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Total Wages. The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the amount of wages paid during the year to all those who worked by the piece, day, week, etc., and whose labor directly produced or added to the value of the articles made. The total amount paid out in wages during the year ending December 31, or for the last financial year, should be given. Salaries of agents, managers, bookkeepers, salesmen, and others of this class, should be omitted. Only the wages paid to the persons actually employed in your own mill, factory, or shop should be returned.
Although this instruction calls for wages, it is evident that the figures returned would be the earnings or the actual amount paid to the persons employed during the year. Having these actual earnings and the number of persons to whom these amounts were paid, for each year from 1885 to the present time, and having also the value of goods manufactured in each of the years specified, it will be seen that there is a statistical basis for the comparison of earnings and production for the entire period from 1885 to 1902.
We have prepared a series of tables relating to the important industries of the State, which show the proportional earnings of employés in comparison with production. We present the one relating to Boots and Shoes.
Boots and Shoes.
The year 1890 is taken as the basis, and related figures are given for that year and for each year to and including 1902, the number of establishments considered, it will be noted, being different for each year.
The second column in that part of the table headed “ Proportional Earnings” has for a heading “ Proportional Representation as Compared with 1890.”
In 1890, in 474 establishments, there were 31,221 males and 11,547 females employed in the manufacture of boots and shoes. The average yearly earnings were $513.76, and in the table of proportional earnings this amount is considered as being represented by 100.
Reference to the table shows the figure 100 opposite the year 1890 ; opposite 1891 we find the figure 98, which indicates a falling off in that year of two points, or two per cent. In 1892 the proportion was 104, being a gain of four points, or four per cent, over 1890, and six points, or six per cent, over 1891. The figures for the succeeding years may be read in a similar manner. It will be noted that earnings were greatest in 1892, but that since that time the average yearly earnings have not been so great as they were in 1890, the highest figure being 97 in 1893 and the lowest 90 in 1898 and in 1900.
The proportion of the sexes is shown in the other two columns of that part of the table headed Proportional Earnings.” In 1890, out of 42,768 persons employed, 73 in each one hundred were males and 27 in each one hundred, females ; in 1902, 61,224 persons being represented, 68 in each one hundred were males and 32 in each one hundred, females. In other words, the males had decreased five in each one hundred of the persons employed, and the females had increased the same number. In 1890, in each one hundred employés, the males were 46 in excess of the females ; in 1902, in each one hundred employés, the males were but 36 in excess, a net loss of 10 in each one hundred on the part of the males.
The second part of the table, headed - Industry Product,” requires some explanation. The first column, giving the years used in the comparison, the second, which states the number of establishments considered, and the fourth, fifth, and sixth columns, which present the number of males and females and those of both sexes employed in the industry, are self-explanatory.
The third column is headed - Industry Product.” We extract from the Annual Statistics of Manufactures for 1892 an explanation of this term :
By - Industry Product ” is meant the actual result of the productive forces in the industry, that is, the added value created above the value of stock and materials consumed. The values presented under the designation - Industry Product” are obtained by deducting from the total value of goods made in each of the specified industries the value of stock used, the difference being added value or actual product due to the industry. In the division of the proceeds of each industry, one part of this industry product is paid to the labor force in the form of wages, this being labor's share of the product. The balance constitutes a fund from which are paid freights, insurance, interest on loans (credit capital), interest on stock
(fixed or invested capital), rents, commissions, salaries, etc. ; in fact, all expenses other than those for stock and wages. The remainder, if any, is the profit of the employer. The entire balance of the industry product remaining after the deduction of the amount paid in wages becomes a “ Profit and Minor Expense Fund.” ... Of course, it will be understood that the term “ Minor Expense ” is relative. The expenses, some of which we have enumerated, paid out of this balance, are in themselves considerable in amount, and are only to be classed as “ Minor” in comparison with the generally larger amounts expended for materials (stock) and wages."
The last column is headed, “ Average Annual Industry Product per Employé," and is arrived at by dividing the total industry product for any given year by the number of persons employed. An analysis of the various points brought out by the table is deferred until the consideration of the summary, containing all the industries, is reached, for in that summary all the important points of comparison for the different industries considered are brought together, and much more can be learned from such a general comparison than from the consideration of a single industry.
We next present a series of nine other tables showing proportional earnings and industry product, for the industries designated as Carpetings, Cotton Goods, Leather, Machines and Machinery, Metals and Metallic Goods, Paper, Woollen Goods, Worsted Goods, and for “ All Industries.”
1898, 1899, 1900,