y | sing its succulent roots in that moist climate—an objection which would be entirely removed in the arid portions of the United States. Some experiments in its cultivation have been made by German farmers in San Joaquin county, California, and about 400 acres are grown there. In good years an acre is said to furnish $300 profit, the root, when dried and ready for market, being worth $200 a ton. (T. M. CHIGI, FLAVIo, an Italian cardinal, born at Rome May 31, 1810, of an illustrious family, being a brother of the prince Chigi-Albani. In 1848 he became an officer of the pope's noble guard. In 1856 he was made titular archbishop of Mira, and went to Moscow as papal representative at the coronation of the czar Alexander II. e was afterward apostolic nuncio in Bavaria. and from 1861 to 1873 was nuncio in Paris. In that year he was recalled and made a cardinal

H. He is also archpriest of the patriarchal archasilica of the Lateran, a grand prior of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, Latin secretary to Pope Leo XIII., and a secretary of memorials, being one of the palatine cardinals. The Chigi family of Roman princes is an offshoot of the Sienese house of the same name. Pope Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi, 1599–1667) planted the Roman branch of the family tree and greatly increased that vast wealth which built the o Chigi palace and established the noble Chigi library; , The resent head of the house, Prince Mario Chigi-Albani, orn Nov. 1, 1832, succeeded to his titles in 1877; is hereditary marshal of the Church and guardian of the conclave. CHILD, SIR. Josiah, BART. (1630–1699), an English economist, born in London in 1630. He became an eminent merchant and chairman of the East India Company, and was made a baronet by Charles II. His son was the first earl of Tylney. Among his works are A New Discourse of Trade (1690; often reprinted); The East India Trade the most National of all Foreign Trades (1681); Observations concerning Trade and the Interest of Money (1668; subsequently expanded into the “New Discourse,” above noticed); The Interest of England Considered (1694); The Relief and Employment of Poor, etc. He died in London in 1699. He counselled a reduction of the rate of interest to four per cent., the prohibition of the export of wool, the transportation of paupers to the colonies, and reciprocity with those countries which o English goods and sold to England raw materials. CHILD, IlypIA MARIA (1802–1880), an American authoress, was born at Medford, Mass., 'Feb. 11, 1802. Her father, David Francis, was a baker, and removed to Maine while she was a child. Here, as she grew up, she studied with her brother, Rev. Convers Francis, a Unitarian minister, who afterwards became a professor in Cambridge Theological School. In 1824, upon reading an article by Rev. Dr. J. G. Palfrey in which he suggested early New England history as a proper field for a novelist, she rapidly wrote off a chapter, and when this was highly commended by her brother, continued until in six weeks she had completed Hobomok, an Indian Story. In the following year she published The Rebels, a story of the American Revolution. Prominent historical characters are introduced, and the speeches attributed to them have often been quoted as genuine. In 1826 she commenced The Juvenile Miscellany, a monthly magazine, which she edited for eight years. In October, 1828, she was married to Mr. David L. Child, a lawyer of Boston, noted for the boldness with which he denounced social wrongs. She published a book on domestic economy and cookery, called the American Frual Housewife, which has gone through many editions. ording her attention to education, she prepared The Mother's Book, 1831, and The Girl's Own Book, 1832. These were followed by lives of several eminent women, as Madame de Staël, Lady Russell, Madame Guyon. To these she afterwards added Biographies of Good Wives, 1846, and History of the Condition of Women in All Ages and Nations, 1845. When the anti-slavery agitation began, Mrs. Child became interested in the movement, and published An Appeal in Behalf of that Class of Americans called Africans, in which, she advocated immediate emancipation. This was followed at various times by other anti-slavery writings. In 1841 she and her husband removed to New York to become editors of the National Anti-Slavery Standard. While there she also wrote a series of letters to the Boston Courier, treating of every-day life in the metropolis and its vicinity, which were afterwards gathered into two volumes under the title Letters from New York. They were reprinted in London, and are superior in interest to most of her writings. In 1836 she published Philothea, a classical romance of the times of Pericles and Aspasia, which has been highly praised for its altistic o of a bygone age. In 1853 she published the Life of Isaac T. Hopper, a noted Quaker of Philadelphia who was prominent in his opposition to slavery. It was published in but a small edition, and, becoming very scarce, was reprinted in 1882. A translation of it was published in Germany. It is one of the best biographies in the language. In 1859, having written a letter of sympathy to John Brown, the emancipator, she became involved in a controversy with some iadies of Virginia, and her letters were extensively circulated. In the Progress of Religious Ideas, published in 1855, she treats at length the various religions of the human race; and though her work

