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10. That the business agent of T. D. I. U., Local

North Adams. No. 42, shall, upon request, be shown the payroll

BAKERS. of any firm that signs this agreement. 11. That men may be discharged for incompe.

Master Bakers of Berkshire County and Bakers tency, dishonesty, gross carelessness, and intoxi.

and Confectioners International Union, Local cation.

No. 203. 12. That the Union be allowed a representative It is hereby agreed that the party of the first part on each wharf, and no discrimination be used. will at all times, in the conduct of his or her busi

13. That this schedule go into effect Dec. 30, 1902, ness, employ only members of the Journeymen and continue till Dec. 30, 1903.

Bakers and Confectioners International Union.

And it is further agreed by the party of the first ICE TEAM DRIVERS.

part not to require said Union men to work more Team Drivers International Union, Local No. 42, than 10 hours a day, and no more than six days a and Employers.


The scale of wages shall be: Foreman, $15; 1. Route drivers to be paid $15 per week from

second hand, $12; any journeyman working with May 1 to Nov. 1.

the master, $15 per week; all jobbers to receive $3 2. Drivers to be paid $12 per week from Nov. 1

for 10 hours' work; the walking delegate or comto May 1.

mittee to have the privilege of going into the work 3. Drivers of supply wagons to be paid $12 per

shop. week.

And also agreed, that the Union Label be placed 4. Strikers or helpers to be paid not less than

on every loaf of bread. The cost of the label is to $12 per week, but should they take the place of a

be five cents per thousand to the Master. regular driver, they are to receive the same pay as

The journey men to bave Labor Day as a holiday, the man whose place they take.

but will notify the master one week previous how it 6. All Sunday work must be done between 5 A.M.

will be arranged, so as to have bread the next day. and 12 M., and shall consist of cleaning horses

Also agreed, that one apprentice only is allowed and loading wagons. No ice to be delivered on

with any shift of from one to three journeymen; Sunday.

that no apprentice is allowed to start to learn the 6. Holiday work to be the same as Sunday, ex

trade above the age of 20. cept those falling on Saturday or Monday; this

In case any journeyman reports for work in an applies to Lynn, Saugus, and Swampscott.

intoxicated condition, and the same is brought to 7. Men to be paid in full for all holidays.

the notice of Local Union 203, the said journeyman 8. Members of Local 42, Team Drivers Inter

shall be fined. national Union, to be given preference of work.

In case of any differences between both parties, 9. Men to be discharged for dishonesty, incom

it shall be left to a committee to arbitrate. petency, and intoxication.

In case of the non-compliance of the above men. 10. That the Business Agent of Local 42 shall

tioned rules, the Union reserves the right to withupon request be shown the payroll of any firm

draw the Label. signing this agreement.

This contract, entered into May 18, 1903, to remain 11. When men haul coal they shall receive the

in force for one year. same pay as coal drivers. 12. This agreement to take effect May 1, 1903, and

Pittsfield. continue till May 1, 1904.


Employers of Hack Drivers and Hostlers Union,

Local No. 458, of Team Drivers International

Union. Employing Team Drivers and Team Drivers Inter.

1. No member of this Union shall work for less national Union, Local 314.

than $12 per week. None but Union drivers shall 1. In hiring teamsters or helpers members of

be employed. The hours of labor shall be the same Local No. 314 shall be given the preference, when

as at this date. of equal capacity and skill.

2. Men who quit work at 8 o'clock p.M. and are 2. Working hours of teamsters shall be from 6

requested to stay or drive shall receive overtime A.M. to 6 P.M.; wharfmen, from 7 A.M. to 6 P.M. |

pay at the rate of 15 cents per hour. This schedule to obtain throughout the year with

3. Each stable shall be allowed one boy to drive the exception of Saturday from April 1 to Oct. 1 |

single teams and such. when the hours shall be for teamsters from 6 A.M.

4. For emergency calls only, any desirable driv. to 1 P.M.; for wharfmen, from 7 A.M. to I P.M.

ers available may be engaged, provided all Union 3. The wages of single teamsters, $12 per week;

men are employed at time of calls. double teamsters, $13 per week; wharfmen, $12

5. Extra driving for funerals to be 50 cents for per week. Teamsters shall be paid the above rate

each funeral in this city. of wages for all holidays and wharfmen for three

Above agreement to take effect May 1, 1903, and holidays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving and Christ

continue in operation until May 1, 1904. mas, whether they are required to work or not. 4. It is understood that the question of overtime

Quincy. shall be dealt with justly, and men detained at night

STEAM ENGINEERS. beyond reasonable length of time shall be paid or allowed extra time off. Men required to work on Employers and International Union of Steam EnSaturday afternoon from April I to Oct. I shall be

gineers, Local No. 79. paid for overtime at the above rate of wages.

1. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work; the 5. Agreement to take effect April 1, 1903, to re. i hours of labor shall be the same as other employés, main in force for one year from said date.

subject to Art. 7 (a).

2. (a) The minimum rates of wages shall be as follows: Any engineer having charge of or operating any stationary plant shall receive a minimum of $15; the average rate shall be $16, per week of forty-eight hours, holidays included.

(b) Any engineer having charge of or operating any hoisting or portable plant shall receive a mini. mum of $15 per week of 48 hours, holidays included.

(C) Any engineer operating a skeleton engine shall receive a minimum of 25 cents per hour, and those now receiving 25 cents per hour shall receive an increase of five per cent.

3. All overtime ordered by the employer aside from the care of the plant shall be paid for extra at the following rates: Regular working days, at the regular rate; Sundays, time and a half; Deco. ration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanks. giving, and Christmas, one-half time in addition to the regular pay.

4. No engineer in charge of a boiler shall be re. quired to leave his engine to perform other duties unless his fire is banked or other engineer left in charge.

5. (a) The members of our union shall perform their duties faithfully and in a workmanlike man. ner, ready to start all machinery in their charge at the proper time required by the official of the party of the tirst part and to keep their engines and boiler in proper working order, and the time required for raising steam and getting ready to start shall not be considered overtime.

(b) The party of the second part further agrees that in case of any trouble or misunderstanding between the parties of this agreement, work shall proceed pending an adjustment by committees from the parties to this agreement. But none of the definite articles of this agreement shall be referred to a committee.

(c) And it is hereby further agreed that engi. neers working under this agreement wishing to change over or leave the employment of the party of the first part, shall give at least one week's notice that the mutual interest of both parties of this in. strument may be best conserved and maintained.

6. This agreement shall take effect April 1, 1903, and continue until April 1, 1905.

2. Wages for foremen not less than $16; for second hands not less than $13; bench hands not less than $11. No reduction to be made in present wages.

3. In all bakeries only union men shall be em. ployed.

4. Labor Day being a legal holiday, no labor shall be performed after 11 A.M. unless paid time and one-half.

5. Wages shall be paid weekly.

6. All employers complying with the above rules shall be supplied with the Union Labels free of charge, to better the conditions of the trade.

7. In addition, Bakers Union No. 142 will adver. tise free all shops complying with and living up to the above rules until May 1, 1905; and give 30 days' notice of any change desired, Central Labor Union to enforce the agreement.

8. All misunderstandings or grievances arising between employer and employé shall be arbitrated by an arbitration board consisting of three per. sons; one to be selected by the employer, one by the Union, these to select the third, and their deci. sion to be final.


Should either party desire a change in this agree. ment at its termination, three months' notice must first be given previous to April 1, 1905. If no notice of change is given by either party three months previous to April lof any year, the agreement then in force shall continue in force from year to year from that date. In case any change is desired, committee shall be appointed by the parties to this agreement, and in case they fail to agree, the mat. ter shall be referred to a board of arbitrators, made up of three members of the party of the first part and three members of Local No. 79 of the Inter. national Union of Steam Engineers, they to select a seventh member; and the decision of this Board shall be accepted as final by both parties thereto.

The expense incident to arbitration shall be ap. portioned equally to the two bodies.

Employers and Local of Shirt, Waist, and Laundry

Workers International Union. 1. The employer agrees to employ none but good standing members of the Union in each branch or department except office hands and heads of de. partments. Engineers are exempted.

2. That, in accordance with State laws relating to workshops, all sanitary conditions shall be ob. served.

3. That 54 hours shall constitute a week's labor. No reduction in wages to be made on account of reduction of hours of labor. Drivers are exempted.

4. The employer shall abide by the Union con. ditions as entered into and agreed upon in each branch or department. 5. It is mutually agreed that the Union will not

on a strike, or the employer will not lock out his employés while this agreement is in force.

6. All questions of wages or conditions of labor which cannot be mutually agreed upon shall be submitted to a board of arbitration composed of one person to represent the employer and one per. son to represent the Union, these to select a third member of the board.

7. The decision of a majority of this board shall be final and binding on the employer, the employés, and the Union.

8. Said label or stamp is the property of the Union and shall be in possession of a member designated by the Union. It is further agreed that on the discontinuance of this contract, the employer agrees to return all labels, cuts or stamps furnished, without cost to the Union; and to surrender all claims to their further use.

9. The Union on its part agrees to exert its power as a labor organization to advertise and to make all reasonable effort to benefit the business of the employer.

10. This agreement shall not be transferable.

11. This agreement, entered into March 11, 1903, sball remain in force until March 11, 1904. Should either party desire to alter, amend, or annul this agreement, they shall give a written notice thereof three months prior to the expiration of the term of this agreement.


BAKERS. Journeymen Bakers and Confectioners Interna.

tional Union, Local No. 142, and Employers. 1. On and after May 1, 1903, 60 hours shall con. stitute a week's work.

