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all active duties after having become gray that of a grand duke in a collateral line, wbich in the service of the Union. He is weil seemed his destined lot when in the cradle. known throughout the country, but more par- His earliest training was directed by his ticularly in Missouri
, having filled the office of mother, Alexandra Feodorevna, a sister of the Provost-Marshal-General of that State in an present German Emperor; but his father soon able, firm, and upright manner. His head- withdrew bim from the care of the mild, requarters were in St. Louis in the year 1865. fined Czarina, and sought to inculcate in his Colonel Alexander belonged to the old-school heir the thoughts and ways of a soldier. The class of army officers, and, like many others, gentle, kindly, easy-going character of the was outstripped in the race for rank by junior Czarevitch, different from the arbitrary and officers who entered the lists full of ardor and passionate temper usually characteristic of the vigor at the outbreak of the civil war. Ho Romanoff family, afforded poor material for a commanded the Utah Expedition until relieved military martinet. His tutor, the poet Shuby General Johnston, when Grant, Sherman, kofsky, instilled in him a love of literature and and McClellan were simply lieutenants, and the contemplative science in vogue in Gerhis service extended through a period of forty many. He was endowed with the linguistic years. Graduating at the West Point Military talent of his race in a marked degree, and acAcademy, June 30, 1823, he was the next' quired a familiar acquaintance with the prinday promoted brevet second-lieutenant of the cipal modern languages. The ceremonial ob. Sixth Regular Infantry, and on the 25th of servances, incumbent on the heir to the throne December, 1827, was made a full lieutenant. and nominal commander in the army, formed He attained the rank of captain of the Third the chief part of his public activity. At the Infantry, July 7, 1848; was brevetted major, age of sixteen he was declared of age, and apApril 18, 1848, for gallant conduct in the bat- pointed Hetman of the Cossacks and Comtles of Contreras and Churubusco. At the mandant of the Guards. In 1836 and 1837 he close of the Mexican War he was promoted to traveled through Northern Russia and Siberia, be colonel of the Tenth Infantry, after which where he procured the alleviation of the hard he served the Government at Santa Fé, New lot of political exiles. In 1839 and 1840 he Mexico, and other points. At the beginning visited various countries of Europe. In 1841 of the civil war, Colonel Alexander was sta- be was married to the Princess Maximiliane tioned at Fort Laramie, and offered his ser- Maria of Hesse (see MARIA ALEXANDREVNA vices, and that of his regiment which was in “Annual Cyclopædia" tor 1880). From much devoted to him, again and again to the this marriage came six sons (the Grand Dukes Government, but was retained on the frontier Nicholas, Alexander, now Alexander III, on account of his influence with the Indians. Vladimir, Alexis, Sergins, and Paul), and MaIn the spring of 1863 he was ordered to St. ria, now. Duchess of Edinburgh. In the folLouis as Acting Assistant Provost - Marshal- lowing years he traveled in Southern RusGeneral, the business of which office was to sia, the Caucasus, and Armenia. On one of superintend the district provost-marshals, to his tours he took part in an expedition against be informed on the condition of the State, a tribe of Circassian robbers. He held the execute the draft, arrest deserters, and to post of Director of the Military Schools, but superintend the mustering, in and out, of the the duties were performed by his assistant, troops. This duty was usually assigned, in General Rostoftsef, who afterward took a the respective States, to old and tried army prominent part in the emancipation of the officers, and Colonel Alexander's performance serfs. The Czarevitch was president of one of of it, in a manner at once able, honest, and the commissions appointed to inquire into the faithful, is well attested. After years of un- condition of the serfs, but gave little attention questionable integrity and devotion to duty, to the investigation, and favored rather the this distinguished soldier was in 1869 placed proprietors than the peasantry. Nicht las was apon the retired list, having been brevetted a disappointed in his son, who was overawed by brigadier-general for his services in recruiting his father, as was nearly every one who came the army during the war.
