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The tables are so simple in construction that the reader may make comparisons for any single industry as regards proportional earnings for particular years, as also for persons employed, industry product, and average annual industry product per employé.
In order to show, however, what may be deduced from such comparisons, we present a summary for the years 1890 and 1902.
Proportion of Males to 100 Employés.
In 1890, In 1902,
Increase (+), or decrease (-), in 1902, . . Proportional Earnings (Both Sexes).
In 1902 : : : : : : : : : :
In 1890, · · · · · · · · ·
industry product in 1902 as against industry product based on proportional earnings, . . . . .
Days in Operation.
In 1902, : : : :
Proportion of Males to 100 Employés.
Increase (+), or decrease (-), in 1902, :
In 1902, : : : : : : : : : :
In 1902. . . . . . . .
industry product in 1902 as against industry product
based on proportional earnings, . . . . . Days in Operation.
In 1902 : : :
* Included Leather Goods and Saddlery and Harness previous to 1898.
I No change.
We will consider first the figures given in the column headed " Boots and Shoes " in connection with the classification.
In 1890, the proportion of males in each one hundred employés was 73; in 1902 it was 68, a decrease of five in each one hundred. The proportional earnings for both sexes in 1890 was 100; in 1902 it had fallen to 96, a loss of four points, or four per cent.
In 1890, the average annual industry product per employé was $807.46; in 1902 it had increased to $868.55. Considering that proportional earnings, indicated by 100, represent $807.46, the average annual industry product, it would naturally follow that proportional earnings represented by 96 should result in a reduced average annual industry product. On this basis, proportional earnings indicated by 96 would require an average annual product amounting to $775.16. But we have seen that the actual industry product in 1902 was $868.55 for each employé, which shows an increase of 12.05 per cent in actual industry product in 1902 as against an industry product based on proportional earnings.
In 1890 the boot and shoe factories were in operation seven days less than in 1902 and the proportion of business done reached 72.16 per cent of the total capacity of the establishments for that year, while in 1902 the proportion of business done was but 67.06 per cent of a possible 100.
Considering the percentages of increase or decrease in actual industry product in 1902 as against the industry product based upon proportional earnings, we find the following results for the other industries considered : In Carpetings, an increase of 2.89 per cent; in Cotton Goods, a decrease of 0.43 per cent; in Leather, an increase of 2.10 per cent; in Machines and Machinery, an increase of 10.33 per cent; in Metals and Metallic Goods, a decrease of 5.43 per cent; in Paper, a decrease of 2.45 per cent; in Woollen Goods, an increase of 9.89 per cent; in Worsted Goods, an increase of 48.34 per cent; and in All Industries, an increase of 11.59 per cent.
We have described the manner in which “ Industry Product” is obtained ; that is, by subtracting from the total value of the manufactured goods the cost of the stock used therein. The remainder may be further divided into two parts; one being paid in wages to persons employed, and the other forming the profit and minor expense fund previously explained.
For each of the years from 1890 to 1902, both inclusive, and for each of the industries previously considered, and for All Industries, we show in the following table the percentages of industry product paid in wages, in the consideration of which the fact should be recalled that in each year there was a variation in the number of establishments considered, and that apparent gains or losses were no doubt caused or greatly influenced thereby.
Considering the percentages for the years 1890 and 1902 only, we find a smaller percentage paid in wages in 1902, as compared with 1890, in the case of the following industries : Boots and Shoes, Carpetings, Leather, Machines and Machinery, Woollen Goods, Worsted Goods, and in All Industries. Those industries showing a larger percentage paid in wages in 1902 as compared with 1890 are: Cotton Goods, Metals and Metallic Goods, and Paper.
We next present a table showing the percentages of industry product devoted to profit and minor expenses, it having the same specification by years and industries as shown in the one relating to wages, and subject to the explanation which precedes that table.
Percentages of Industry Product Devoted to Profit and Minor Expenses.
In the case of Boots and Shoes, Carpetings, Leather, Machines and Machinery, Woollen Goods, Worsted Goods, and All Industries, an increase is shown in the percentage of industry product devoted to profit and minor expenses ; a decrease is shown in the case of Cotton Goods, Metals and Metallic Goods, and Paper. In other words, in seven instances the profit and minor expense fund had increased in 1902 as compared with 1890, and had decreased in the case of three industries.
Referring to the comparison of proportional earnings in 1890 and 1902, on page 182, we find an increase in eight instances, and a decrease in two : Boots and Shoes and Leather.
We are now ready to bring together the comparative figures for industry product which represent the number of establishments considered in each year, the 6 wage fund,” and the “ profit and minor expense fund ;” the percentages indicating the comparative size of these funds; the increases or decreases, by years, for each of these funds; the proportional earnings, the average yearly earnings, and the average profit and minor expense fund per employé. All of these points are shown, for the years 1890 to 1902, in the table which follows: