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it to the front wheels of a farm wagon at the extent, a waste article. The value of the meal king-bolt. The bottom is movable, which by and of the ashes of the hulls as a fertilizer, and of simple machinery, when in gear, moves slowly the meal as a stock-food, has been proved beyond between the sides of the body, carrying the question. Within the past few years several manure to the rear, where it meets a rapidly cotton-seed oil-mills, some on a large scale, revolving cylinder, armed with strong iron have been started in the Southern States—at teeth, which tears the manure into shreds and New Orleans, Louisiana, at Memphis, Tennessee, scatters it in an even shower as the team moves at Selma and Eufaula, Alabama, at Augusta, forward. It grinds to powder and spreads Georgia, and other places, and one is about to smoothly all sorts of manure, from the coarsest be established at Atlanta, Georgia—at most of and wettest to the finest and driest. A simple which the farmers can obtain for their seed their device regulates exactly the amount to be scat- produce in cake or meal, the mill retaining the tered, and scatters it either broadcast or in the oil and the bulls. Several cotton-seed hullers drill, as may be desired. The machine was and grinders suitable for plantation use were abundantly tested while on exhibition. The exhibited, whereby the seed is thoroughly deperfect uniformity and speed with which it corticated and the kernel ground into meal for does its work, render it a very desirable addi- stock-food or for fertilizing purposes, of which tion to the farm machinery of large farmers, large numbers were purchased. No machine or of any who can afford to pay the price of moderate price for expressing the oil was exwhich the manufacturers charge.
hibited. The necessary machinery for an oilNext in interest and in value to the cotton- mill of average capacity costs from $20,000 to grower and the stock-raiser were the machines $25,000; the hullers and grinders from $75 for utilizing cotton-seed-for milling, grinding, to $150. That made by David Kahnweiler, of and expressing the oil. Previous to 186), New York, received the first prize. comparatively little was known of the value of If the method of saving green crops, called cotton-seed, or of the uses to which it might “ensilage,” which has been recently introduced be applied. In many places where the lands into the United States, though it has been long were very productive without the use of ma- in use in Europe, proves to be what its ennure, as in the alluvial lands of the Missis, thusiastic advocates claim for it, a sufficient sippi Valley, the cotton-seed was either burned number and variety of “ensilage-cutters” were or thrown into the river to get it out of the exhibited to insure the speedy and thorough way. Where it was used as a fertilizer it was execution of the cutting part of the work. În applied fresh as it came from the gin, or in & the cotton States, where the winter is so short, half-rotted state. Since then it has been dem- and where cattle can find abundance of succuonstrated that cotton-seed properly treated may lent pasture in the woods and canebrakes be made to yield the best fertilizer, the most nearly all the year, the necessity for ensilage, nutritious food for stock, and the purest oil for which involves considerable outlay and labor, various purposes. Estimating the cotton-crop is not as urgent as in those latitudes where the at 4,000,000 bales—as low as it is over likely climate is more severe. to be—the amount of seed produced is 120,- As the limits of this notice of the exposition 000,000 bushels, or 3,600,000,000 pounds render a detailed report of the exhibits in every 1,800,000 tons, worth, at $12 per ton, $21,600,- group impossible, and only permit mention of 000. Worked in a mill
, that is, decorticated, the those things which attracted most attention on oil expressed and the kernel ground into meal, the part of those for whose improvement the every ton of seed will yield 60 to 80 pounds of exposition was designed, many exhibits of lint which the gin did not detach, fit to make value and merit must necessarily be passed paper; 900 to 960 pounds of hulls; 60 to 80 over. Though it does not come strictly under pounds of oil, and 500 to 600 pounds of meal. the head of farm machinery and implements, It is evident that where the raw seed was ap- the barbed-wire fencing material, of which plied to the land, wbich was far from being the there was a very full display, may be approgeneral practice, all the above valuable articles priately noticed here. Nothing seemed to inwere lost to commerce, and the land not as terest the visitors more than this, because the effectively fertilized as by the application of belief is growing rapidly that no more expenthe meal, because the nappy cotton and the sive, inefficient, hideous, or wasteful fence can hull prevent the access of moisture and retard be imagined than the prevailing rail- or wormdecomposition, and because the oil is not only fence which now disfigures the face of nature ; not a source of fertility, but an obstacle to the and, further, because economy in the use of usefulness of the seed as a manure. But if we the timber that is left in the older States, after assume that only 900,000 tons of seed are avail- so many years of improvident use of it, is fast able for treatment in mills, we then have 54,- becoming a generally recognized necessity. A 000,000 to 72,000,000 pounds of cotton, 810,- combination of the barbed-wire and plank is 000,000 to 864,000,000 pounds of hulls, 54,000,- the fence which is most approved, it being 000 to 72,000,000 pounds of oil, and 45,000,000 feared that the slender wire alone, which is to 54,000,000 pounds of meal, thus adding to hardly visible at a distance, may wound and the wealth of the cotton States about $30,000,- injure stock. In a period of ten years a well000 annually from what has been, to a great constructed wire-fence, made of any of the various forms that were exhibited, will cer- ern and Atlantic Railroad of Georgia; by the tainly cost less than any rail-fence, without Great Northern and Texas and Pacific Railtaking into account the loss of land covered road; by the Louisville and Nashville Railby the "worm," or the hindrance to tidy cult- road; by the Georgia Pacific; and by the Nashure which the rail presents.