ives evidence of a wide range of reading, it also shows that she was unable to weigh the authorities for her statements, as many of them are incorrect and misleading. In 1864 she published Looking towards Sunset, and in 1867. The Romance of the Republic. In 1865 she prepared a compilation called the Freedman's Book as a help in the education of the emancipated negroes. She also gave liberally for the support of schools among them, as she had formerly done during the war for the relief of the soldiers. She died at Wavland, Mass., Oct. 2), 1880.

CHILDERS, Hugh CULLING EARDLEY, a British statesman, was born in London, June 25, 1827, being the only son of Rev. Eardley Childers of Cantley, Yorkshire. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating in 1850. After his marriage, in the same year, he went with his wife to Australia, where in 1851 he became a member of the newly-established government of Victoria. He held in succession charge of the education, immigration, revenue, and finance departments, and displayed in them all remarkable administrative ability. e retained his seat in the executive council for six years, and for two years (1856– 57) was the representative of Portland in the Legislative Assembly. He then returned to England as agent-general for the colony, and took part in various commercial enterprises. He also studied law at Lincoln's Inn, but was not called to the bar. After an unsuccessful attempt to enter Parliament in 1859, he was elected as Liberal from Pontefract in 1860, and has since continued to represent that district. His large experience in public affairs led to his appointment on many important committees and royal cominissions.

He thus was called to investigate transportation, penal servitude, law courts, and other matters, and his views have since been embodied in statutes. In April, 1864, he was ...! by Lord Palmerston one of the lords of the admiralty. In the next year he was transferred to the position of financial secretary of the treasury, which office he held till the close of that administration, in June, 1866. His activity was by no means confined to his official and parliamentary duties. Besides attending to his commercial enterprises, he found time to write some vigorous pamphlets on national education and other questions of the day. In December, 1868, he entered Mr. Gladstone's cabinet as first lord of the admiralty, but in March, 1871, resigned this position on account of ill-health. During his tenure of office he had effected important changes the tendency of which was to increase the power of the first lord of the admiralty, while rendering the departmental officers individually more responsible. In August, 1872, Mr. Childers was appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and his re-election for Pontefract on this occasion is memorable as being the first parliamentary election by ballot in England. A year later, when Mr. Gladstone's cabinet was reconstructed, Mr. Childers retired; but in April, 1880, when the Liberals, after an interval of six years, returned to power, he was appointed secretary of state for war. In December, 1882, Mr. Gladstone felt obliged to relinquish part of his onerous duties, and Mr. Childers was called to succeed him as chancellor of the exchequer.

CHILI (Spanish Chile), a republic of South Amersee vol. v. ica which occupies the narrow strip of counp. 535 Am, try lying between the Andes and the Pacific §l,(P." Ocean, and extending from the Camarones * River, in 19°12' 30’’ S. lat., to Cape Horn, in lat. 55° 59'. Peru in 1883 ceded the province of Tarapacá to Chili, at the same time assigning two other rovinces for ten years, at the end of which time a ocal popular vote is to decide the question as to whether the two provinces N. of Tarapacá are to Chilian or Peruvian. The boundary treaty made with the Argentine Republic Oct. 22, 1881, terminated a long controversy between the two countries, and gave to čič the greater part of the Terra del Fuego islands and all the Straits of Magellan. The new boundaryline takes Cape Virgen on the Atlantic (Dungeness Point) for its starting-point, running directly south to the ocean and west to the summit of Mount Aymon, thence along the northern shore of the Straits of Magellan to where it, intercepts the 52d parallel, of latitude in long. 70° W. Thence the line follows the summit of the Andes to the north-western extremity of the Argentine Republic. In June, 1882, the Chilian administration submitted to Congress a bill making the Camarones River the boundary, thus annexing the rich Peruvian province of Tarapacá and all the sea-coast of Bolivia, which formerly extended from the 24th arallel N. to the Loa River, which separated Bolivia rom Peru. The area of Chili, with the additional territory now annexed, is about 300,000 square miles. Population.—The population of Chili, according to the last census (1875), as given by Mr. Asta-Burnaga, without taking into account the 40,000 Indians, was

