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Descent and Place of Birth: By Length of Residence – Concluded.
or less; 770, or 3.23 per cent, one year but under six; 22,915, or 96.04 per cent, six years or over.
Comparing the descent and place of birth of dependents with the whole number of such descents engaged in productive occupations, we secure a most interesting table.
Number of Dependents Compared with Productive Population - Concluded.
The question as to the conjugal condition of dependents is an important one, and the facts relating thereto are brought out in the next table.
Conjugal Condition of the Dependents : By Sex, Native and Foreign Born
and Age Periods.
Of the males, 6,242, or 56.33 per cent, were single (including the widowed); 4,664, or 42.09 per cent, were married (including the divorced). Of the females, 10,563, or 82.67 per cent, were single or widowed ; 2,130, or 16.67 per cent, were married or divorced. Combining the sexes, 16,805, or 70.43 per cent, were single (including the widowed); and 6,794, or 28.48 per cent, were married (including divorced persons).
Of the males, 4,945, or 44.63 per cent, were 20 but under 60 years of age, and 6,136, or 55.37 per cent, were 60 years of age or over. Of the females, 4,114, or 32.20 per cent, were 20 but under 60 years of age; and 8,664, or 67.80 per cent, were 60 years of age and over. Considering both sexes, we find that 9,059, or 37.97 per cent, were 20 but under 60 years; and 14,800, or 62.03 per cent, 60 years of age and over.
Before closing the subject, attention is again called to the explanations which accompany the figures, and which are intended as a guide to a proper interpretation. Statistics should never be used for purposes of illustration or comparison without due reference to the limitations mentioned in the prefatory notes to the tables, or to the analyses of the figures contained in them.
QUARTERLY RECORD OF STRIKES.
The industrial disputes occurring in Massachusetts during the fourth quarter of 1902 were few in number and of minor importance. The total number of strikes was 38, by months as follows: October, 16; November, 13; and December, nine. One strike which was started during the preceding quarter terminated in this quarter. This number is very much smaller than for any other quarter in 1902, and is smaller by three than the number of strikes occurring during the corresponding quarter in 1901. Taken as a whole, the disputes were of short duration, and involved but few workmen as compared with previous records.
A condensed summary of the causes and results of the strikes follows:
The aggregate number involved in 30 of the disputes was 1,230, the total number of working-days lost being about 14,500.
The cities and towns wherein industrial disputes took place, together with the number occurring in each, are as follows: Boston, six; Springfield, three; the following, two disputes each: Fall River, Haverhill, Lowell, Lynn, Northampton, Spencer, and Whitman. The following cities and towns had one dispute each: Blackstone, Canton, Clinton, Dalton, Dedham, Easton, Gardner, Gloucester, Greenfield, Lawrence, Lenox, North Attleborough, Palmer, Pittsfield, and Worcester.
The class of workmen and industries involved, with the number of disputes in each case, follow : building trades and the boot and shoe industry, eight each ; textile industry, four; rubber workers, employés in printing, publishing, and bookbinding establishments, laborers, metal workers, and machinists, two each; granite workers, leather workers, clothing employés, paper operatives, teamsters, jewelry workers, employés on food preparations, and box makers, one each.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN MASSACHUSETTS FOR
The history of strikes and lockouts in Massachusetts from 1830 to 1879, inclusive, was published in the Report of the Bureau for 1880. In the Report for 1888 the information was brought up to the year 1886. In this article the facts cover a period of 20 years from 1881 to 1900, inclusive, the figures having been compiled from the Sixteenth Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Labor.
In the 20 years under consideration there were 1,705 strikes and 97 lockouts reported for the Commonwealth, this being an average of 85 strikes and five lockouts per year. With the exception of New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois, Massachusetts had more strikes during the period covered than any other State in the Union. In regard to the num
* The totals of the three columne under this section do not add to the total number
In the aggregate, there were 1,802 strikes and lockouts ; 991, or 54.99 per cent, were ordered by organizations (976 inaugurated by trades unions ber of lockouts, Massachusetts, with 97, ranks third, being exceeded by New York with 216, and Pennsylvania with 117. Expressed in percentages, Massachusetts had 7.48 of the total strikes occurring in the United States during the 20-year period under consideration, and 9.65 of the total lockouts. The largest number of strikes occurring in any one year was 169 in 1893, the largest number of lockouts being 18 in 1886.
For purposes of condensation, we have combined the separate data for strikes and lockouts, and will consider them together in this presentation. Indeed, these two classes of industrial disputes seem practically alike, the chief distinction being that in the case of a strike the employés take the initiative by refusing to work unless some condition or demand is granted, while in a lockout the employer takes the initiative by refusing to allow the employés to work unless some condition indicated by him is first complied with.
In this presentation, minor disturbances have been disregarded, as the misunderstandings in many cases caused but a short cessation of work, and no material financial loss.
The following table shows important facts concerning the disputes, by years :
Strikes and Lockouts in Massachusetts : By Years.
of establishments, as strikes were pending in four establishments on Jan. 1, 1901.
and 15 by employers' associations). The establishments involved numbered 5,639; of these, 2,751 were closed an average of 24.3 days. The