ville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad, It has been found of late years that the cult- though not as large as that of their more sucure of upland rice might be made a profitable cessful competitor, were equally interesting and industry, if a cheap hulling-machine could be instructive, and received appropriate commeninvented, such as small farmers could afford to dation from the judges. The richness and combuy. The mills used on the large rice planta- prehensiveness of their displays, gathered and tions for preparing rough rice are very expen- prepared in great haste, surprised the railroad sive. Two machines for this purpose, of mod-managers who made them. These various colerate price, were exhibited, which seem to lections of minerals and woods will not be supply the want, and, if this proves to be the scattered. They will be permanently preserved case, the growth of rice may be extended in- and enlarged. That of the Richmond and Dandefinitely beyond the lowlands on the coast ville Railroad has been removed to Richmond, of South Carolina and Georgia. The rice Virginia, where it will constitute a valuable cleaner and polisher of William C. Howard, of illustration of the mineral and forest wealth of Grahamsville, South Carolina, received the gold the States which that road traverses. That of medal, or $100. Mowers and reapers, thrash- the Western and Atlantic Railroad has been ing-machines, separators and cleaners, of the moved to Washington, where it will be arfinest make, were represented in goodly num- ranged in the Museum of the Department of ber, and, considering their high price, have Agriculture. A large portion of the other exbeen extensively purchased by those farmers hibits has been moved to Athens, Georgia, to who have had the wisdom to increase their be placed in the Museums of the State College crops of small grain and of the grasses, with a of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts of the view to make their farms self-sustaining. On University of Georgia. many farms where, in the past, wheat and Steam-Engines, etc.—The display of engines, oats, barley and rye, grass and clover, were and of the implements and apparatus used harvested with the old-fashioned cradle, the in connection with them, was large and of rapid click of the mowers and reapers seen at great variety as to shape and power, but there the exposition will be heard this year. The was nothing specially new in their construcdisplay of agricultural implements and ma- tion or application. The traction-engines from chinery may be truly called, as Mr. Edward Aultman & Co., Canton, Ohio, and Gaar, Scott Atkinson has remarked, "an exhibition of the & Co., Richmond, Indiana, and other manubeginnings of new processes, and for the cor- facturers, and the vertical engines of one, two, rection of the errors in old methods—an exhi- three, four, five, six, eight, ten, and twelve bition of the potentialities of the future," and horse-power, from the New York Safety Steamin this consists its value to the agriculturists of Power Company, New York (the latter rethe South.