12. Inexperienced hands to be allowed 60 days' | granted to any person. No member of the Union apprenticeship before being compelled to join the shall be allowed to work more than eight hours id Union. Old hands to be allowed 30 days from date any one day for any master painter or decorator, to join the Union.

except as provided in section relating to hours of

labor, nor shall such member under any circumPAINTERS, DECORATORS, AND PAPERHANGERS.

stances be allowed to work for any other person

after working said eight hours. Any member vio. Master Painters and Decorators Association and

lating this section shall be subject to a fine of $10 Brotherhood of Painters and Decorators of

for each and every offence and this fine shall not be America, Local No. 257.

remitted by said Union under any circumstances. Hours of Labor. From first Monday in April, 1903, to first Monday of April, 1905. Not more than

Should any misunderstanding arise under this eight hours' labor shall be required in the limits of

agreement which cannot be adjusted by the two the day, except it be as overtime, with payment of

parties the question shall be submitted to an arbi. same as provided for.

tration board to consist of two members to be seWorking Hours. The working hours shall be lected by the master painters, two by the Union, from 8 A.M. to 12 M. and from 1 P.M. to 5 P.M. (one and these four to select a fifth member. No memhour for dinner during February, March, April,

ber of this board shall be a master painter or a May, June, July, August, September, and October).

member of the Union. The decision of this board During November, December, and January it shall

shall be binding and final. It is also agreed that be optional with the masters whether they work

if either party fails to live up to this section the half hour at noon and quit work at night accord.

other party may bring the matter to the attention ingly.

of the Central Labor Union, and the Central Labor Rules of Labor. Any master painter or decorator

Union pledges itself to compel its enforcement. of the party of the first part may work at any time

This agreement shall be and become in full force with his men or alone as he may wish, and any and effect as soon as it has been executed in duplimaster painter or decorator of the party of the first cate by the parties hereto, and shall continue in part shall be allowed to enter into any contract

full force and effect until April, 1905, and for such with any other master painter or decorator, pro.

time thereafter as is provided by the following: vided that all work under said contract shall be If either party hereto desires to amend or terminate performed by union men so far as said union shall

this contract on said April, 1905, or at any time furnish or supply men to perform labor of the kind thereafter, said party shall give to the other party and quality required by said contract.

notice in writing of its intention at least three Overtime and Holidays. All overtime shall be months before said party desires to amend or terpaid as time and one-half except Sundays which

minate this contract. shall be paid for as double time, but in no case Under the agreement, the employers agree to shall employés be required to work on Labor Day.

hire only Union men, provided the Union shall fur. When a workman intentionally evades working his nish a suficient number of competent workmen. full eight hours, he shall be reported by the em.

The Union agrees that members shall work only for ployer, and disciplined by the Union, and the em.

members of Master Painters and Decorators A-80ployer will deduct double time for the time lost in

ciation. such cases.

The sections headed Waiting Time, Out-of-town. Wages. The minimum rate of wages shall be work, Tools and Materials, and Car-fares have 3719 cents per hour for house painters and paper. been omitted from the above agreement as they hangers.

are identical with corresponding sections of similar Pay Day. Wages to be paid weekly between 5 agreement under Boston (see page 158). and 6 P M. of the established pay day of each em. ployer.

Worcester. Traveling. When workmen are sent out of town

GRANITE CUTTERS. outside of the regular working hours, they shall be paid for the time actually spent in traveling at

Employers and Branch of the Granite Cutters Na

tional Union. the same rate as they are paid for labor, except that in no case shall they receive more than eight The wages of granite cutters shall be 371, cents hours' pay in each 24 hours of consecutive traveling per hour minimum. Eight hours shall constitute time.

a day's work. Tool sharpeners to be paid the Subcontracts. All members of Union 257 hereby same as cutters. Thirteen cutters shall constitute agree not to contract or subcontract any work by a sharpeners' gang. Where a power grindstone is the piece, day, or job, for themselves or others. not used, 11 cutters shall constitute a gang.

Apprentices. This section is the same as corre. The employer has the privilege of adding one or sponding section under Boston (see page 138) ex. two extra men to the sharpeners' gang by paying cept as to number of apprentices. The rule per. 25 cents per man; and all extra kits, on being taken taining thereto for Springtield reads as follows: out, shall be taken note of, and no men of the orig. Each shop shall be entitled to one apprentice pro. inal gang loafing shall be counted out. A drill vided said shop employs at least two journeymen sharpeners' gang shall not consist of more than 16 on an average. Each shop shall be entitled to one men. additional apprentice for each six additional jour. All over eight hours, done at the request of the neymen employed, but in no case shall any shop employer, shall be counted once and one-half for be entitled to more than three apprentices.

overtime. Double time for Sundays and holi. Employment. This section is the same as corre. days. sponding section under Boston (see page 158) with Hours of starting to be left to the employer, from the following addition: The Union shall immedi. 7 till 8 A.M.; one hour nooning. ately notify in writing the secretary of the Master Wages to be paid weekly, not more than three Painters' Association whenever a shop card is 1 days' pay to be retained.


