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CONTENTS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SATIRES

TEXT OF SATIRES-BOOKS I AND II

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE EPISTLES

TEXT OF EPISTLES-BOOK I

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE LITERARY EPISTLES

EXT OF EPISTLES-BOOK II

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE ARS POETICA

EXT OF ARS POETICA

NOTES ON THE TEXT, pp. 1-382

TABLE OF DATES, p. 383

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ERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SATIRES

§ 1. Division of the two Books.

ay be taken for certain that the division of the two Books of is a real and chronological division, not merely, like that of three books of the Odes, the division for artistic purposes lection given to the world together. Such a real division is d by the very definite epilogue with which the First Book uded, and the prologue with which the Second Book opens. bt something of this effect is given by the placing of Od. 2. 3. I, and in a slighter way still by that of Od. 1. 37, 38 and ut in the case of the Odes there is no mistake when we Od. 3. 30 and compare it with I. I, that we have in them prologue and epilogue to the work as a whole. To make llel effective, Book II of the Satires should have an epilogue ould mark not only the close of a Book but the achievement purpose. Sat. II is ended in a manner suitable to the more c character of the Book, not by a conscious epilogue, but etch lighter in tone than the two which precede it, and one athers up and puts in more dramatic form some of the chief f the book and especially of its earlier part. Amongst s collections of poems it is analogous to the conclusion of des and of the IVth Book of the Odes, not to that of Sat. I, III, or Epp. I. He has his two manners, evidently, of Book: but this does not render it more probable that he ave published the two Books of Satires together and ended with 'I puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello,' and nd with 'velut illis Canidia adflasset peior serpentibus

truth the two Books stand apart from one another widely, general form and topics, and also in tone personal and and in the background of circumstance. In Book I us is mentioned only once, and then incidentally as patron

of Tigellius. In Book II he is set in the forefront, as the person to whom compliments are to be paid, and whose protection the poet may look for1. In Book I the friendship of Maecenas occupies a prominent place, but there is no hint of his most valued gift, the Sabine retreat. In Book II the 'villa.' is the scene of Sat. 3, and the theme of Sat. 6. The peace of his country home has passed into the poet's blood, and the assured position of which it was the outward sign has modified his views of things. In 2. I he professes to take up the cudgels on behalf of outspoken Satire, but he meets his critics more than half-way. He is 'cupidus pacis,' and his weapon is to be one of defence only. Whatever of personality there had been in Book I has been yet further toned down in Book II. Horace's literary enemies Tigellius, Fannius, Demetrius, have had their final dismissal in Sat. 1. 10. Though, as we see from his later writings, his judgment on the general question between the ancients and moderns emains what it was, he is no longer concerned to defend himself against detractors who depreciated him by exalting Lucilius; and accordingly he expresses his debt to his predecessor and his admiration for him without qualification.

§ 2. Date of Book I.

The first Book of the Satires is the first collection of Horace's poems that was given to the world. This would be the natural conclusion from his words in Sat. 1. 10. 46, where, after assigning different kinds of poetry to different contemporary masters, he says of Satire 'Hoc erat experto frustra Varrone Atacino Atque quibusdam aliis melius quod scribere possem.' Some of the Epodes may have been as early in composition as the earliest Satires, but the collected Epodes were not published before the battle of Actium (Epod. 9).

In endeavouring to fix the date of the publication of Sat. I it is of the first importance to fix the time of Horace's introduction to the friendship of Maecenas. Six, if not seven 2, of the ten Satires

1 Sat. 2. I. II, 19, 84.

2 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10. Possibly we should add 8, which takes occasion in laying the scene of Canidia's witcheries on the Esquiline to compliment Maecenas incidentally on the improvements by which he had converted the old paupers' burial-ground into handsome gardens.

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE SATIRES

§ 1. Division of the two Books.

IT may be taken for certain that the division of the two Books of Satires is a real and chronological division, not merely, like that of the first three books of the Odes, the division for artistic purposes of a collection given to the world together. Such a real division is indicated by the very definite epilogue with which the First Book is concluded, and the prologue with which the Second Book opens. No doubt something of this effect is given by the placing of Od. 2. 20 and 3. 1, and in a slighter way still by that of Od. 1. 37, 38 and 2. I; but in the case of the Odes there is no mistake when we come to Od. 3. 30 and compare it with I. I, that we have in them the true prologue and epilogue to the work as a whole. To make the parallel effective, Book II of the Satires should have an epilogue which would mark not only the close of a Book but the achievement of a full purpose. Sat. II is ended in a manner suitable to the more dramatic character of the Book, not by a conscious epilogue, but by a sketch lighter in tone than the two which precede it, and one which gathers up and puts in more dramatic form some of the chief topics of the book and especially of its earlier part. Amongst Horace's collections of poems it is analogous to the conclusion of the Epodes and of the IVth Book of the Odes, not to that of Sat. I, Odes I-III, or Epp. I. He has his two manners, evidently, of ending a Book: but this does not render it more probable that he should have published the two Books of Satires together and ended the first with 'I puer, atque meo citus haec subscribe libello,' and the second with 'velut illis Canidia adflasset peior serpentibus Afris.'

But in truth the two Books stand apart from one another widely, both in general form and topics, and also in tone personal and literary, and in the background of circumstance. In Book I Octavianus is mentioned only once, and then incidentally as patron

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