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lower part of the jaw recedes without forming was highly respected and esteemed for his ina chin, and the hinder surface of the symphy- tegrity and uprightness in all the walks of life. sis has a very oblique slope. These character- His time and attention were mainly devoted to istics, approaching the type of the anthropoid the business upon which he entered as a young apes, are exhibited in a much more marked man, with his father and brothers; and in the manner than in any existing savage race, or prosecution of that business, upon sound and in the fossils of men before discovered which manly principles, he met with gratifying sucshow them, such as the jaw of Nanette.
He acquired a large fortune, which he A fortified camp has been discovered by the wisely used, not only for the benefit of his imAbbé Ambrosio Sans in the Maestrazgo plateau mediate family and friends, but also for the in Spain, which bears every indication of hav- good of the community in which he lived, and ing been constructed by a prehistoric people especially for the cause of the church to which of the polished-stone age. It is situated in a he was devotedly attached. About seven years group of hills. On one side the position is ago, he was severely injured by being thrown protected by a natural escarpment. Within from his carriage, and he never fully recovered the curved outer wall, which was built of from the shock thus given to his system. His stones without mortar, is a smaller wall, still last illness was aggravated by a complication intact, and heaps of stones, the ruins of dwell- of disorders, and he sank rapidly under the atings. The habitations were oval, about 20 feet tack, passing away in the early morning of long by 6 feet in breadth, and were arranged Wednesday, July 18th. in groups and in solitary positions, according There were several points in Mr. Appleton's to a definite plan. At the foot of the wall character which deserve to be noted. He was, were found the remains of many animals, some first of all, a devout, consistent Christian of which belonged to extinct species. Outside one who was neither ashamed nor afraid to of the inclosure were picked up polished celts acknowledge his faith and trust in his Saviour, of reddish-veined white quartz, lance-heads of and one who strove to remember always that blackish diorite, and other implements of tlie he was a steward of God, placed in charge of Neolithic age.
large means and opportunities for promoting An ancient galley, discovered at Sandefjord, the spread of the Gospel and the happiness of in Norway, throws light on the naval architect- his fellow-men. And he continued steadfast ure of the Norse mariners a thousand years ago. in this faith, and, when the summons came, It was the sepulchre of a viking, whose bones, he laid down the burden of life with firm, unwith those of a little dog and some implements, wavering confidence in the mercy of our Heavwere found inside, and the bones of horses and enly Father in and through Christ Jesus our dogs sacrificed at the funeral round about; but Lord. He was for many years senior warden the tomb had been plundered. The vessel was ot St. John's Church, Clifton, and was one of about 78 feet long, 17 feet in beam, and 5 feet its largest benefactors. It may indeed be called 9 inches deep, and would probably draw less his monument. A inural tablet has been erectthan four feet of water. The curves of the ed in the church of his affections, commemobent timbers seemed to be the natural growth rating his quiet life of faith and service as a of the trees. There were twenty ribs. The Christian. It was done by the members of the side-boards, of selected and well-seasoned oak, church, his friends, and the employés in his overlapped each other, and were fastened by business. iron rivets clinched on both sides. No evidences In admirable keeping with this inner life of of the use of a saw were seen. The frame- faith, Mr. Appleton always proved himself to timbers were fastened together with root be a gentleman of the truest type. He was withes. Bow and stern had the same shape. uniformly courteous and considerate toward The rudder was on the starboard side, a foot others, never wounding the feelings of any one, or two from the stern. There was no deck. however obscure or lowly his lot, and always There were holes for 32 oars. These were 20 ready with a pleasant word and kindly act. feet long. The finish and workmanship were Though of a rather nervous temperament, and careful and elaborate, and the plan of the hull disliking everything of the nature of parade was anything but primitive and rude, the lines or show, he was fond of congenial society, being admirable for speed and for seaworthi- and took delight in dispensing cordial and ness. The ship was covered by a burial-mound upostentations hospitality at his beautiful resiof blue clay, this material accounting for its dence in Staten Island. He was a lover of excellent preservation.