All workmen discharged to be paid at once in / men of the granite-cutting machines to be members cash. Workmen leaving voluntarily to be paid in of the Granite Cutters National Union. money or bank checks.

The above bill of prices and regulations to take Workmen to be paid during working hours. effect March 1, 1903, and shall continue from year

Sheds to be heated in cold weather. Men work to year. ing outside of sheds to receive 25 cents per day Should either party desire a change three months' over the regular rate. Suitable sheds shall be notice shall be given previous to March 1 of any provided for cutters for shelter from sun and year. rain.

Any dispute arising between employers and emOne apprentice to be allowed to each gang, and ployés on the above agreement shall be submitted an agreement drawn up between employer and ap to a committee representing employers and em. prentices to have them serve three years with one ployés, said committee to be known as the “Griev. firm, and that no improvers be allowed. All work. | ance Committee.”


There is no doubt that the prices of the necessaries of life have advanced. It is equally true that, in a general way, the cost of all raw materials and the prices of manufactured goods have been increased. On the other hand, wages in many branches of business have been increased. Many statements have appeared in print contrasting the increase in prices with the advance in wages, but the percentages vary so materially that it is impossible to fix upon any of them as indicative of the absolute truth.

Contemporaneous with these fluctuations in prices and wages have been the organization of trusts, or industrial combinations, and the great increase in the number and membership of the trades unions. The employers wish, naturally, to raise prices and increase profits, while their employés, as naturally, desire a reduction in the hours of labor and an increase in pay. This is the mathematical part of the labor problem, and being mathematical, the solution depends upon the proper collection and arrangement of reliable statistics which will show whether labor's share has or has not kept pace with the profits of capital.

Prof. John R. Commons writes in the Review of Reviews :

While the wage earner has gained in two ways — increase in rate of wages and increase in amount of employment — the capitalist has also gained in two ways — increase in prices and increase in amount of production. If the wage earner works a larger number of days the employer gets a larger output. So that, with prices 40 per cent higher and wages 20 per cent higher, the wage earner's share of the increased production is less than his share of the smaller production. Ilis command of comforts has increased, but the profits and rents from investments have increased still more.

The precession of prices and wages is characteristic of all periods of prosperity in all countries, but it is especially marked in the United States, where the tariff protects prices from foreign competition, while free immigration admits foreign workmen as competitors for wages. In the five years from 1898 to 1903 the imports of merchandise increased

66 per cent, while the number of immigrants increased 270 per cent. The rise in wages is checked by immigration, but the rise in prices is favored by protection.”

Since the organization of the Bureau it has given particular attention to the gathering of statistics of wages and prices. By swage” is meant the sum paid for a specified term of service, either day or hour, or the price paid for a specified quantity of work done, which is called piece work.

The first plan adopted for handling statistics of wages was to gather reports from a certain number of employés, and after dividing the sum total of the wage items by the number of persons, to present the quotient as an average wage. This figure in nearly every case was unreliable, and for reasons easily explained.

In the first place, the wages of men, women, and children were added together without discrimination; in the second place, figures for a large number of high priced working men or women were added to a similar number of quotations for lower paid employés, — the result being a high average wage. On the other hand, a very large number of low priced quotations might be added to a small number of high priced quotations, the result being a low average wage. The quotations were gathered at random, or were sent in in response to circulars, and the office could have no idea of the resulting average until after the returns had been aggregated.

Realizing the inherent defects, both in the manner of collection and presentation of wage statistics, an inquiry calling for classified weekly wages was introduced into the schedule for Annual Statistics of Manufactures. We copy the instructions given in the schedule upon this point:

Classified Weekly Wages. The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the number of persons receiving certain specified sums per week, whether paid by the day, week, or month. State the number of persons receiving under $5 per week, the number receiving $5 but under $6 per week, etc., giving adults (males and females) and young persons separately as indicated by the column headings. These figures should be given for the week (or month) during which the largest number of persons was employed. If preferred, send a copy of your payroll giving amount paid to each adult and young person during the busiest week (or month). Salaried persons should be omitted.

Another form of the classified wage plan was called “. Graded” wages. In this form of presentation, wages were considered as being high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. All these plans or methods of collection and presentation are, however, deficient in one important respect; they do not show the amount actually earned by the workingman.

In 1886, it was provided by law that the Bureau should send out each year a schedule to manufacturers, calling for information which would show the condition of the great industries of the Commonwealth. Instruction 8 in the schedule issued for this purpose reads as follows:

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