ceived the highest award), were among those Minerals and Woods.- No department of the most worthy of particular notice. It is gratiexposition exhibited so forcibly the wondrous fying to observe the extent to which steam is nature and extent of the material resources of taking the place of horse-power in the work the Southern States as that devoted to the dis- of the farm wherever it is applicable. There play of minerals and woods, collected chiefly were several steam saw-mills, with gang-saws, by the leading railroad companies. Here were circular saws, band-saws, etc., the machinery collected, as Mr. Killibrew (in charge of the de- of some of which was in action, which were partment) remarked, "every mineral that con- much admired for their speed and precision. tributes to the arts and every variety of timber Those of Lane & Bodley, Cincinnati, Ohio, were wbicb grows between the St. Lawrence and awarded the gold medal. There was also a fine the Gulf of Mexico." These specimens of the display of machinery and tools for breaking and products of the mines and forests gave unde- dressing stones, and for working wood and niable and tangible proof of the practically metal. The machine for the manufacture of limitless and hitherto undeveloped resources of steel-barbed fence-wire was the most noticed, the South, so that it is reasonable to expect from its novelty, and that of the industry that in the near future a quickening impulse which it has created. In the group designated will be given to all kinds of industrial develop- "transportation," including pleasure-carriages, ment to which this region has until now been phaetons, buggies, etc., etc., the exhibit was 8 stranger. A detailed description of the ores meager and unattractive. Under this head and woods would far exceed the limits of this were exhibited coffins, undertakers' supplies, notice. The collection of minerals, of forest metallic caskets, described as “ ornamental," products, and of hard and ornamental and “full ornamental,” and “half ornamental," useful woods, presented by the Richmond and which seemed to justify the description. In Dan ville Railroad Company, ceived the high- classifying the means transportation, it was est prize-certificate of award, and cash_pre- appropriate to begin with the baby-carriage, mium of $200. The collections by the West- of which there were many specimens, then pass
to the pleasure-carriage, and wind up with the Kittrick, Wallace & Co., of Memphis, Tennes“full ornamental metallic casket."
see, showing “raw silk, spun silk, silk floss, Manufactures, Textile.—This department in- woven silk, twisted silk, silk-worms spinning cluded cotton yarns, cloth, and prints, and other silk, silk cocoons, silk butterflies, silk-worm vegetable fabrics, from the gossamer muslin to eggs, and silk-worms feeding, all made, raised, the coarsest un bleached homespun, from the and cultivated in the South.” It is said that finest lace to tent-canvas, from the most at- silk-worms will feed and thrive as well on the tenuated spool-thread to cable-rope. The ex- leaf of the Osage orange as on the leaf of the hibits of the Northern factories were as fine as celebrated Morus multicaulis
, which created so could be expected. They represented every- much excitement at the South several years. thing that cotton is capable of producing under ago, and that the worms that make the wild the application of the highest inventive genius silk of Northern China feed upon oak-leaves of and mechanical skill. While every one ad- the same variety of the genus Quercus as that mired, no one was surprised at this display. But which grows luxuriantly on the mountains of every one was snrprised and gratified by the Virginia. excellence and wide scope of the productions The number of the machines for textile of the Southern cotton-factories which were manufacturing was legion - cotton cards of exposed. They did not present anything com- all sorts, looms of every variety, spinningparable in size with the immense exhibit
of the frames, spindles, spoolers, reels, threaders, Willimantic Linen Company, the largest at the shuttles of every kind, with a full display of exposition, and the one which presented, per- sewing machines, whose peculiar merits were haps, the best view of all the details of cotton deftly displayed by operators of remarkable machinery; but in the substantials of “cotton skill. The button-hole machines of the Amerigoods”-sheetings, shirtings, drillings, prints, can Button-hole and Sewing Machine Comyarns, muslins, jeans, and cotton blankets- pany, of Philadelphia, were especially noticed. the Wesson Mills, of Mississippi; the Augusta Miscellaneous.-In the groups of the departFactory; the Summerville Mills, of Augusta, ments comprising printing and telegraphy, Georgia; the Eagle and Phænix Manufactur- breaking and dressing stone, furnaces and ing Company, of Columbus, Georgia; the Ala- pumps, chemical and pharmaceutical products, bama and Georgia Manufacturing Company, of soaps and perfumery, bricks, tiles, terra-cotta West Point, Georgia; the Roswell Manufact- and glassware, fire-arms, etc., railway supplies, uring Company, of Roswell, Georgia ; the etc., the exhibits were numerous and interestLangley Mills and the Piedmont Mills, of South ing, but there was nothing among them specialCarolina, proved that they had made giant ly new or remarkable. strides in the race with their older and wealth The Art-Gallery. The works of art, propier rivals in Lowell, Fall River, and Provi- erly so called, in this department, were not dence. This was a cheering manifestation of numerous, and of no marked merit. The porthe “potentialities of the future," and en- traits of General Oglethorpe and of James courages the hope that the esse of 1892 will Habersham, exhibited by John Milledge, Esq., fully realize, if not surpass, the posse of 1882 grandson of Governor Milledge, were interestin the estimate of the most sanguine.