home and home pleasures, and, as he had been APPLETON, JOHN ADAMS, was born in especially favored and happy in his marriage. Boston, Massachusetts, January 9, 1817, and he made his home the central poirit of quiet died at his residence, Clifton, Staten Island, and peaceful enjoyment. July 13, 1881, in the sixty-fifth year of his As a business man, Mr. Appleton was deseryage. Mr. Appleton was one of the firm of edly esteemed to be an honor to the name. “D. Appleton & Company," a house well He took his full share in upholding the high known for its steady progress and uniform reputation which the house of D. Appleton & success as publishers and importers of books. Co. has always sustained for integrity and fairMr.John A. Appleton, wherever he was known, ness in their vast business transactions. He was
jealocs for the good name of the house, and Royal Museum at Berlin. The Egyptian disdesirous, by every effort on his part, to extend covery was the fruit of the efforts of Maspero, its honorable usefulness. He was endeared to the new director of the Boulak Museum, and all with whom he was brought into close busi- of his assistant, Brugsch, both renowned Egypness relations, as touching evidence of which tologists. It includes records which clear up a may be adduced the spontaneous gathering of doubtful period of Pharaonic chronology. The the employés of the house, the day after his discoveries in Mesopotamia were made by an death, and the resolutions unanimously adopted agent of the British Museum, who has been en. at the meeting. Truly, in all the varied re- gaged for years in this exploration, and who sponsibilities of life, the passage of Holy Script- has now located cities more ancient than Babyure selected as the text of an eloquent dis- lon, and brought to light remains of the primecourse preached at his funeral aptly describes val Assyrian civilization. The Greek remains Mr. Appleton's career: “The path of the just recovered embrace examples of classic art in is as the shining light that shineth more and its highest prime, and also an interesting work more unto the perfect day."
of a later age illustrating the aberrations of ARBITRATION. A decision of the Louisi- Greek genius in the decadence of taste. The ana Court of Appeals embodies a totally differ- excavation of these objects from the ruins of ent doctrine from that which has guided English Olympia and Pergamon was conducted by courts, and American courts after them, for over commissioners of the German Government, two hundred years, relative to the obligation of which had appropriated a large subsidy for merchants to submit to and abide by arbitration this purpose. after agreement to do so. A contract for the In Egypt an extraordinary treasure of sepulsale of mules contained a stipulation that dif- chral relics was brought to light in the summer ferences arising between the parties should be of 1881,
through the efforts of Professor Masreferred to arbitrators, one to be chosen by pero. For many years curious antiquities have each party, and the two, on failing to agree, to occasionally appeared in the markets, of a sort fix apon an umpire. On the failure of the sell- which led to the suspicion that the Arab trader to deliver, the buyer brought suit in court. ers had discovered à royal tomb, which they The selling party objected that the plaintiff had were secretly rifling. Upon deciphering & not offered to arbitrate, as the contract required. photographic copy of a ritual purchased by a The suing party argued that a stipulation to traveler at Thebes, and discoveriug it to be the arbitrate is revocable any time before award is funeral papyrus of Pinotem I, Professor Masmade, and can not debar access to the civil pero's suspicions were confirmed. Having been courts. The court, acknowledging the weight appointed the successor to Mariette Pasha as of authority to conflict with the view taken, conservator of the Khedivial collections, he had delivered the opinion that stipulations of this the opportunity of inaugurating his official character, not being contrary to either law or connection with an important discovery. Proto public policy, should not be considered less ceeding to Thebes, he arrested an Arah dealer binding than other lawful contracts. Arbitra- in relics, one of three brothers who alone were tors are authorized by modern laws to take tes. in possession of the secret. This man, after timouy under oath, and have accordingly the many weeks of obstinate reticence, disclosed facilities for investigating simpler questions. the situation of the treasure. The objects were When parties, knowing the full effect and cir- then taken out by Emil Brugsch, and transcumstances of the agreement, have deliberate- ported to Cairo. The place was not a tomb, ly agreed to settle disputes by friendly refer- but a cave which had been used as a hidingence, they should be left to the tribunal of their place, to which the contents of royal sepulchres own election. The powers of arbitrators and had been taken for safety. The removal took the finality of the award have been considera- place, it is supposed, either at the time of the bly enhanced in New York and other States. tomb robberies of the twentieth dynasty, or Yet the liberty possessed by either party of of the sacking of Thebes by the Assyrians. The withdrawing before the conclusion of the de- mummies and grave-treasures were piled toliberations, discourages merchants from resort- gether in great confusion, and some of the ing to this mode of adjasting disputes in minor identifications which were made on the strength controversies, notwithstanding its preferable- of funereal inscriptions afterward appeared ness to legal trial. In exchanges, boards of donbtful, as there were evidences that the trade, and similar associations there usually re- place had already been ransacked. sides efficient power to enforce a rule compell There were taken out altogether some six ing members to submit their differences to the thousand objects, including twenty-nine mumarbitrament of a committee, and the custom, mies of kings, queens, princes, and high-priests, thus made binding, is erninently satisfactory in five papyri, one of which is the funeral papyrus its workings.