in contact with that majestic autocrat. “My ALEXANDER II, Emperor of Russia, was son Shasha is an old woman," Nicholas once assassinated by Nihilist conspirators, March said; “there will be nothing great done in his 13th, at St. Petersburg. Born April 29, 1818, time.” Had he not wisely kept aloof from Alexander Nicolaevitch's prospects of succeed state affairs, Alexander, from his very differing to the throne seemed the remotest possible. ent habits of mind, might have given his Four years afterward his uncle Constantine in father a better opinion of his strength of charfamily conclave renounced the succession, and acter by coming into unhappy conflict with in his seventh year Alexander I Pavlovitch the "Iron Czar." He is said to have earnestly died in the prime of his life, murdered it is protested against the advance on Turkey in supposed, and was succeeded by Nicholas, the 1853. The military schemes of Nicholas, to third son of Paul I. The infant Alexander, which he had sacrificed all the best interests the Czar's eldest son, was now heir-apparent, of the empire, came to naught, and the Embut, during the thirty years of his father's peror died of shame and disappointment after reign, his life was almost as unimportant as the loss of the Crimean War. Alexander II
mounted the throne of the exhausted empire The courage with which he persisted in the reon March 3, 1855.
actionary policy, offending the most intelligent The spread of education in Russia had as section of the people, and standing in hourly its concomitant an extension of liberal ideas. danger of assassination, was equal to that with The impressionable religious character of the which he had faced the wrath of the aristocRussian mind causes a reform movement in racy in abolishing serfage. He probably made Russia to rapidly break out of the bounds up his mind tardily that the autocratic princiof the timely and the practicable. Relieved ple was essential to the unity and happiness of from the repressive tyranny and the military Russia, and that he had imperiled it and must code of the reign of Nicholas, Young Russia rescue it at all hazards. The heterogeneous indulged in dreams of social regeneration races in Europe and Asia, standing on very which were too bright to be realized. The different planes of civilization, could hardly be new Czar was in thorough sympathy with the made the recipients of equal rights of repreprogressive spirit of the time. The reforms sentation in a constitutional state without which he instituted in the earlier part of his swamping the culture of the very classes who reign seeined in the minds of the enthusiastic were clamoring for a constitution. Then the revolutionists, who formed three quarters of idea of the autocracy is so bound up with the the educated people of Russia, to open an era religious sentiments of the mass of the people of liberty and enlightenment which was to that Alexander II probably recoiled from the place Russia in the van of all the nations. responsibility of subjecting their faith and Alexander was not carried away with the ex- morals to the strain they would have to travagant enthusiasm which was rife; but, undergo upon his abdicating his traditional auwhile proceeding with caution, he showed thority, and breaking off his paternal relations himself disposed to follow to the farthest to his people. practicable extent the path of social and politi Prudence and benevolence were the leadcal reform. On the 3d of March, 1863, he ac- ing traits of Alexander's character. Without complished by his fiat one of the most gigan- being endowed with profound sagacity, he tic and far-reaching revolutionary events of sought conscientiously to make up his own all history—the emancipation of the Russian mind in every juncture, and in every course serfs. This was the one popular reform of his which he chose was carried by circumstances reign which he never sought to modify or re- farther than he foresaw. He had far-sighted call. As he was revered in his life-time by the men to advise him, but, instead of implicitly liberated peasantry as the Czar Emancipator, trusting to their genius, he followed in great so he will live in history by the same title as matters his independent judgment, from a sense one of the most illustrious of his line. Besides of duty rather than from self-confidence. He the great act of his reign, he instituted internal was never carried away with enthusiasm, nor reforms of great importance. To strike of over-hopeful of grand results, but was easily the shackles of thought, to open the press for influenced by popular sentiment, which ho the free expression of opinion, and to rid the gave way to as far as his cautious nature would universities of the drill-masters who subjected admit