ing in an historical point of view. There were The Chinese and Japanese fabrics and gar- some good steel engravings, and a very creditments exhibited by Mr. Atkinson in this de- able display of photographs, mostly portraits partment, showing the coarse, rade material of local celebrities, displayed by O. W. Daand clothing used by nine tenths of the teem- vis, of Athens, and o. W. Motes, of Atlanta, ing population of China and Japan, were of Georgia. Some sets of mantel-tiles, and a extreme interest, and suggested another "po- terra-cotta group from the Franckelton China tentiality" of immense proportions, interesting Decorating Works, Milwaukee, were much adalike to the cotton-grower and to the cotton- mired and received the highest award. The manufacturer, when the machine-made cloth antiques and art-bronze of Sypher & Co., of of the United States shall be more generally New York, were equally distinguished by the worn than at present by the 400,000,000 of judges. The display of watches, clocks, jewelChina and the 40,000,000 of Japan. It is esti- ry, precious stones, and silver-ware was rich, mated that in both of these countries each per. and always attracted a crowd of admiring son needs twenty yards of cotton cloth every gazers. The Jacquard Jewelry Company, of year, making 8,000,000,000 yards needed for St. Louis, Missouri, made the largest and most China, and 800,000,000 yards for Japan. Sta- costly show. A set of silver-ware manufacttistics show that only 641,760,960 yards of ured by them for presentation to Mr. Paracotton cloth are exported to China, enough to more, of St. Louis, was more massive and elabclothe 32,088,040 people, thus leaving 368,- orate than elegant. They also exhibited some 000,000 to be clothed with the native hand- graceful specimens of repoussé work. The loom cloth, which is not only vastly inferior in jewelry was pretty, and the setting of precious quality, but costs more than the machine-made stones would compare favorably with that of cloth of our factories.
any other house in the United States. The The display of silk, spun and woven, was exhibit of watches was exclusively American, worthy of note, especially the exhibit of Mc- some made by J. P. Stevens & Co., of Atlanta
Watches of all shapes, sizes, and movements Cotton became irresistible. The conditions or were to be seen, from the finest gold-incased the first prize were that the cotton should be chronometer to the five-dollar nickel watch, of other than long staple, the growth of 1881; one of which every colored man of any preten- that it should be ginned and baled in the usual sion to refinement strives to be possessed. The way; that the lint should not be hand-picked Waltham Watch Company made a fine dis- from the seed, or carded; and that no bale play. Their watches not only excel the old should compete which had not won the lower hand-made timepiece in cheapness, but in the prize of $100 adjudged to the best bale from 'uniformity which machinery gives to all their each of the competing States. There were thus parts, as well as in the simplicity and perfec- nine competing bales, each of which had retion of their construction. “A number of new ceived a prize of $100, namely: From Georgia, improvements in watchmen's time-detectors property of W. S. Sanford; from Alabama, W. were exhibited. In a prominent place in this S. Brock; from South Carolina, F. A. Schumhall was a case of artificial limbs of ingenious pert; from Tennessee, Porter, Taylor & Co.; mechanism, which was doubtless interesting to from Arkansas, M. B. Garrison; from Louisithe number of armless and wooden-legged sol- ana, L. Steeve; from Texas, B. F. Oakum; diers of the "lost cause” who visited the ex- from North Carolina, M. McGehee; from Misposition. Of articles de luxe the number was sissippi, Watkins & Houston. The Mississippi very small, and it was, perhaps, better that it bale, raised near Panola, carried off the richest was so, as the object of the show was strictly prize of the exposition. For the best bale utilitarian. The Ralston cotton-cleaner was, of upland long staple Mississippi received the par excellence, the work of art which repre- prize of $300, that being awarded to the bale sented most fully the purpose of the enterprise, exhibited by J. B. Allen, of Vicksburg. For and which was best suited to the wants of the the best bale of Sea-Island cotton, W. J. Eppeople for whose benefit it was intended. person, of Florida, was awarded the prize of
There were several exhibits of pianos, organs, $100. "Prizes were offered also for the best and other musical instruments, the pianos of twelve stalks of cotton other than long staple, Knabe and the organs of Carpenter, of Mas- and for the best twelve stalks of upland long sachusetts, being adjudged of the highest staple. This was, to the general observer, å merit.