2,075,971. Classified by civil state, it is as follows:

Unmarried, Males, 725,389 Females, 690,469 Married, 44 278,013 44 276,948 Widowers, 30,572 Widows, 74,580 By grade of instruction, as follows (children included): Males. Females. Able to read..................... 270,908 206,413 4. “ and write....... 244,985 176.162 Not able to read or write... 518,081 659,422 By nationalities, as follows: Males. Females. Total. Germans.......... -------------- 3,143 1,535 4,678 Argentines..................... 4,560 2,623 7,183 Spaniards....................... 1,102 121 1,223 French........................... 2,408 906 3,314 English.... 3,459 808 4,267 Italians 1,725 259 1.984 North Americans. -- 821 110 931 Peruvians....................... 470 261 831 From other South American countries............... 470 209 679 From other European countries..................... 1,211 199 1,410 From Asiatic countries.... 132. 4 136 Total foreign-born..... 19,500 7,135 26,635

“ native-born...... 1,014,474 1,034,862 2,049,336

Grand total........... 1,033,974 1,041,997 2,075,971

Population, Jan. 1, 1880.

Provinces AND TERRITORIES. ill. -

Male. | Female. || Total.

Territory of Magellan, from lat. 47° to Cape Horn......... 57,761 746 505 1,251 Chiloe Islands and conti

nent, to lat. 47 38,567 34,341 35,482. 69,823 Llanquihue. 7,810 27,718, 25.782 53,500 Valdivia .... 7,521 17,669] 16,689| 34,358 Arauco. ....... ...... 8,085 ,550 26,469. 36,019 Territory of Angol. 2,117 12,084 10,484 ,568 Biobío...... 4,146 41,808 - 80,617 Concepci 3.382 82,782 84,079; 166,861 Nuble 3,362 7,380 67,459 134,847 Maule 2,771 60,576 63,512; 124,088 Lináres § ol of ; Talca.... 3,477 56,089 57.1: 113,605 Curicó.. 2,754 .50,635. 53,010 103,645 Calchagua 3'588 74.927| 77,700 isoo; Santiago .. 7,323 188,574] 198,537 387,081 Valparaiso 1,504 90,138 89,949. 180,087 Aconcagu 5,886 65,230|| 68,698. 133,928 Coquimbo 12,307 81,315, 83,250 164,565; Atacama...... ... 48,409 42,122 32,700 74,831. Total.................... |224,068 (1,089,400 1,094,034 2,183,434