of Queen Makera, of the twentieth dynasty, and ARCHÆOLOGY. Important discoveries of two plaques of the kind which Professor Masantiques illustrating the civilizations of Egypt, pero has before described from specimens which ancient Chaldea, and Greece, have been ex- must have come from the same place. The humed and deposited in the British Museum, mummy-cases, which were all contained in a the Boulak Museum of the Khedive, and in the chamber twenty-three feet by thirteen, had
been opened by Arabs, and into some the wrong Jewish captivity, but which Professor Maspero mummy had been returned, as the names on afterward concluded to be that of Rameses the bandages did not correspond to those upon XII, of the twentieth dynasty; of Queen the cases. The mummies of people of the Not-em-maut, wife of Her-Hor, the first priesteighteenth and nineteenth dynasties appear king; of the high-priest Pinotem; of Queen to have been removed to this place of safety Ramaka and her infant daugliter Mout-em-hat, from their graves in the Valley of the Tombs of the twenty-first dynasty; of King Pinotem during the reign of the first priest-king, Her. II, the third of this dynasty, and of Queen Hor. And afterward, perhaps on account of Hon-ta-taoni, bis daugbter, Queen Ast-em-jeb its secrecy, the vault was used as a burial-place and Princess Nessi-kon-sou, other daughters, for succeeding princes.
Prince Jep-ta-a-ouf-anch, high-priest of Ammon The depredations committed among these Ra, his son, and the high-priest Mas-sa-ha-ta, coffins have been considerable, and much of the another son or near relative. difficulty in identifying the bodies is owing to The assemblage of mummies of different pethe abstractions and displacements. The fu- riods in this place was owing, according to the neral papyrus of Queen Not-em-maut was conjectures of Maspero, originally to the tombpurchased several years ago by the Prince of robberies of the reign of Rameses IX. The Wales, who deposited it in the British Museum. tomb of Amenhotep I was one of those wbich The funeral papyrus of Neb-seni, one of the the robbers attempted to break into. It was dignitaries whose coffins were found, has also probably in the midst of the necropolis at been for some time in the British Museum. Koorneh. Several mummies were missing Many statuettes, inscribed tablets, scarabæi, probably at the time of the removal. The mummies, etc., have been sold to travelers of tomb of Queen Mashont-ti-moo-hoo had been late years, which were undoubtedly taken from pillaged, and apparently those of Thothmes this place by the Arabs, who have known the III, Rameses I, Seti I, and others. Contemsecret of the chamber for probably twenty-two porary mummies of the family of the twentieth years.
