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The facts relating to the number of employés involved in labor disputes for the entire period, by industries, may be seen from the following table :
Employés involved in Strikes and Lockouts : By Industries.
In Cotton Goods, there were 257,571 employés before the occurrence of labor disagreements; 66,973 employés either struck or were lockedout; 118,389 employés were thrown out of employment; 3,567 new employés were hired after strike.
In the building trades there were 33,654 employés before strike; strikers numbered 22,621 ; 25,511 employés were thrown out of employment; 2,747 new employés were hired after dispute.
The causes and results of strikes and lockouts, as well as the number of establishments involved, may be seen from the following table. The causes of disputes have been classified; when more than one question figured in the disturbance, the principal one has been considered in the classification.
In 2,623 establishments, the industrial disputes were for wages ; in 1,360, for hours of labor; and in 716, for hours of labor and wages. Thus it will be seen that in 4,699 establishments, or 83.33 per cent of the total number involved, wages or hours of labor were the principal cause of dissension. After wages and hours of labor, trade unionism, in one form or another, was the most frequent cause of dispute, there being 417 establishments under this head.
The cities in Massachusetts having the largest number of strikes or lockouts during the 20-year period were Boston, Lynn, Fall River, and Haverhill. Particular facts relating to the pumber of establishments involved, employés thrown out of employment, and financial loss to employés and employers, are shown in the next table.
In the preceding table, strikes and lockouts have been considered separately. The number of strikes occurring in Boston was 363, or 21.29
per cent of the total number occurring in Massachusetts during the period under consideration. The next following in numerical order is Lynn, with 155, or 9.09 per cent; Fall River follows, with 146, or 8.56 per cent. The number of strikes occurring in these three cities was 664, or 38.94 per cent of the total number occurring in the Commonwealth.
Of the 97 lockouts in Massachusetts during the 20 years, 22 occurred in Boston, and 10 in Haverhill. It will be seen from the table that the greatest number of employés thrown out of employment was in Fall River (66,424), the wage loss of employés being also heaviest in this city ($2,123,252). The assistance given employés by labor organizations and others was greatest in Boston, the amount being $342,865 ; the loss of employers was also greatest in Boston, totalizing $1,504,152.
STATISTICAL ABSTRACTS. Eight-hour Working day for City Em. I machinery in manufacturing and mercantile establishployes.
ments was 1,491. The District Police (to whom all At the last municipal election in Taunton, held
such returns are made) report that in addition to the Dec. 2, 1902, it was voted to accept the Act making
above number there were 990 accidents in manufactur. eight hours a day's work for all laborers, workmen, ing and mechanical establishments not due to running and mechanics employed by the city. This is in ac
machinery. Forty-eight accidents proved fatal. cordance with the provisions of Chap. 106, $ 20, of the Revised Laws.
Receipts of Coal at Boston. All cities in the Commonwealth have now voted The following tabular statement shows the coastupon and accepted the eight-hour working-day for wise receipts of coal at Boston during the years 1901 city employés. In addition to the cities, many towns and 1902, as compiled from monthly official statements have also adopted the act.
of the Boston Chamber of Commerce :
Railroad Employes in Massachusetts.
BITUMINOUS The average number of employés on all railroads in
SOURCES Massachusetts during the year 1901 was 63,564. The
1901 | 1902 || 1901 1902 number of employés injured was 384, comprising 279 trainmen and 105 employed in other capacities. Of From domestic the total number of injuries to employés, 61 proved ports, . . 2,163,558 1,012,404 2,110,830 2,224,509. fatal and 323 non-fatal.
• 2,139,989 971,649 2,063,691 2,103,697 The number of passengers injured by accidents in
Rail, . : 23,569 40,755 47,139 1901 was 37, of which number four proved fatal. In
Foreign coal, by addition to the 384 employés and 37 passengers killed
41,766' 538,031 1,001,530 or injured, 44 persone met with injuries on highway
Totals, · 2,163,558 1,054,170 2,848,861 3,226,039 crossings or stations and 146 trespassers were killed or injured. Of the total number injured, 19 were children.- Railroad Commissioners Report, 1901. - Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance.
