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159 ; machines and machinery, 138; accountants, bookkeepers, clerks, etc., 114; woollen goods operatives, 111; leather workers, 107; and fishermen, 105.
Under females, the pre-eminent line is that of the housewives, with 4,758. This line needs explanation, but the statistics secured do not supply a satisfactory one. It may be inferred, however, that a great many in this class are mothers or grandmothers, who, having lost their husbands, are obliged to depend upon their children or other relatives. Being for the most part widows, and never having been engaged in any productive industry, when they arrive at an advanced age they have no calling to which to turn as a means of support. They are not paupers, as are those who have been committed to town almshouses and State institutions. As a rule, no doubt, they are welcome and beloved members of the family circles to which they are attached, and perform many services for which an outlay 'of money would be required if they were not at hand to render them. It may be stated further, that doubtless many of them receive pensions, or have small incomes, which keep them from being entirely dependent upon their relatives or friends.
To the housewives should be added the domestic servants in private families and those engaged in housework, these two classes aggregating 859. The former of these is a gainful occupation, but housework is not ; that is, no specified compensation is ever given in connection with this occupation. The majority of those so engaged give their services for a home, to secure an education, or to eke out a meagre income derived from some home industry, which would not of itself supply them with sufficient means of support.
The next in prominence are clothing employés, 157; personal service, 124; and dealers, 102.
Of the whole number, 23,859, those native born of native descent comprised 9,978, or 41.82 per cent; native born, foreign descent, 1,839, or 7.71 per cent; foreign born, 8,523, or 35.72 per cent; foreign born, naturalized, 1,579, or 6.62 per cent; and foreign born, alien, 1,940, or 8.13 per cent. The total native born numbered 11,817, or 49.53 per cent of the total, and the foreign born 12,042, or 50.47 per cent.
The next table presents the descent and place of birth by periods of length of residence in the United States,
Descent and Place of Birth : By Length of Residence – Concluded.
Those of native descent number 10,039, or 42.08 per cent; Irish descent, 8,628, or 36.16 per cent; Canadian-French, 1,176, or 4.93 per cent; English, 1,081, or 4.53 per cent. These four descents aggregate 20,924, or 87.70 per cent of the total number of dependents. Combining the sexes, 174, or 0.73 per cent, had lived in the United States one year
The dependents of Irish descent form 2.79 per cent of the whole number of Irish descent in the State engaged in productive industries ; the comparative percentage for native descent is 2.48; those of French descent form 2.05 per cent; the Scotch come next, with a percentage of 1.79.