dynasty were deposited in the same place for Of the twenty-nine mummies recovered, sev- safety on account of the unsettled state of the en are those of kings, nine of queens and prin- country, owing to insurrections and the estabcesses, and five of personages of distinction. lishment of the rival dynasty at Tanis. This The hiding-place was situated behind an angle twenty-first dynasty could not have succeeded of a cliff a little way from Deir-el-Bahari, near Her-Hor, but reigned contemporaneously with Thebes, southwest of the village. The entrance the priest-kings whose names are preserved to the chamber in which they were concealed in this cavern. These descendants of Her-Hor was by a perpendicular shaft, 12 metres deep, were as follows: High-Priest Piankhi; Highwhose month was 60 metres above the plain. Priest Pinotem I; Pinotem II; his sons, King From the bottom of the pit a gallery, 74 metres Menkheperra and High-Priest Mahasirti; and in length, conducted to the chamber, whose King Pinotem, whose wife, Makeri, was dimensions were 7 metres by 4. A hint of the daughter of the contemporary King of Tanis. causes which led to the deposit of the bodies in The rival dynasties were both supplanted after this secret place is probably given in hieratio the death of Makeri by Sheshouk, the head of inscriptions on the mummy-cases of Leti I and a Semitic family in Lower Egypt, who founded Rameses XII, which stated that their remains the Bubastite dynasty. had been placed for safety in the tomb of Queen Assyriologists have for some time expected Ansera. The mummy of this queen was found that in the ruined cities of Babylonia more in the vault, though not in her own mummy ancient versions of the Assyrian text than the case, but that of Rai, the nurse of Queen cuneiform inscriptions already recovered would Ahmes-Nofertari.
yet be brought to light. In 1880 Hormuzd Among the mummies were identified those Rassam found a fragment of a tablet relating of a Raskenen, one of the last kings of the to the Deluge in the ruins of one of the temseventeenth dynasty; of King Abmes I, the ple libraries of Babylon. Through the seasons founder of the eighteenth dynasty, and of of 1880 and 1881 the same explorer has indusAhmes-Nofertari, his queen; Queen Arhotep triously examined the sites of the Chaldean and Princess Sat Ammon, his daughters, and cities of Babylon, Borsippa, Sippara, and Prince Sa Ammon, his son; of Amenhotep I, Cutha, and has unearthed a large number of the second king of this dynasty; the mummy- religious texts and records. cases of Thothmes I and Thothmes II, succeed Since the large discovery of inscribed tablets ing monarchs; the mummy-case, and perhaps made by Arabs in 1874, there have been inthe mummy, of Thothmes III, or the Great; numerable relics and inscriptions exhumed in mummies of Queens Hont-ta-me-hou, An, Set- Babylon. The same spot has been explored ka, and Princess Mes-sont-ta-me-hou, all of the by Rassam. It was the center of commercial eighteenth dynasty; the mummy of Rameses life in ancient Babylon, being the court of a I, the founder of the nineteenth dynasty; of family named Beni Egibi, who seem to have King Seti I, his successor; the supposed been financial agents of the government. The mummy of Rameses II, or the Great, the third tax-receipts found here reveal the fact that the king of this dynasty, and the Pharaoh of the taxes for the maintenance of the irrigation
canals and the highways were raised by duties secured from the Arabs by the late George on the land, the date and corn crops, and on Smith. cattle. There were large quantities of temple The excavations at Olympia, which have been lands held in mortmain, like the mosque prop- prosecuted since 1875 with means furnished erty in the Turkish Empire. From the pal- by the German Government, have revealed the aces of Babylon Rassam has recovered records whole plan of this most interesting city, wbich which cover the period from the reign of Na. remained for many centuries the center of bonidus to the capture of the city by Cyrus. Hellenic civilization and the scene of the na
Babylon was built almost entirely of brick. tional festivals. The walled inclosure called Obambers and corridors of the Palace of the the Sacred Grove, in which were the Temple Kings, with decorations of plaster and painted of Zeus and the other shrines and sanctuaries bricks, were found. Extensive hydraulic works, and the official buildings connected with the consisting of wells and conduits connected Olympic games, was about four thousand feet with the river, seem to indicate the locality of long, and extended back from the river to the the hanging gardens. One of the kings, ac- foot of the mountain about two thousand feet. cording to a discovered document, had sixty The Temple of Zeus was a simpler, more massive gardens or paradises made for him near the and more imposing edifice than the Parthenon, city. The ruins of the traditional site of the built in a purer Doric style. The group of Tower of Babel are probably the seven-story twenty-one colossal figures by Paionios, reptower of the Temple of Nebo.
