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both chemical and engineering works usually continue their studies at the evening classes. The total number in the day school is about 380, the great majority of these being the sons of parents of the artisan class.
At the commencement of the session of 1897–8 the governors instituted day courses in engineering and chemistry, with a view to enable the cleverest boys, who had been through the three years' course in the day school, and likewise other students, to continue their studies in engineering and chemical work for a further period of two or three years. The engineering course embraces mathematics, practical geometry, engineering drawing, applied mechanics, physics, experimental laboratory work, French or German, together with workshop instruction. The training, which includes the use of large testing machines and other advanced engineering work, is most suitable for those who desire to qualify for appointinents in large engineering firms. The chemistry and physics course includes practical and theoretical work in both organic and inorganic chemistry together with mathematics, physics, and French or German. Day instruction has for many years been given in the School of Art.
Evening Educational Work. The evening work may be divided into the following sections : London University, mathematical, mechanical engineering, building construction, physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, art, trade, languages, and commercial and music sections.
London University Course. The course for the London University Bachelor of Science degree comprises three examinations.
1. A matriculation examination involving English, Latin, mathematics, and science.
2. An intermediate examination embracing pure and mixed mathematics, experimental physics, and chemistry.
3. A final examination in which the student must take three out of the following subjects : Pure mathematics, mixed mathematics, experimental physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, animal physiology, and geology. In most of these, honors may be taken.
Special evening classes are arranged at the People's Palace for the matriculation and intermediate examinations, while the students for the final are placed under the special charge of the professors at the head of the various departments Students are also prepared for the honors in the final examination in several of the subjects.
Mathematics. The mathematical instruction covers the whole range of the South Kensington examinations from the first to the seventh stage. Mathematics are of the greatest importance to those engaged in the engineering and building trades, and, to a less degree, to those connected with chemical work. The instruction is of a very thorough description.
Physics. The professor of physics conducts evening classes for the London University examinations, and there are classes for preparation for the science and art department's examinations.
Electrical Engineering. The electrical engineering department has lately been placed in an efficient condition in regard to apparatus and machinery, a considerable sum having been spent by the governing body. There is a large attendance at the classes of those connected with the trade. In connection with this department there is a class in telegraphy which is especially intended for those employed in the post-office, who receive an extra increment from the government on obtaining the full technological certificate of the city and guilds of London Institute. This certificate likewise requires the student to obtain an elementary certificate in electricity and magnetism, in addition to passing the city and guilds examination.
The Chemistry School. The course includes inorganic and organic chemistry, both theoretical and practical. There are two good laboratories well supplied with apparatus. Each student in the practical classes is supplied with a set of apparatus, on which a small deposit is paid. This is returned at the end of his course, less a deduction for breakages. Otherwise there is no charge for the use of apparatus. Special attention is paid to the making of dyes and to the descriptions of the machinery and methods employed in chemical works.
The Art School. The school of art is open Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays in the evening from 7 to 9.30 P.M. On the lower floor are two rooms for model and free-hand drawing, a third room being devoted to modelling in class. In the middle of the upper floor is the long antique gallery, in which are numerous casts from the antique. At the East end of this gallery is situated the life room, and at the West the design room. Students are prepared for almost all the art examinations conducted by the science and art department, but they are also specially encouraged to work at designs suitable for silks and various manufactures. In the life class much attention is paid to developing character in the work of the student, and encouragement is given for those wishing to compete for various prizes for artistic work. Nude models are posed on each evening, when the school is open, for men ; women having the opportunity for doing similar work in the day time. In connection with the art department there are wood carving classes. Pupils attending these are expected to also take other classes in connection with the school of art.
TRADE CLASSES. In connection with the trade classes, the governors of the People's Palace award certificates in certain subjects which are intended to guarantee proficiency on the part of the holder.
Plumbing. Plumbing classes, which are exclusively for those employed in the trade, meet on Monday and Wednesday evenings, when there are lectures and workshop practice. Many plumbers' apprentices in the East End of London bave very poor facilities for learning the higher part of their work, and these classes are of much assistance to them. The workshop is a large one and is excellently fitted up.
Tailors' Cutting. The classes in tailors' cutting are likewise intended for those engaged in the trade, and, as a large proportion of the population of the East End is engaged in tailoring work, they are naturally popular. Pupils have every facility for working on the methods actually employed in practice. The making of women's garments, as well as of men's, is taught.
Bookbinding. The bookbinding class is instructed in all the operations in connection with the binding of a book on the most approved methods. The two instructors are both practical men engaged at their own trade. In addition to the practical classes in forwarding and finishing, lectures are given on the more technical side of the subject. The class is restricted to apprentices and workmen actually engaged in the trade.
Sign Writing. The sign writing and graining class, which meets on Thursday evening, is the only one of its kind in London. It is usually well attended during the winter months. Students have the opportunity of improving themselves in artistic letter writing, gilding and shading, while special attention is given to graining in imitation of woods and marbles. There is likewise a house decoration class.
Dressmaking and Millinery. Classes are held in dressmaking and in millinery and dresscutting, which are confined to women. The dressmaking is in three grades, — elementary, intermediate, and advanced, and every care is taken that the styles and methods taught are of the newest. Those working in these classes may, under certain conditions, bring their own materials, in which case the garments constructed become their property on completion.