. In the emancipation of the serfs his professors and students to the discipline of the heart was thoroughly enlisted, and he acted in barracks and exerciseil a ruthless and ignorant advance of public opinion; in everything else censorship over the studies, was one of the he followed hesitatingly, and always feeling his earliest acts of the reforming Czar, and one of way. The power of Russia was rapidly exthe first to be revoked. The system of educa- tended in Asia during the whole of Alexantion was in many particulars improved. The der's reign. In 1860 a favorable treaty was army and navy were reorganized. Trade and struck with China, by which Manchooria was industry were specially encouraged. New secured. In Central Asia one khanate after commercial routes were opened. A revision the other was put through the gradual process of the laws was taken in hand. A judicial which ends in absorption into the Muscovite system on the French model was instituted, the dominion. In Europe, Russia was silent for penal code was framned, and the methods of civil many years. She was not "sulking, but reand criminal procedure were greatly simplified. cruiting," Gortchakoff declared. In 1863 the A new system of municipal administration Polish rebellion might have been successful was introduced. Limited rights of local self- but for the aid of Prussia. Then Prince Gortgovernment and taxation were accorded to chakoff informed the Western powers that districts and provinces, to be exercised by elec- Russia would listen to no intercessions on betive assemblies. It was hoped and expected half of the kingdom of Poland.” During the that Alexander would end by conferring a con- Franco-German War the keen diplomat imstitution upon Russia, and confide to the people proved the situation and repudiated the stiputhe control of the national destinies. Sudden- iation in the Treaty of Paris forbidding Russia ly the Czar stopped short in his progressive to maintain a naval armament in the Black course, reintroduced the harshest of the repres- Sea, on the ground that treaties are only bindsive regulations which he had abolished, and ing so long as both parties are agreed! This devoted the rest of his life in vainly striving to cool declaration placed Russia again in her lay the spirit which he had himself invoked. traditional attitude. But for the events of
which it was the prelude the Chancellor was that the sword of Nihilism was suspended over not responsible. He, as well as the Finance his head. He did not shrink from the task of Minister, and other members of the Cabinet, trying to extirpate the dangerous growth. earnestly tried to dissuade the Czar from his The measures taken are described in the last attitude to the Slav agitation which led to the two volumes of the "Annual Cyclopædia." Turkish War. The Emperor had no sympathy In April, 1879, the school-master Solovieff fired with the Panslavistic cause. Between him 'four times at the Czar in the palace garden at and the Philoslav party there were only mutual St. Petersburg. In November the dynamite distrust and repulsion. But he refused to mine was exploded on the Moscow Railroad, check the belligerent proceedings of the Sla- which, owing to a change in the programme, vonic Benevolent Society and the Moscow Sla- destroyed the baggage-train instead of the carvonic Society, or to forbid his officers to volun- riage in which the Emperor was traveling. teer in the Servian War, because his sympathies In February, 1880, explosives fired in the cel. were with the Turkish Christians, and he could lar of the Winter Palace would have destroyed not in his conscience disapprove the intense the Czar and his guests while at dinner, bad he popular feeling of the time. The traditional not by a rare chance been a few minutes late. duty of the Czar to protect the Orthodox Melikoff's administration of the extraordinary Christians of Turkey was present in his mind, powers confided to him seemed to be success. not the desire of founding a Panslavic em- ful in unearthing the Nihilist conspirators and pire or of forcing the Eastern question and checking their activity. There was a prospect conquering the Bosporus. He was drawn that a man of his liberal ideas and popular into the war without anticipating it. The sympathies might eventually find out a remedy speech which he made at Moscow, in which for the disorder more effective than mere rehe declared that, if Europe would not secure a preseive violence. But the murder of the better position for the oppressed Slavs, Russia Czar altered the situation. The plot was laid would act alone, he expected would serve as a this time so that the Emperor could hardly menace which would be sufficient to bring escape and his assassin must surely be captured. Turkey to her reason. He was with the army Four conspirators were posted along the street until after the capture of Plevna, visiting the through which the Czar was driving home hospitals frequently and winning the hearts of from a review. Each bad ready to cast a the soldiers by the sincere sympathy and kind- small bomb of certain and terrible explosive ness which he showed for the sick and wounded. power. Confederates in the throng gave the The grief which he felt for the misery caused signal. The second petard proved fatal. The by the war was recognized by the people. He particulars of the plot and the disclosures of was called the “Martyr" and the “Guardian the trial of the conspirators are recounted in Angel." Yet he refused to listen to advisers the article Russia. who urged the conclusion of peace before the ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The clerical list Turkish power was broken.