Foreign Parentage. there are 511 establishments in Massachusetts in The aggregate number of persons of foreign parentthe textile industries. They may be industrially age in Massachusetts, according to the Census of classified as follows: Wool manufactures (excluding 1900, is 1,746,581, or 62 per cent of the total popula. hosiery and knit goods), 195; cotton manufactures, tion. 163; hosiery and knit goods, 54; dyeing and finishing, The aggregate number of persons of foreign parent. 37; flax, hemp, and jute goods, 28; silk manufactures, age in the city of Boston, according to the Census of 20; cotton small wares, 14. Of the 195 establishments 1900, is 404,999, or 72 per cent of the total population engaged in wool manufactures, 131 make woollen of the city. goods; 45, worsted goods; eight, carpets (other than By the term “persons of foreign parentage” is rag); seven, felt goods; and four, wool bats. Of the meant those persons having foreign fathers and 131 woollen goods 'establishments, 29 manufacture mothers, foreign fathers and native mothers, or shoddy; 11, fur hats; five are engaged in wool scouring forelgn mothers and native fathers. and wool pulling, and one in wool carding.
Population of African Descent. Industrial Accidents in Massachusetts. The total number of persons of African descent in
The number of accidents which occurred in Massa. | Massachusetts, according to the United States Census chusetts during the year 1902 to persons operating 1 of 1900, is 31,974; of this number 6,313 are in the
towns of the Commonwealth and 25,661 in the cities. I or over. The first and only office was opened in New The latter number is distributed as follows: Beverly, York City in July, 1896. The number of applicants 50; Boston, 11,591; Brockton, 310; Cambridge, 3,888; for work at the free employment bureau for the three Chelsea, 731; Chicopee, 10; Everett, 634; Fall River, months ending September 30, 1902, was 1,122. There 324; Fitchburg, 65; Gloucester, 39; Haverhill, 373; were 873 applicants for help, 970 situations being seHolyoke, 40; Lawrence, 87; Lowell, 136; Lynn, 784; cured. The percentage of applicants securing emMalden, 446; Marlborough, 31; Medford, 244; Mel. ployment during the quarter specified was 79. rose, 130; New Bedford, 1,685; Newburyport, 97; Newton, 505; North Adams, 90; Northampton, 108;
Missouri. In 1897, a free public employment office Pittsfield, 277; Quincy, 27; Salem, 156; Somerville,
was established in St. Louis without legislative enact140; Springfield, 1,021; Taunton, 226; Waltham, 51; ment, but with the endorsement of the Governor of Woburn, 261; and Worcester, 1,104.
the State. The legislature of 1899 passed an act establishing free public employment offices in cities
of Missouri having a population of 100,000 or more. Free Public Employment Offices.
This then provided for the establishment of offices at As the question of establisbing free public employ.
St. Louis and Kansas City, but by the Census of 1900 ment offices in Massachusetts is being agitated con.
the city of St. Joseph came within the limit of popu. siderably at the present time, it may be interesting to
lation prescribed, and an office was accordingly note what is being done by other states in this line of
opened there in 1901. A summarized report of the work. For this purpose we append brief summaries
aggregate work of the three offices for the year end. of the work in the free public employment offices in ing September 30, 1902, follows: Applications for the States in which they have been established. In
employment, 11,836 (10,089 males and 1,747 females); most cases, the offices were either created or con
applications for help, 16,914 (12,052 males and 3,892 firmed by legislative act, and are under the direct
females); number of positions secured, 7,263 (5,889 supervision of the Bureaus of Statistics of Labor in
males and 1,374 females). The report shows that the the respective States referred to.
work is constantly increasing, and that the establish
ment of free employment bureaus in Missouri has Ohio. Obio was the first State in the country to
proved of great value. Whereas a large proportion establish free public employment offices. In 1890 the
of the applications, both for employment and help legislature passed an act establishing offices in five of
among the females, was for domestic service and hotel the largest cities - Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati,
and restaurant work, yet when both sexes are conDayton, and Toledo. They have proved of great
sidered, applications were filled in over 50 other benefit to the working people of the State. The
branches of occupations. latest report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Ohio shows that the number of applications for em. Nebraska. The law creating a free employment ployment in 1901 was 23,323 (12,635 males and 10,888 department in Nebraska was passed by the legisla. females); the number of applications for help, 28,274 ture in 1897. The department is located at the State (11,727 males and 16,547 females); the number of House in Lincoln. It has been suggested by the Compositions secured, 16,837 (8,156 males and 8,682 missioner of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial females). The combined operations of the offices for Statistics of that State that an office established in the year 1902 follow: Applications for employment, Omaha, conducted under practical methods, would 26,968; applications for help, 36,613; positions secured, meet with much more success than has attended the 21,428.