more interesting competition than that of the Agricultural Products.—This was a full and bales, as it enabled those who were unfamiliar thoroughly representative exhibit of the agri- with the cotton-plant to see it in all its parts cultural resources of the Southern States. Dot- -stem, root, leaves, bloom, fruit, and seed. In ton, corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, this contest, a lady, who manages her own farm rice, sugar-cane, sorghum, tobacco, sweet-po- and is a very successful planter, won the
prize. tatoes, Irish potatoes, hay, cotton-seed, grass- Her name is Miss Sallie McRae, of Walnut seed, small seeds of every kind, were displayed Grove, Georgia. Some bales of dressed hemp, in seemingly endless variety and in every de- of excellent quality, were exhibited, and one gree of excellence. Oranges and lemons from of them from Florida. There was also a bale Florida, surpassing in size and flavor those of of dressed jote, to all appearance as good, in tropical climes; canned and preserved fruits, every particular, as that imported from India. from Thomasville, Georgia, equal in color and Here is another potentiality.” At present, the faultlessness to those of Pennsylvania and New greater part of the bagging used in baling cotJersey; and wine from Thomasville, Georgia, ton and for other purposes is of foreign growth from Nashville, Tennessee, from Fayetteville, and manufacture. When it is seen that as good North Carolina, and from Greenville, South an article can be raised and made at home, and Carolina, which, if it did not rival the vintages at far less cost, the industry and capital will of France, Spain, and the Rhine, showed that not, it is hoped, be wanting to utilize this ere long wine-culture may become one of the fiber. It is claimed, too, for jute, that when leading industries of the States which furnished it is planted round a cotton-field, cotton is perthese samples of their present skill. Cotton, fectly protected from the caterpillars. It is supas was natural, was pre-eminent in this display. posed that the peculiar odor of the juice of the Its majesty was fully recognized. Georgia's stalk repels them. There were several fine display was the largest, but Alabama, Arkan- specimens of the hair of the Angora goat exsas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, Ten- hibited by R. W. Scott, Frankfort, Kentucky, nessee, South Carolina, and North Carolina, which warrant the hope that this will soon were admirably represented. The contest for assume an important place among American the great prize of $1,000 was very close. It fibers. It was also proved that the successful was hard for the judges, as they passed from culture of the olive on a large scale is among the the examination of one bale to another, to de- not remote possibilities. The display of small cide which excelled in fineness and length of grains, fruits, etc., was very full and gratifystaple, or in unspotted, creamy purity. As ing. Kansas erected a trophy in the form of one looked on this aggregated excellence and a pagoda, thirty or forty feet high and ten or remembered the part this staple product now twelve feet square at the base,* in which were plays, and may yet play in ministering to the
These dimensions were not ascertained by actual meas. comfort of the human race, obeisance to King urement.
arranged, with admirable taste and skill, sam- ridge, of Kentucky, and Governor Colquitt, deples of the products of her fields, gardens, and livered eloquent addresses, well worthy of the orchards. The gentlemen who planned and large and appreciative audience and of the ocexecuted this attractive feature of the exhi- casion. The following are the closing sentences bition, at considerable cost of time and money, of Governor Colquitt's speech, which was were universally commended for their public loadly applauded: spirit, and for the originality of the design of their display.