of the Church of England for 1880 contains The first attempt on the Czar's life was in twenty-six thousand names, showing a gain 1866. The following year he was assaulted of about six thousand clergymen since 1859. with murderous intent in the Bois de Boulogne More than six thousand clergymen are not in at Paris. After the conclusion of the Berlin pastoral work. Treaty, the flames of Nihilism burst out all over According to the report of the Ecclesiastical Russia. It became evident that every branch Commissioners for England, four thousand sevof the public service, every social circle, even en hundred benefices were augmented and enthe higher ranks of officials, the first families dowed by them between 1840 and 1880. The of the aristocracy, and probably the imperial increase in the incomes of benefices, from the family itself, contained agents and friends of augmentations and endowments made by the the revolution. A mania for desperate con- commissioners or through their instrumentality, spiracy seemed to rage. Heterogeneous dis- amounted on October 31, 1880, to about £756,affected elements sought to attain their various 500 per annum, representing the income froin objects through a political cataclysm; but the a capital sum of about £23,000,000. authors and perpetrators of the revolutionary The eighty-second annual meeting of the deeds were the Russian socialists, the most Church Missionary Society was held in Londaring and resolute political conspirators of don, May 3d, the Earl of Chichester presiding. any age. Every arrest and condemnation for The total receipts for the year had been £207,political crime was a provocation for acts 508, of which £189,685 were applicable to the more flagrant and defiant. In 1879 the Em- general expenditure, the rest having come in peror knew that his death was compassed by special contributions. Besides the European the Nibilistic committee in St. Petersburg, the missionaries, 110 native clergy and 1,720 lay central source of terrorism. The Czarina died teachers were employed in the missions, and in 1879. The relations of the Czar to the 1,000 schools were attached to them. The rePrincess Dolgorouky, his determination to port stated that between three and four thoumarry her morganatically, and the vehement sand well-instructed adult converts were bapopposition of his children, were the cause of ad- tized each year through the society's labors. ditional unhappiness at the time when he felt The missions in India absorbed one half the mis
sionaries of the society, and nearly half of its The Lower House feels that this forbearance must foreign expenditure. The native churches in be conditioned by limitations. West Africa were gaining strength and taking The Upper House adopted a resolution deupon themselves more and more the responsi- claring that, bilities of pastoral and missionary work. The Litigation in matters of ritual is to be deprecated and spiritual and philanthropic work of the Frere- deplored, and if possible to be avoided. This House town mission, in East Africa, had been carried also declares that authority to settle differences in on with unceasing energy. Reports were also such matters is inherent in the episcopal office, as witmade of the mission at Uganda, of the missions preface of the Book of Common Prayer, and while
nessed by ancient practice, and as referred to in the at Jerusalem, Jaffa, Gaza, Nablus, and the this House entertains the hope that the clergy, as in Hauran, in Palestine, of stations in Persia, and duty bound, will, in conjunction with the laty, supthe other older and extensive missions of the port the legitimate authority, it also expresses its consociety.