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

The annual increase of population being about 20,000, the total Dec. 31, 1882, should have been 2,243,434, though the actual population is probably somewhat er. The total area between 24° and 44° of latitude being .129,721 square miles, the medium density is 17-26 inhabitants d". square mile. The Government has appropriated $200,000 annually to encourage foreign immigration. A like attempt some years earlier roved very fortunate in the German colonies of Walivia, Llanquihue, and Osorno. Outside the colonies and the newly-acquired territory there are 41 cities, 78 corporate towns, 186 villages, 83 hamlets, and 35 ports. There are 17 provinces, 60 departments, 682 sub-delegations, and 2738 districts. The following are the approximate populations of the principal cities: Santiago, the capital, 180,000; Valparaiso, the principal port, 110,000; Talca, 21,000; Concepcion, 20,000; Serena, 14,000; Copiapó, 12,000; Iquique, 9000; Antofogasta, 7000: two-thirds of the people live in the rural districts. The newly-acquired territories are estimated to have something over 60,000 inhabitants, as follows: Antofogasta (Bolivian and foreign), 19.500; Tarapacá (Peruvian and foreign), 42,000. Tempered continually in its whole extent by oceanbreezes, shut in by high mountain-barriers from the contagious diseases of other countries, occupying the healthiest of zones, and having abundant means of suprt and all natural resources for hygiene, Chili ought to {. the most healthful of lands. But the natural indolence of a large part of the people, the extreme poverty of the masses, and the lack of local precautions neutralize to a great extent these natural advantages. The great mortality among nursing children and the prevalence of small-pox give evidence of this. In Chili only the strongest constitutions attain to manhood and old age; hence there is a notable absence of invalids. The vigor and strength of her laborers, soldiers, and sailors are remarkable. The republic is intensely unified. This national cohesion is attributable in part to the nature of the territory. There are four entirely distinct powers of government: the executive, invested in a president; the legislative, invested in a national Congress comised of an upper and lower house; the judicial, invested in the various judges of the courts; and the municipal. The president is elected every five years by the people, and since 1871 is not capable of re-election except after an interval of at least one term. He has five ministers or secretaries, and is supported by a council of state composed of eleven members, five of whom are named by the president himself under certain regulations, and the other six are elected by Congress. They hold office for three years. The salary of the president is $18,000 a year. He has also the privilege of residing in the treasury building. The salary of the ministers is $6000 a year. The members of the council of state give their services gratuitously, and are of little consequence, because of the excessive power given to the president. The provinces are governed by intendentes, named by the president and removed at his will. Their salary is $4000 a year, with residences. The departments are presided over by governors, named in the same way. The governors are of three classes, according to the salary, which varies from $1000 to $2500. The sub-delegations are presided over by sub-delegates appointed by the governors, and the districts by inspectors appointed by the sub-delegates. The national Congress is composed of two houses, and its members are elected every three years. The senate has 37 members, elected by the provinces, and the house of deputies 108 members, elected by the departments. They give their services gratis, and since 1876 the deputies are elected by the system of cumulative voting devised by John Stuart Mill. The judicial power is vested in #. supreme court composed of six members resident in Santiago, who have no political functions. In 1881 a law was passed declaring the incompatibility of the

