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aggregate duration of the disputes was 177,886 days, or an average of 31.5 days for each establishment. The number of establishments in which strikes and lockouts succeeded was 2,381, or 42.22 per cent of the total establishments involved; in 1,132 establishments, or 20.07 per cent, the disputes were partially successful; and in 2,122 establishments, or 37.63 per cent, the disputes failed. On the whole, the wage loss to employés was $17,780,193, while the assistance rendered them by their labor organizations and others aggregated $1,586,642; the financial loss of employers aggregated $7,716,560.
It may be stated here that the computation of the wage loss was based upon the number of employés thrown out of employment, their average wage, and the number of working-days which elapsed before they returned to work, or their places were filled by others. The em
· Employés involved in Strikes and Lockouts: By Years.
It will be seen from the table that in the aggregate 253,457 employés were directly involved in labor disturbances during the 20 years under consideration. The employés thrown out of employment by strike or lockout numbered 384,451, 264,537 being males and 119,914 females. The new employés hired after strike or lockout vumbered 39,189. The year in which the largest number of employés was involved was 1894. ployers' loss was obtained directly from the firms, and in many cases was estimated.
The yearly average for these different facts may be seen by reference to the table. By years, the largest number of disputes was 175 in 1893, a year of great industrial depression; but, judging from the figures, which show fewer establishments involved than in some other years, much shorter lapse of time before strikers returned to work or places were filled, and comparatively small financial loss, both to employés and employers, the disturbances could neither have been of a serious nature, nor have affected many employés.
The next table shows the employés, both directly and indirectly involved in the disputes, by years, and in the aggregate for the entire period; also the yearly average.
Employés involved in Strikes and Lockouts : By Years.
In this year there were 83,627 employés in the establishments considered before the strike or lockout; there were 44,245 strikers, and 59,779 employés thrown out of employment.
The next presentation shows particular facts relating to the strikes and lockouts for the entire period, hy industries.
24.8 49.2 34.1
6.0 27.4 10.7
Boots and shoes,
Building trades,. . .
Food preparations, . .
Leather and leather goods, .
Metals and metallic goods, . 19 | Musical instruments, . .
Paper and paper goods, , .
Public works construction, 25 | Rope and bagging, . .
Rubber goods, . .
TOTALS, . .
25.0 12.5 19.3 66.1
2.0 19.8 16.9
* The totals of the three columns under this section do not add to the total number
The largest number of strikes and lockouts in Massachusetts during the 20 years under consideration occurred in the boot and shoe industry, there being 506 disputes ; 392 of these, or 77.47 per cent, were ordered by organizations. The largest financial loss to employés and employers was also found to be in this industry; the wage loss to employés aggregated $6,056,376; assistance rendered employés, $503,673; while the loss of employers totalized $2,277,063.
The next largest number of disputes occurred in Cotton Goods, there being 249 disturbances in this industry, 54 of which were ordered by organizations. The wage loss to employés in this industry was $4,398,
of establisbments, as strikes were pending in four establishments on Jan. 1, 1901,
453; assistance given them amounted to $143,665; while the loss of employers aggregated $1,055,327.
The building trades rank third in prominence as to number of dis- turbances occurring during the period covered. There were 186 strikes and lockouts in this industry, 145, or 77.96 per cent, being ordered by organizations. The number of establishments closed was 1,164, the aggregate number of days closed being 21,692, or an average of 18.6 days for each establishment. The duration of time before the strikers returned to work or their places were filled by others aggregated 42,275 days, or 21.8 days for each establishment. Strikes succeeded in 741 establish.
ments; partially succeeded in 599; and failed in 603. The wage loss to employés was $763,609; assistance rendered employés, $95,578 ; loss of employers amounted to $996,378.
Employés involved in Strikes and Lockouts: By Industries.
EMPLOYES BEFORE STRIKE OR LOCKOUT
19 26,502 120,886
332 33,654 22,298
19 56,592 257,571
308 2,062 14,116
125 11,516 27,526 1,375 679
Boots and shoes, . . .
Lumber, . . . . . 17 | Machines and machinery,
Metals and metallic goods, .
Rubber goods, . . . . 27 Shipbuilding, etc., . . .
Silk goods, . . . .
Trunks and valises,
Woollen and worsted goods, .
Totals, . . . .
3,671 4,740 4,570 1,815 11,817 2,309 2,901 25,871 1,004 5,265 21,031
10,435 , 777,044
Considering the same industries which ranked first in prominence as to number of industrial disputes in the preceding table, we find that there were 181,938 employés in the boot and shoe industry in the establishments considered before strike or lockout. The number of strikers was 63,503, while the number of employés thrown out of employment aggregated 102,644, 75,943 being males and 26,701 females. The number of new employés hired after strike or lockout numbered 14,937; of these, 5,367 were brought from localities other than where disturbances occurred.