fidence that this authority will be exercised by the The one hundred and eigbtieth annual meet- with the earnest endeavor to compose such differences
bishops of this province in their respective dioceses, ing of the Society for the Propagation of the without litigation, and at the same time to maintain Gospel in Foreign Parts was held May 12th, order, decency, purity of doctrine, and edification in the Archbishop of Canterbury presiding. The
Divine worship income of the society during 1880 had been The convocation met again May 17th. The £138,288, against £131,674 in 1879. Five committee which had been appointed in 1870 hundred and eighty-six ministers had been em- for the revision of the authorized version of ployed during the year: 157 in Asia, 121 in the Holy Scriptures reported that the revision Africa, 54 in Australia and the Pacific, 253 in of the New Testament had been completed, and America and the West Indies, and one in Eu- presented the volume containing the same. rope. There were also in connection with the The Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol spoke society 1,242 catechists and lay teachers, mostly upon the character and extent of the labors natives in heathen countries, and about 250 of the committee, after which thanks were restudents in colleges abroad, who were in train- corded to those members of the body who ing for the work of the ministry in the lands were not appointed by convocation. A resoof their birth.
lution was adopted in the Upper House for the The Convocation of Canterbury met for the appointment of a joint committee of both dispatch of business, February 8th. The arch- Houses, to inquire into the remedies provided bishop presented to the Upper House the sub- by law for neglect of duty by the clergy. The ject of the addresses which had been sent to special attention of the parliamentary commithim for and against greater liberty in ritaal. tee was asked by the Lower House for the A resolution was passed in the Upper House Charity Trusts Bill
. A resolution was adopted requesting the archbishop to take steps with as an articulus cleri deprecating any further a view to obtaining from the crown a letter of relaxation of the oath of allegiance required business committing to convocation the work from persons seeking admission into Parliaof providing for a faller representation of the ment. The Bishop of Llandaff stated that a parochial clergy in the Lower House ; the committee had been appointed by the Welsh Lower House, however, declined to concur in bishops and clergy to consider the expediency this action. A resolution was passed in the of undertaking a revised version of the New Upper House approving of the scope of the bill Testament in the Welsh language. which had been introduced into the House of The convocation met again July 19th. The Commons by. Mr. E. Stanhope, to give effect alleged neglect of baptism, and a proposition for to the recommendations of the Royal Commis- the constitution of a Board of Missions, were sion on the sale and exchange of benefices. A discussed in the Upper House, and projects report having been presented from the Lower for giving religious instruction to seamen, and House on the recommendations of a committee for securing the simultaneous bringing forward which had been appointed on the relations of church questions in church conferences and of church and state," suggesting that greater synods, in the Lower House. The Bishops of authority should be given to convocation, the Lincoln, Exeter, and Truro were requested to Upper House requested the archbishop to move consider what measures could with propriety for a royal commission to consider the sub- be taken to secure the release of the Rev. S. jects of clerical discipline and of courts of F. Green, who was in prison for contumacy in first instance and of appeal in ecclesiastical resisting an order of the court, commanding causes. An articulus cleri was adopted by the him to desist from certain practices in ritual Lower House and sent up to the Upper House, which had been declared unlawful. asking that body, in view of the uncertainties The Convocation of York met April 26th and that were thought to surround some recent in- 27th. A motion was offered by the Bishop of terpretations of ecclesiastical law, and of the Manchester to the effect that, in view of the peculiar character of the parishes and the con- doubtfulness attaching to the interpretation of gregations placed in similar religious circum- the rubric relating to ornaments of the church stances, to discountenance as much as possible and of ministers, as it now stands, and of the legal proceedings in such matters. In making frequent litigation that has ensued, the rubric this request, the resolution said:
should be expunged, to establish a clear and
distinct rule in the matter, conformable to in respect to the death of Mr. Miall, the founder the usage which has prevailed in the Church and chief promoter of the society, and a resofor the last two hundred years. The resolu- lation was passed to the effect that-tion was unanimously adopted in the Upper While the Council will gladly support measures House after some discussion, but was lost in which will put an end to the traffic in church livings the Lower House. A resolution was passed in the Church of England,
it feels bound to oppose for the appointment of a committee to con- proposals which provide for the perpetuation of the sider, with a committee of the Convocation of corrupt and illegal practices disclosed before the Royal
traffic under whatever conditions, believing that the Canterbury, the constitutional relations be- Commissioners wilf not cease until the right to aptween the ecclesiastical and civil authorities, point to benefices ceases to be treated as property caand the best methods whereby common action pable of being sold
or bequeathed. And the Council may be taken by them in matters affecting
the expresses great surprise that the present Lord ChanChurch.