Lincoln agency. The work reported from the em
ployment department, for the years 1901 and 1902, is Washington. In April, 1894, a municipal free em.
as follows: Applications for employment, about 500; ployment bureau was established in Seattle, Washing
applications for help, about 200. ton. The report of the State Labor Commissioner of Washington states that, in 1901, 25,095 positions were Illinois. The free employment offices of Illinois furnished by the public employment office, covering were created by legislative act in 1899. Three offices about 35 branches of occupations.
were opened in Chicago, and on July 1, 1901, a fourth
office was opened at Peoria. The work of the offices Montana. An act creating free employment offices for the year 1901 follows: Applications for employ. was passed in Montana in 1895, and was an amend.
ment, 27,605 (16,324 males and 11,281 females); applicament to one section of the law establishing the Bureau tions for help, 28,124 (15,322 males and 12,802 females); of Labor Statistics. The repeal of the law in 1897 was
positions secured, 23,996 (13,625 males and 10,371 superseded by an act enabling municipalities to females). The work which the free employment offices establish offices under their own administration. A
are doing is being more appreciated each year by firms bureau is maintained in the City of Butte which re. employing skilled labor. Large numbers of laborers ports the work of the agency for nine months in and farm hands continue to seek and find employment. 1902, as follows: Applications for work, 3,234; pobi. In the “manual labor" class, the places provided tions filled, 2,199; applications for help, 2,638.
applicants totalize to the tbousands, the classes of
“ domestic service" and "transportation" being also California. In 1895, an employment office was
prominent for the pumber who have found employ. opened in San Francisco, under the management of
ment. The work of the offices for 1902 follows: Apthe Bureau of Labor, without legislative enactment.
plicatione for employment, 40,349; positions secured, The regular appropriation of the Bureau was enlarged
35,809. by private subscriptions for the maintenance of the office. This office was discontinued in 1896.
West Virginia. In 1901, the legislature of West
Virginia created a free public employment bureau. New York. Free public employment offices in the The Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, State of New York were established by an Act of the under whose supervision the free public employment Legislature passed May 28, 1896, providing that offices bureau is, reports that the first year of the depart. be opened in all cities having a population of 1,500,000, I ment has been remarkable for its industrial activity, and that the demand for labor was greater than the supply. The work of the year follows: Applications for employment, 1,208; applications for help, 1,304; positions secured, 1,044.
Connecticut. The rapid growth of trade unionism in Connecticut is clearly shown by the increase in the number of unions in 1902 as compared with 1901. In 1902, the number of separate and distinct unions in the State was 610. Membership aggregating 32,256 was reported from 314 organizations in 1901,
Maryland. In August, 1900, without legislative enactment, the Bureau of Industrial Statistics of Mary. land opened a free employment agency, which has met with great success. The Commissioner of the Bureau reports that for the year 1901 there were 108 applications for employment, 389 applications for help, and 59 positions secured.
Connecticut. In 1901, the legislature passed an act establishing free public employment bureaus in five cities in Connecticut, the Commissioner of Labor to appoint the superintendents of such offices. The fol. lowing statement shows approximately the work accomplished by the bureau in the year ending De. cember 1, 1902: Applications for employment, 14,200; applications for help, 11,000; number of persons securing positions, 7,700. Most of the applications were for positions as farm laborers for the males, and as domestic servants for the females.
Massachusetts. The labor organizations in Massachusetts make no returns to the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, but in 1902, a canvass was made by the Special Agents of the Bureau, and data secured relative to the names of the different trades unions through. out the State as well as the secretaries of same. This information was published in the August Bulletin and again (revised and corrected) in the November Bulletin, No. 24. The number of trade unions reported in Massachusetts in November, 1902, was about 1,300, including central and affiliated bodies. As the number of members was only returned in a few instances, we are not able to show the aggregate membership. The largest number of trades unions was found in the following cities : Boston, 221; Springfield, 67; Worces. ter, 63; Lowell, 57; Holyoke, 53; and Brockton, 51.