judicial and legislative functions. The supreme court is occupied chiefly with cases of real estate, war-claims, and criminal cases. Chili is fortunate in possessing an excellent codification of her laws. The civil code was promulgated in 1858, and the commercial code, penal code, code of mines, code of organization of tribunals, etc., followed in order. The civil code is taken largely from the Code Napoléon, and the military code from the ordinances of Spain. Recently (1882) a rural police has been organized throughout the republic, sustained by a small property-tax. The religion of the country is Roman Catholic, but Protestantism is tolerated, and in Valparaiso and Santiago there are Protestant congregations having chapels and supporting their own pastors. The state Church has one archbishop, nominated by the president and confirmed by the pope. The archbishop resides at Santiago, and the bishops have their see-houses at Serena, Concepcion, and Ancud. The state assists to maintain the Church in return for the tithes of the fruits of the land, which the Church formerly enjoyed. The archbishop and bishops receive salaries of $6000 a year, and the other revenues of the Church amounted in 1881 to $237,030. The tithes (appropriated by the state since 1850) amount to five times this amount. At present; in consequence of disputes regarding the naming of bishops and archbishop, there is a strong feeling in favor of the separation of Church and State. The clergy of Chili are generally well educated and moral, but they are insufficient in number, although there exists a fine theological seminary in Santiago, and others at Valparaiso, Serena, Concepcion, and Ancud. The whole number of native priests is not over 400, but many come from Spain and Italy. Public education in Chili is comparatively meagre, but in its higher courses is very thorough. Unfortunately, however, the school system does not * provide for the practical needs of the people. It has scarcely recovered from the early Spanish influences yet it has a strong French tendency, which has affecte the literature, tastes, and industry of the country. "Fortunately, the excess of the evil has produced a reaction, and the i. are changing from a very general preference for the legal profession to the study of medicine, agriculture, civil and mining engineering, mechanics, etc. Public education is divided into three des—superior, intermediate, and primary. , Santiago is the seat of the National University, which has five faculties. A council of higher public education superintends the higher and intermediate schools of the country. These schools are free, and have their own buildings, apparatus, etc. The principal one is in Santiago, founded in 1813 and called the National Institute. In the provinces these schools take the name of liceos or high schools. The university preparatory course in the National Institute in 1880 had 843 students; the intermediate course had 918. In the provinces there were also 2176 intermediate students. In the capital there are special schools for teachers, agriculture, and manual trades: there is also a military emy, an academy of painting, a conservatory of music, and in Valparaíso a naval academy. In these schools together the number of students maintained by the state is about 5000, including those in the theological seminaries. In the private schools there are as many more. Primary instruction, which formerly received considerable attention, especially under the energetic administration of Pres. Montt (1851–61), is now somewhat neglected by the State. Benevolent societies supply in part this deficiency. The number of children enrolled in the public schools in 1880 was 48,794—24,961 boys and 23,833 girls. The average attendance was 34,089. . To this must be added the private and society schools, which numbered 405, with 15,106 scholars—9218 boys and 5888 girls. The total number of public and private schools open this year was 1043, with an average enrolment of 64 scholars. The public-school expenses in all grades were the following:

National Institute (university preparatory)............ $56,841

44 so intermediate
Provincial high schools.
Normal schools...
Primary schools..... --
Publication of text-books....
Administration, premiums, etc...

The total appropriation made by Congress for school purposes in 1881 was $1,119,620, and in 1882, $1,386,022. In Santiago is the National ibrary, with more than 60,000 volumes. Just now it is being removed and arranged according to an improved system. The university, institute, and many private schools, as well as the go. high schools, have excellent libraries. In antiago and Valparaiso there are museums of natural history, in Serena and Copiapó museums of mineralogy, and a taste for the fine arts may be cultivated in the many private galleries of paintings. The regular army of the republic, which never in time of peace exceeded 3500 men, was reduced at the beginning of the late war (1878) to the number of 2700. During the war over 60,000 men were enlisted, and at its close (1884) the army contained about 22,000. The merchant marine of the republic has been on the increase ever since the war with Spain in 1866. In 1879 it was composed of 106 sailing vessels and 30 steamers. During the first year of the war there was a large decrease, ń. since then there has been a gradual increase. The coast trade has developed, and some Chilian vessels have even been called into the foreign carrying-trade. There are five steamship companies doing business on the coast—one of them, the Pacific Steam Navigation Company of England, having one of the largest fleets in the world. Its steamers sail bi-monthly to England by way of the Straits of Magellan, and weekly to Panama. The South American Company of Chili runs steamers as far north as Panama ...] as far south as Chiloe. The German line runs to Hamburg, and the French line to Havre. The Lota Company employs several steamers in the coal and copper trade. Chili has in operation over 1100 miles of railroad, and surveys are being made for the speedy construction of as many more, one line being intended to extend the central line which runs from Valparaiso and Santiago as far as Valdivia, thus traversing the territory of Araucania. To Chili belongs the first railroad constructed (1850) in South America, that from Caldera to Copiapó. The state railway lines (590 miles) had cost for construction up to 1880 nearly $40,000,000, obtained for the most part from British loans. In 1880 these roads transported, 1,362,989 passengers, and 56,385 tons of freight. Their receipts were $2,142,985. ere are also short lines used in the coal-mines of Coronel, Lota, Lebü, and Punta Arenas. At Santiago and WalW. and from Old San Antonia to the mouth of the Maipú, there are street-railways with a total length of 35 miles. In addition to these there are public roads kept in repair at Government expense, with a tot length of 18,600 miles, and 1600 mule-paths, with a total length of 17,000 miles, which are kept in repair by the municipalities or private individuals or companies. There are also 78 streams, with a total navigable extent of 2800 miles. The number of post-offices in 1880 was 335, and the Government owns a system of electric telegraph lines which had 105 offices with 178 instruments. The total length of wire, including some temporary lines used in the military operations at the north, was 5700 miles. A new line has since been constructed to Ancud, giving 12 additional offices and 473 miles. There is a #ois. between Santiago and Valparaiso, and another between these two cities and Buenos Ayres, opened in 1872, and