resenting the battle between Oinomaos and Rassam has identified and explored the sites Pelops, with Zeus as arbiter in the middle, of two cities of higher antiquity than Babylon. which adorned the eastern pediment, have all These are Sippara, the city of the Sun-god, been recovered in various states of preservation. which was, according to Berosus, more ancient Statues of the river-gods Alpheios and Kladeos than Ur, having been founded before the flood, flanked the pediment. The western pediment and Cutha, one of the great temple-cities of contained a group by Alkmenes representing & Babylonia. The modern name of the site of contest at the wedding of Peirithoös arrested Sippara is Abbu Hubba. The mounds cover by the intervention of the young Apollo, an area of over two miles in circumference. showing drunken Centaurs carrying off the The buildings were placed with their angles to women and Hellenes coming to the rescue, the cardinal points of the compass. The south- with weeping female slaves on the ground. west wall of an immense building was first This composition consists likewise of twentyuncovered. It was fifteen hundred feet long, one figures, of thirteen of which the heads reand broken at regular intervals by projecting main. At both ends of the temple are sculptbattresses, which were ornamented by grooved ures in high relief representing the labors of panels. The edifice consisted of many long, Herakles. They are pronounced by Curtius narrow rooms, with exceedingly thick walls, to belong to the same school of sculpture as arranged around a central court. This build the pediments. The pediments can be inteling was the Temple of the Sun-god. In a ligibly reconstructed, and surpass any pedilarge gallery were the remains of the sacrificial ments before known. Curtius assigns the altar, nearly thirty feet square; and in a con- sculptures of the temple to the school of necting chamber were the records of the tem- Kalamis, which immediately preceded the ple. One of the records is & votive tablet highest development of Attic art in the age of commemorating the victory of the Babylonian Phidias. In the representation of Apollo the king Nabupallidina over the Satu tribe of conventional traditions were adhered to, while Elamites, and dating from about the year 852 in the forms of the men and Centaurs comB. o. It contains a figure in relief of the god plete freedom was exercised. The Heraion, and of the king and priests performing wor- which comes next in size to the Temple of ship. It was the cult of the solar disk and Zeus, dates from an earlier period. It illusrays, a form of which was introduced into trates the growth of a Greek temple, which Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty. A list of the was originally a temporary wooden structure six solar festivals is inscribed, two of them cor- for the reception of votive offerings, but was responding to the spring and autumn equinoxes. gradually built up by the replacement of one Sheep, oxen, rams, and fruits of the earth are group after another of the wooden pillars by mentioned as the sacrificial offerings, as in the stone columns. The ground-plan of another Bible. This most ancient of the cities of Mes- temple surrounded by pillars has also been opotamia, and a neighboring place, whose ruins discovered. It is the Metroön, or sanctuary yielded records of minor importance, are in all of the mother of the gods. The treasuries have probability identical with the cities of Sephar- been exposed to view in the northern part of vaim mentioned in 2 Kings, xvii, 24–31, in the Altis, or sacred inclosure. They resemble connection with Cutha, whose site was also temples, and stand in a row. The two largidentified and partially explored by Rassam. est, the thesauri of the Syracusans and of the The British Museum, which receives the ob- Megareans, have been identified. The latter jects recovered by Rassam, already contains contains sculptures representing the war of over three thousand of these tablets of the the giants, of an age preceding the Æginitæ. carlier period, including the large collection One of the most interesting monuments of the
classic period is the colossal figure of Nike, by portions. In picturing the giants the artist gave Paionios. The round temple built by Phil- free play to an exuberant fancy. Some of them ip of Macedon after the battle of Chæronea are fine types of manly strength and beauty; stands in a fair state of preservation to the others fantastic mixtures of human and monwest of the Heraion. Structures of the Roman strous forms; some with legs prolonged into period are rotundas, water-works, etc., erected serpents; many with one or two pairs of wings; by Antoninus Pius and Herodes Atticus. The one with a lion's head and mane; one with the Pelopion, or precinct for the worship of the horns and ears of a Triton, and one with the hero Pelops, was marked by no structure ex- shoulders and hump of a buffalo. Zeus is repcept an entrance-hall at one end. The altar resented engaged with many foes at once-his of Zeus, an elliptical ring of rough stones, oc- serpent seizing the heads of two of the hideous cupied the very center of the Altis. In the serpent-legs, and his ægis held aloft in his exsoil around the altar quantities of votive offer- tended right hand. Athene with the gorgoneiings in bronze and terra-cotta were found. The on on her breast is dragging a winged youthPrytaneion, containing the altar of Hestia and ful giant by the hair. Hecate is a singular the banqueting-hall in which the Olympic conception, having three heads and trunks and victors were feasted, stood at the northwest six arms. Apollo and Dionysos are forms of corner of the Altis. Between the buildings great beauty. A lovely female figure, engaged the open spaces were filled with statues, the in hurling a vase encircled with serpents at a votive gifts of cities and individuals, and also giant, has puzzled all archæologists. Cybele, statues of the victors in the Olympian contests. riding upon her lion, is armed with a bow. Of But few of these remain.