Languages and Commercial Classes. This group of classes is more specially useful to those who are earning their living as clerks, and who wish to improve their position as such. The French classes meet on three evenings, and embrace a thoroughly graduated course. Some of the classes are devoted to conversational instruction, and special attention is paid to students acquiring a good accent. The German classes meet on two evenings in the week, and are divided into elementary, intermediate, and advanced. Shorthand classes of two kinds are held; those in which Pitman's system is taught meet on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday evenings, on the last of which a higher fee is charged for instruction. On Wednesday evening there is also a class in script shorthand. The bookkeeping class meets on Thursday evening, and is under the charge of an experienced teacher. The civil service classes are intended to prepare those engaged in the day time for the competitive examinations held by the civil service commissioners, for various posts in connection with the post-office, telegraph, and other departments, and they are also suitable for those wishing to enter for the examinations conducted by the London County Council and the School Board for London, for various positions in their offices. In the case of the civil service, the number of candidates has become so great, and the subjects are of such an elementary nature, that it has become almost impossible to be successful in the competition without the tuition of a teacher, who has devoted his attention specially to the style of examination. To be successful in any but the lowest grade of the civil service, it is most necessary that a pupil should have a good training at school previously. Boys or girls, who have had such a training, should be successful after attending these classes for a short period. There is a special class for girls.
Music Classes. The music section includes individual instruction on the piano, each lesson being for half an hour and the fee for twelve lessons being $3.75 or $5.25. There is class instruction in harmony, singing, both staff and old notation, and in violin playing. A large choral society meets, and oratorios, cantatas, and other choral works are performed. Members are expected to be able to read music fairly well at sight before they are admitted.
Gymnastics. The large gymnasium is open for men on Tuesdays and Fridays, and for women, on Mondays and Thursdays, and during the winter months the swimming bath is fitted up as an additional gymnasium for men to use on Monday and Thursday evenings when the main gymnasium is reserved for girls. There is likewise a class on Wednesday evening for teachers, and also another for working girls on the same evening.
Bow and Bromley Branch. At the Bow and Bromley Branch additional classes are held in mathematics, stages one and two, practical, plane, and solid geometry, building construction, French, bookkeeping, shorthand, dressmaking, cooking, elocution, solo singing, pianoforte, and the organ. There is likewise a group of classes, more or less connected with biology, in connection with which there is an excellent biological laboratory. The most important of these classes are in physiology and botany, while instruction is also given in physiography and hygiene.
Recreative and Social Work. The recreative and social work of the People's Palace is divided into two heads. One includes the entertainments and other amusements and recreations which are open to the general public and are organized for their benefit. The other consists of social work among the students, which is intended to assist the educational work, and to afford those who are desirous of improving themselves the necessary amusement and recreation.
The chief part of the social work for the benefit of the general public centres around the Queen's Hall. This building has a seating accommodation for about 2,500 persons. There is a fine organ, and the platform affords ample accommodation for a large choir. On Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays entertainments and concerts of various natures are given. Those on Saturdays are very largely attended, and the adjoining Winter garden is generally thrown open as a promenade.
The Handel Society has made it a practice to give one of their annual concerts in the Queen's Hall. The choirs connected with the People's
upon 150 members, giving oratorios, cantatas, etc., in which the solos are taken by singers of the first rank. These have been very largely attended, and have been most popular.
The swimming bath is open to the general public from Easter to September, the charge for admission being about six cents, and under certain conditions reduced to four cents. On Tuesdays it is reserved for the use of women. During the summer months there is a very large attendance at the bath, as many as 1,000 persons being present on one day. It is much appreciated by those residing in the neighborhood, and is largely used by the boys attending the various board schools, who are in the habit of coming, under the superintendence of their masters, on payment of two cents each.
The library, which is likewise open to the general public, is much frequented, and has accommodation for a considerable number of readers.
The horticultural society is open to the public, and holds three or four flower shows at the People's Palace during the course of the year. These have been very successful in stimulating a local interest in the cultivation of plants. The gardens and open-air gymnasium afford a pleasant resort for those residing in the neighborhood, which are more especially appreciated by the younger generation. With a view to encouraging recreative work among the students attending the classes, the Drapers' Company purchased and laid out an athletic and recreative ground, and at the same time a students' union was formed. In connection with this union there are cricket, football, and lawn tennis sections. Dances are likewise organized by the committee, which has had upon several occasions the loan of the Queen's Hall from the governing body, and between three and four hundred students and friends have been present.
In addition to the clubs connected with the students' union, there are other societies for students, and among these may be mentioned the engineering, chemical, architectural, and literary and debating societies, the sketching club, electrical society, an old boys' club, and, although less connected with the People's Palace, the Beaumont Cycling Club, the Ramblers' Club, and the Swimming Club. There are also men's and women's social rooms and a students' library, where books of reference may be obtained. The societies meet for the reading and discussion of papers, and organize social evenings, and, with the permission of the governing body, social dances. The members of various classes and departments likewise meet on various occasions for social evenings.
The Salvation Army of Boston is now engaged in collecting money for the erection of a building which it terms a People's Palace, to cost ultimately about $200,000. The intention is to erect a five-story build