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Descent and Place of Birth : By Length of Residence – Concluded.
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It will be necessary to consider in detail only the two largest lines, those relating to the United States and Ireland. It will be seen that the aggregate native descent numbered 2,796, or 33.53 per cent of the whole number unemployed continuously for the year. Those of Irish descent numbered 3,466, or 41.56 per cent. . These two nativities aggregate 6,262, or 75.09 per cent of the whole number, leaving but 2,070, or 24.82 per cent, for the 16 other nationalities considered in the table.
Of those of American descent, all but five had resided in the United States six years or over; of those of Irish descent, 47 had lived in the
Descent and Place of Birth: By Length of Residence – Concluded.
United States less than one year, 87 had been in the country one year but less than six years, while 3,332 had been residents of the United States for more than six years. Similar comparisons may be easily drawn regarding the other nationalities considered. Of the whole number considered (8,339), 141 had been in the United States less than one year; 345, one year but under six years ; 7,853, six years and over.
By comparing the figures for the 18 descents specified with the total productive population for each descent, some interesting percentages are deduced.
Number of Unemployed Compared with Productive Population – Concluded.
Those of American descent unemployed continuously for a year are 0.69 per cent of the whole number of native descent engaged in productive occupations, while those of Irish descent unemployed form 1.12 per cent of the entire productive population of Irish descent.
The question of employment or unemployment naturally comes home more to a married man with a family than to a single person of either sex, who may have only his or her own personal wants to provide for. The table which we next present shows the conjugal condition of the unemployed by native and foreign born and age periods.
Conjugal Condition of the Unemployed : By Sex, Native and Foreign Born,
and Age Periods.
Considering the males, we find that 39.19 per cent were single (including the widowed) and 60.70 per cent were married (including the divorced), while of the females, 85.48 per cent were single or widowed and 14.52 per cent were married or divorced; for the sexes combined, the results in percentages are, 44.85 single (including widowed) and 55.05 married (including divorced), the large reduction in the percentage of total married persons being due to the fact that 85.48 per cent of the females were single or widowed, as above stated.
Of the married males, 0.07 per cent were 15 but under 20; 69.53 per cent were 20 but under 60 years of age; while 30.40 per cent were 60 years of age and over,
RETIRED WITH A COMPETENCY.
More than 50 years ago an author of prominence wrote concerning Benjamin Franklin : “ The prevalence of habits of industry and economy, of foresight and thrift, of cautious calculation in the formation of plans, and energy and perseverance in the execution of them, and of the disposition to invest what is earned in substantial and enduring possessions, rather than to expend it in brief pleasures or for purposes of idle show — the prevalence of these traits, so far as they exist as elements of the national character in this country — is due in an incalculable degree to the doings and sayings and history of this great exemplar.”
As Franklin was born in Boston and lived in that city until he was 16 years of age, it must be allowed that the habits of industry and thrift which form such prominent features in his life and teachings were due in a great degree, if not wholly, to his surroundings — that is, to the influence and example of the men and women with whom he was brought into daily contact. Surely, the Colonists of Massachusetts Bay between the years 1706 and 1722 were not in a financial condition to indulge in reckless extravagance, either personally or officially.
The instructions to the agents of the Bureau who obtained the information which forms the statistical basis of this article were as follows:
Retired includes those adults who have retired from business, with means for their own support, after a life of activity. The word • retired' must always be written, and in addition, the name of the occupation in which the person gained his competency.”
A fact that will bear repetition is that the statistics cover only those who have retired from active pursuits with sufficient money to provide for their wants during the rest of their lives. Those possessed of a competency while still engaged in active business do not form part of this presentation.
The term “ competency” is a comparative one; what would suffice for one during the period of his natural life would be considered by another as only sufficient for a year's expenses. Consequently, no attempt has been made to attach any precise or average money value to the term “ competency.”
The most interesting feature connected with the subject under consideration is, undoubtedly, the nature of the occupations followed by the