Kansas. Free public employment bureaus were Missouri The total number of labor organizations created in Kansas by the legislature of 1901, the in Missouri in November, 1901, was 410, with a memDirector of said bureau to be appointed by the Gov. bersbip of 52,426. Of this number, 51,048 were males ernor, local agencies may be established in cities of and 1,378 females. The average initiation fee was rethe first and second class within the State. In May, ported to be $9.39. The average cost per annum per 1901, an office was opened at Topeka. The director member was $9.06. The total number of strikes dur. reports the work of the department as very satis. ing the year, in which these labor unionists were in. factory. The number of applications for employment volved, was 177; 119 were satisfactorily settled, 33 for the year ending Dec. 31, 1902, was 1,588, while the were compromised, and 15 failed. The average length number of applicants securing positions was 1,281; of strikes was 69 days. The total number of persons the applications for help numbered 1,434.
involved was 15,149, while 19,277 persons were bene.
fited by the disputes. Reduction in working hours Minnesota. In 1901, the legislature passed an act
was reported by 51 unions. The total number of inestablisbing free public employment offices in cities
dustrial accidents reported by trade unionists was 852; of over 50,000 population. A bureau was opened in
of these, 101 were fatal. Duluth on Nov. 4, 1901, and has met with great success. From the opening of the bureau up to New York. The number of labor organizations in Dec. 31, 1902, employment was furnished to 5,175 New York State on September 30, 1902, was 2,229, the persons, of whom 5,017 were males and 158 females, total membership being 329,098, a very large increase,
both in number of unions and membership, over 1901. Wisconsin. The legislature of 1901 passed an act
Unemployment in New York City during the entire creating free public employment offices in cities of
quarter ending September 30, 1902, covered 4,543 mem30,000 population and over. The Governor was in
bers (4,243 males and 300 females). This is the smallest structed to appoint the superintendente on recom.
number reported since 1897. The number of trade mendation of the Labor Commissioner. Under the
unioniste idle at the end of the quarter was 13,644, provisions of the Act, offices were opened in Milwaukee
13,185 being males and 459 females. The greatest and Superior under the supervision of the Bureau of
amount of unemployment was reported in the buildLabor and Industrial Statistics. During the first year,
ing trades, 3,735 members being idle at the end of the ending June 28, 1902, there were 9,002 applications for
quarter. The cause of idleness in 2,088 cases was slack employment, 0,051 applications for help, while the
trade; in 957 cases, weather or lack of material; in 244 applicants securing positions numbered 7,380.
cases, sickness or old age; in 286, for strike or lock. Trades Unions.
out; and in 210 for various other reasons. The next
largest amount of unemployment was reported in We find that labor organizations in many States
clothing and textiles, 2,682 members being idle; 2,151 make either quarterly or annual returns to their re
on account of black trade; 405 for sickness or old age; spective Bureaus of Labor Statistics. To show the
60for strike and lockout; and four for lack of material. present status of trade unionism in a few of the States, we append the following data, compiled from the
Collateral Legacy Taxes. latest reports of the various Bureaus :
Pennsylvania. The collateral inheritance tax of Colorado. The number of labor unions in Colorado | Pennsylvania was enacted April 7, 1826. This enact. in 1902 was 426, with an aggregate membership of ment fixed the rate on the clear value of bequeathed 46,946. Great activity was reported during the past estates from $250 and upwards at $2.50 per hundred. two years, the membership and influence of the unions By Act of 1846 the rate was changed from $2.50 per having greatly increased. It is estimated that about hundred to $5 per hundred, interest to begin to run 35 per cent of the wage earners of the State are mem. on same one year after death of decedent. The law bers of labor organizations. There are over 40 miners' as it stands in Pennsylvania follows: unions in the State, affiliated with the Western Feder. “All Estates, real, personal, and mixed of any kind ation of Miners.
whatsoever, passing from any person, seized or pos.