Benefices Act Amendment Bill, which aims at increasThe Archbishop of Canterbury moved in the ing the value of crown livings for the express purHouse of Lords, March 7th, the resolution pose of making them salable, and of thereby conwhich had been approved by the Convocation verting public into private patronage. of Canterbury, for the appointment of a royal At a private conference of persons interested commission to inquire into the constitution in the work of the Church Defense Association and working of the ecclesiastical courts as held March 28th, the Archbishop of Cantercreated or modified under the Reformation bury presiding, a resolution was passed declarStatutes of the 24th and 25th of King Henry ingVIII, and any subsequent acts, and the reso That in view of the strenuous and persistent efforts lution was adopted withont a division.
now being made to prejudice the public mind against The Archbishop of Canterbury, with the the national Church, it is indispensable that a correadvice and consent of the bishops of both prov- sponding effort be made on the part of all
who are utinces, published a letter in September in an- litical party, to take such steps as may be needful for swer to a memorial which had been presented putting distinctly before the country the truth as reto the convocation in May, concerning what gards the work, history, and position of the Church further steps could be taken toward grappling of England. with infidelity and indifference to religion, and Efforts to add to the funds of the associaparticularly snggesting the extension, with tion were also resolved upon, in pursuance of some modifications, of the plan for employing which the Archbishop of Canterbury shortly lay agents in directly spiritual work which had afterward addressed å letter to the clergy dialready been partially introduced in a few dio- recting their attention to the objects and operaceses. After reviewing what had been accom- tions of the Liberation Society, and the necesplished so far by the employment of lay agents, sity of giving increased support to measures the archbishop recommended that in every for counteracting them. diocese laymen should offer themselves to the The twenty-first annual Church Congress parochial clergy for the distinct work of read- was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, beginning Ocers; that the clergy should widely make known tober 4th. The Bishop of Durham presided. their desire to receive the co-operation of such The question of ritual was discussed under the laymen; and that when suitable men had topic of "The Limits within which Variations come forward and been approved, they should of Ritual may be permitted, by the Dean of receive a formal commission from the bishop, Durham, Archdeacon Bardsley, Earl Nelson, solemnized by an appropriate religious service. the Dean of Chester, the Rev. Berdmore CompSuch lay readers, the archbishop advised, ton, and the Rev. P. G. Medd. The question should occupy a definite office, distinct alike of “the Ecclesiastical Courts; the Principles from that of the ordinary lay helpers, and on which they should be constituted, and the from that of women engaged in similar work. Methods by which their Decisions can be made
The annual conference and annual meeting more effectual," was considered by the Hon. of the Society for the Liberation of Religion and Rev. W. H. Fremantle, Dr. H. Cowie from State Patronage and Control were held (Chancellor of the diocese), the Hon. O. L. May 11th. Mr. H. R. Ellington presided. The Wood, Sir W. Worseley, and others. Other executive committee, in its report, congratu- subjects which engaged the attention of the lated the friends of the society on the revival Congress were: “The Relation of the Church of pablic interest in domestic questions, which of England to Churches in Communion with would be certain to prove advantageous to the her in (a) Scotland, (6) Ireland, (c) Americause of digestablishment. Three quarters of ca and the Colonies”; The Duty of the a million copies of publications had been circn- Church in Respect to the Prevalence of Seculated, and about three hundred and fifty meet- larism and Spiritualism" į“The Organization ings had been held, during the year. Some and Development of Lay Work in Connection advantage had been and would
be taken of the with the Church, that of Men and that of interest shown by the farmers in the question Women”; “The Connection between Church of tithes. The passage of the Burials Act and and State, what we gain hy it and what we its successful working were referred to in con- lose by it”; “The Adaptation of the Parochial gratulatory terms. Resolutions were adopted System and of Public Worship to the Requiro