connecting with Europe. Altogether, Chili has in operation more than 6200 miles of wire. There is a marine

cable to Callao, which has recently been extended to Panama, there connecting with Mexico and the U. S.

The commerce of the republic is prosperous, and the country, by reason of its agricultural products and its extraordinary mineral riches, is one of the great mar

kets of the world. - The importation of off. goods to Chili in 1882 amounted to $50,739,901. The values of the principal articles was as follows: Sugar, $4,229,496; cotton oods, $9,252,549; hardware, $754,909; machines, 292,848; clothing and jewelry, $530,547; miscellaneous, $2,156,796. The nations which in 1882 sent the largest amounts to Chili were: England, $22,586,495; Germany, $8,975,178; France, $7,776,264; United States, $2,577,992; Argentine Republic, $2,823,304. The articles and products which Chili exported in 1882 amounted to $69,994,519. The principal were: Grain and produce, $10,364,901; metals, $56,355,838. The agricultural products exported were: Wheat, $6,649,348; flour, $1,282,806; barley, $120,692; wool, $259,731. The mineral products exported were: Bar copr, $14,778,333; ingot copper, $2,066,649; silver, 3,909,852; saltpetre, $28,698,364. The foreign and coast trade showed the following number of vessels in 1882:

Foreign Trade. Coast Trade. Entered. No. Tons. No. Tons. Sailing vessels, 960 623,414 2,277 859,393 Steamers, 522 744,435 4,473 4,389,088 Cleared. Sailing vessels, 805 514,721 2,372 888,881 Steamers, 723 906,307 4,341 4,151,852

In Valparaiso the Government has very large bonded warehouses, which cost over $3,000,000. They were intended to be fireproof, but are not so. Agriculture and mining are the most important industries of the country. Some advancement has been made in manfactures. There are manufactories of cloth, silks, paper, metal-amalgamation, cast: ings, oil, sugar-refining, carriages, furniture, wool and hemp goods, ceramics, pottery, candles and soap, lumber-sawing, lime and brick, whiskey, wine and beer, steam-boilers, leather, dying, marble-cutting, and many other industries and manual arts and trades. At the Continental Exhibition held at Buenos Ayres (March, to August, 1882) Chili, having had only a month for preparation, competed with great honor, exhibiting her natural productions .# manufactures. She received seventeen medals of the first class, some of the second, and many bronze medals and honorable mentions, amounting in all to 117 premiums. The Chilian products which attracted the most attention in this international exhibit were cloths, ropes, sugar, spirits, and especially wines. The native timbers exhibited by the National Agricultural Society, one of the most aseful institutions of the country, represented 200 different species. In 1827 the Government of France gave a contract for bringing Chilian timber to her navy-yards, and durin the colonial days there were built in Talcahuano a Yalparaíso vessels of considerable size. But now the Chilian Government buys all her war-vessels in Europe, and only builds launches and flatboats. These launches are sent as far as Peru and Ecuador, manned by only two men, and they generally carry cargoes of wood and lumber. During the time of the colony, when the public expenses did not exceed $300,000, they were entirely provided for by annual appropriations made by the viceroy of Peru for the support of the army. The total expenses in 1776, ino, were $295,277. In 1810, at the time of the emancipation, the revenues had reached $400,000. With the removal of the restrictions on commerce, and the development of agriculture, mining, and other industries, the income

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
« AnteriorContinuar »