Great as is the knowledge which this exposition has
sent broadcast over the world of our resources and maThe large number of samples of cotton raised terial possibilities, it is outranked by the glorious rein India, Ceylon, Barmah, China, Java, Siam, sults which have been secured by three months' close Egypt, Australia, and a number
of other coun- sterling worth of American character has only brighttries in the East, the Indian Ocean, and the ened under the attrition of friendly contact. South Pacific, exhibited by Mr. Atkinson, were Here let me say, in the solemnity of this parting closely examined, and attracted much interest, hour, that we cherish the belief that not since the chiefly because they seemed to satisfy the cot- days of 76, when the pressure of mortal peril united ton-growers who inspected them that the su
all hearts, 'has fraternal sympathy so abounded, so
diffused itself' among our people, as at this very hour. premacy of the cotton raised in the Southern Here we came together inspired by the purest motives States is assured, by comparison with these and purposes. Not one oblique or unworthy influence specimens.
actuated us. It was good, and good in all things that Special Weekly Exhibitions. During the ex- we sought, and Heaven has signally blessed our enposition there were a number of special exhibi
terprise so'nobly inaugurated.
Let the verdict, which tens of thousands of admirtions, which lasted for a few days, and created ing witnesses have pronounced upon the wonderful considerable interest: on the 25th of October, courage and industry of the guiding spirit of this a display of fruits and flowers, which did not grand enterprise, and the fidelity and intelligence of give an adequate view of the floral and horti- his faithful co-laborers, be ratified by us in this closing cultural wealth of the South; on November Now, before I shall pronounce the word that shall 1st, an exhibition of cattle and mules; on still for ever the busy and ever-memorable scene that November 8th, one of sheep and swine; on lies before our eyes, let me, in behalf of every patriot November 15th, a bench-show of dogs; on
who shares with us the hope and joy of a united peoNovember 22d, a show of poultry; and on No- will give a solemn pledge that he will be true to the
ple, beseech that each contributor to this great display vember 29th, a display of dairy products. kindly impulses born of this exposition, and that he
The opportunity afforded by the large con- will promote and defend a union of hearts of the North course of people at the exposition was used to and the South, of the East and the West. In this corhold several conventions for special purposes, unite, and may all the people say, Amen!
enant the officers of this exposition do most beartily the largest and most important of wbich was And now, in the joy of the triumphant conclusion the Convention of Planters, held in Novem- of our labors--in the full hope and confidence of the ber, which was largely attended by represent- grand results yet to be realized – I give the signal which ative men from every State. There were also announces to the world that the International Cotton several meetings of manufacturers, merchants,
Exposition is at an end. etc., and a National Association of Exhibitors When Governor Colquitt finished his speech, was formed, which met frequently while the he immediately touched the electric spring unexposition was open.
der his band, the great bell outside struck three The Legislatures of Kentucky, Tennessee, loud strokes as the closing signal, and when and South Carolina came in a body to visit the the long-metre doxology had been sung by a exposition; a number of Governors of States, trained chorus of a hundred voices, at 3.30 several United States Senators, and members P. M., the exposition closed, after nearly three of the House of Representatives from all parts months' successful existence. When the shortof the Union, came to see the “World's Fair,” ness of the time between the inception and the and met there thousands of earnest, enterpris- completion of the enterprise, the total inex. ing men, representing every industry and every perience of the managers, anı-the many circumsection, come together to see and be informed. stances of discouragement which surrounded it Several of these meetings were of very great are considered, an exhibition in a town of less value, and, in the course of their discussions, than 50,000 inhabitants, which receives the elicited the rich results of advanced thought in co-operation of upward of 1,800 exhibitors, their several specialties.
and attracts 286,895 visitors, may be justly The Close of the Exposition.—The exposition considered a success. But it had a significance closed with appropriate and impressive formal- apart from and higher than that which belonged ities on December 31st, in conformity with the to its exhibits of agricultural machinery and arrangement made by the managers. The offi- products of mine, field, and forest, great as is cials, with Governor Colquitt at their head, the the stimulus to improvement which these have chief officers of the State government, and a given the entire people from the Potomac to large number of distinguished guests, exhibit- the Rio Grande, and from the blue-grass region ors, and visitors, filled the Judges' Hall at the of Kentucky to the piney woods of the Guif appointed hour. After prayer by Bishop H. coast. It has two results of transcending imW. Warren, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, portance, which in the near future will have a Mr. Kimball, Colonel William C. P. Breckin- beneficent influence on ail the States of the