the frieze, ninety-four slabs, about three fifths Outside of the Altis the stadiums, leading to of the whole, have been excavated and sent to the course of the runners, stood on the east. Berlin, and with them thirty-four slabs of the The starting-place and goal are still in position. sinaller frieze, representing scenes from the leAll the other contests took place here, except gend of Telephus; and numerous inscriptions, the chariot-races in the Hippodrome, of which statues, and other relics. no vestiges remain. An edifice consisting of a ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (REPUBLICA ARquadrangular court, approached by two colon- GENTINA). “Our relations with foreign powers nades, dates from about the same period as the will be zealously maintained and fostered by Temple of Zeus. It is supposed to have been my Government, care being taken to augment the meeting-place of the Olympic Council. A and strengthen the bonds of union between series of fine buildings stood between the Kla- this republic and the most advanced nations. deos and the Altis on the west. A circular It will be my special endeavor to preserve harbuilding contained an altar with inscriptions to mony with our neighbors, while strictly ab" the hero,” referring, undoubtedly, to lanos, staining from interference in their internal conand afterward Klytias, founders of the priestly cerns. And as for those with whom, in relafamilies of diviners which first gave to Olympia tion to boundaries, we have difficulties still its importance. A group of dwellings near by pending, I shall seek to solve these in a manner were probably the homes of the priests, and worthy of all concerned, without yielding one the building whose site was taken for the iota where I understand the dignity, rights, or Byzantine church must have been the assem- integrity of the republic to be affected." These bly-hall of the priestly functionaries. To the words, quoted from President Roca's inaugural north were the Palæstra or practice-court for speech to the Argentine Congress, were spoken the wrestlers, and the halls where the rhetori- on October 12, 1880. Just one year later were cal declamations were delivered. East of the exchanged the following notes between the Byzantine church was the court, surrounded United States Minister at Buenos Ayres and with columns, which is called the Grand Gym- the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs: nasium. This was probably the largest and
UNITED STATES LEGATION, October 22d, 11.30 P. M. most splendid building in Olympia.
MY DEAR MINISTER : Allow me to offer you my There have been more than four hundred most cordial and sincere congratulations on the final inscriptions found. Many of them have refer- approbation, by the representatives of both countries, ence to the visitors at the games, and afford of the treaty which is the crowning and most glorious much information regarding the different games. know the meaning of the word gratitude. It may be
The German explorers have also exhumed im- so; but henceforward the two nations can never forportant remains of the Acropolis at Pergamon, get or cease to feel grateful for what you have done a city of great splendor in post-Alexandrian for them in one year of patient work and careful times. The sculptured ornaments of the great thought. Be assured that my Government and the altar, mentioned by ancient writers, have been well-merited recognition of the honor due to you for recovered in a good state of preservation. The the glorious peace and prosperity that must inevitably principal frieze represents the battle of the gods result from your great achievement. I shall take the and giants. This work dates from about 200 earliest opportunity of calling on you in person to B. C., the period of the inroads of the Gallic present my respects and renew my congratulations.
Your very sincere friend, THOMAS 0. OSBORN. barbarians. The figures are of heroic size, and
BUENOS AYRES, October 22d. executed in a free and bold style. The gods MY DEAR MINISTER: A thousand thanks for the very are dignified and graceful in attitude and pro. kind note you have sent me. I prize it extremely,