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on your acts. It has always afforded them a rigorous the parties, when once entered into became insanction, and it is not immediately after the magnifi- dissoluble; and that permanence was what the cent elections which have just taken place for the municipalities that your entire community of ideas parties had in view when taking the marriage and principles with universal suffrage can be con- vow, nor would any one have then thought of tested.

divorce but for M. Naquet's project, which, if On February 6th the Chamber disposed of sanctioned, would determine a marked increase the Press Bill

, subject to a second reading, of improvident unions, bearing in thein the provisions punishing seditious crimes, obscure germs of corruption and dissolution, and disarticles or illustrations, defamation and in- courage tolerance and reciprocal concessions in sults to foreign sovereigns or embassadors hav. existing marriages. The clause repealing the ing been agreed to. À clause proposing the law of 1816 was rejected by 261 votes to 226, visitation of insults to the republic with from and the reform of the judicial separation systhree to twelve months' imprisonment was the present state of things.

tem left as the only possible modification of after prolonged discussion, rejected by 287 votes to 187, on the ground that the repub

The result of the municipal elections in Janlic was a strong enough to defy insults."' On uary was favorable to the republicans. the 15th the stipulation was agreed to (by

Early in the same month were announced 253 votes to 222) that "no foreign journal further incursions of Tunisian tribes in Algeshall be excluded from France except by decis- ria, which the Bey was powerless to prevent; ion of a Cabinet council.”

and in April the hostile movements of the On February 7th the Chamber went on

Kroumirs against the French troops determined with M. Naquet's Divorce Bill, the discussion the appropriation of 5,695,000 francs for an exof which was awaited and followed with in- pedition, of which General Forgemul was aptense anxiety and interest. Divorce, expunged pointed commander. On the 20th M. Roustan, from the code civile by the religious reaction the Bey that he would be held responsible for

the French Consul-General in Tunis, informed of 1816, bas ever since been replaced in France by an old law restored, allowing only

judicial any effusion of blood that might occur; the separation (séparation de corps). M. Léon Island of Tabarca was occupied by the French Renault, reporter to the committee, vindicated troops on the 21st, and on the 25th the milithe measure as a revival, not of the law of tary operations commenced against the Krou1792, which he disapproved, but that of 1803. mirs. The suzerainty of the Porte over Tunis It restricted divorce, when desired by but one ish embassador to the French Government;

was asserted in a note addressed by the Turkof the consorts, to cases of adultery, maltreat- and on May 9th a circular was issued by the ment, or insult, and condemnation to degrading punishments; while divorce by mutual con- only object of the Tunisian expedition was to

Minister of Foreign Affairs, declaring that the sent was by it subjected to various conditions, insure the safety of Algeria. such as the acquiescence of the children, the assignment to them of one half the property, etc. the Chamber the “happy diplomatic settle

On the 15th M. Jules Ferry announced to As a compromise with traditional scruples, it proposed the indissolubility of the second mar

ment of the Tunisian question," and expressed riage of divorced persons, and admitted judi- the hope that the treaty * concluded with the cial separation as still obtainable. M. Renault Bey would be regarded as "securing legitimate urged in behalf of the new measure that di- interests without exceeding the limits of jusvorce, far from favoring heedless marriages, tice and moderation.” Toward the end of the would strengthen tottering unions, while the month the operations against the Kroumirs marriage of the adulterous would be forbidden; of the Algerian tribes, one of which was ably

terminated successfully; but the insurrection and that judicial separations were increasing in France more rapidly than divorces in other commanded by Bou-Amena, seemed to forecountries, the rate of the former being nine shadow further troubles. An additional apper 1,000 marriages, and that of the latter but propriation of 14,000,000 francs for the Tunisfour per 1,000.

ian expedition was asked for by the Minister An amendment modifying the system of of War on June 9th, and voted July 9th. On judicial separation was combated by M. Na- the 19th Marseilles was the scene of a disturbquet himself. M. Cazot, Minister of Justice,

ance growing ont of a quarrel, with the Italian said that religious considerations were foreignto residents, about the French policy in Tunis. the debate, and that scrupulous Catholics might

The defeat of the scrutin de listet bill (restill have recourse to séparation de corps ; that jected June 9th by 148 votes to 114), and, in divorce would do away with forced celibacy, the August elections, his ill success in his own diminish the number of illegitimate offspring, Belleville constituency, of which, though ill and encourage the creation of new families; requited, he has ever been the dauntless chamthat the question at issue was whether certain pion, were grave rebuffs to M. Gambetta, I exceptional circumstances ought not to be sac- whose supineness and embarrassment as prerificed to the preservation of the institution of mier after November 14th filled France and the marriage-the key-stone of social existence;

world with surprise. that matrimony was no ordinary contract, but

* For the text of this treaty, seo page 809.

+ See SCRUTIN DE LISTE. p. 807. one which, though founded on the free-will of + See GAMBETTA, Léon Michel, p. 818.

FRIENDS. The later statistical reports instrumental music is used in them; they hola of several yearly meetings of the Society of that inarriage is a civil ordinance, and that Friends indicate a small gradual increase of ministers may marry persons without refermembers. The London yearly meeting, which ence to the inquiry or consent of the society; had been declining for fifty years, has within that ministers should be regularly assigned to a few years past been receiving 'accessions; the ministry, and money should be systematand its reports for 1881 indicated an increase ically collected for their support; they do not during the year of 106 members, the whole discourage the use of titles of address in connumber being 14,981. The reports of the In- nection with the names of persons; and their diana yearly meeting showed an increase of funerals are conducted with reading from the 1,000 members during the year, and a total of Scriptures, singing, and a discourse from a 19,342 members. This increase is not, how- special text. ever, observed in all the yearly meetings, some In the case referred to, the plaintiffs held of which still appear to be falling back or sta- that they represented the original and regular tionary. Thus, the Philadelphia yearly meet- quarterly meeting, and that it was recognized ing had only 5,650 members in 1881 against as such by the Western yearly meeting, with 6,000 in 1871, and the New England yearly which it was connected, and which was in meeting 4,399 in 1881 against 4,403 in 1871. orderly communication, according to the cusThe mission at Matamoras, Mexico, returned tom of the society, with all the other yearly 204 members. Its converts were preaching ef- meetings; therefore they were, according to fectively at several places. A series of school- the Friends' custom, a branch of the society in books published by the mission has gained a good standing, notwithstanding their alleged large circulation throughout the country. departures from the old usage, and, as such,

Among the marked features in the recent legitimately entitled to the possession of the history of the Society of Friends are the de- property they claimed. The defendants, the velopment of a tendency among individual plaintiffs maintained, who had separated from members to conformity with the usages of the quarterly meeting and from the Western other denominations, and to occasional partici- yearly meeting on acconnt of their toleration pation in their religious exercises, and the tol- of departures from ancient Friends' usage, and eration which has been accorded to it in some had formed a new quarterly meeting and a of the yearly meetings. The singing of hymns new yearly meeting, were not entitled to be has been permitted in Friends' meetings; min- recognized as representatives of regular organiisters of the society have preached in the pul- zations, notwithstanding their adherence to the pits of other denominations; and an English ancient usage, because they had not received Friend of sufficient prominence to make his the recognition which was accorded to the case conspicuous has been baptized without bodies of which the plaintiffs were representaprovoking any adverse action from the month- tive, in correspondence with the other yearly jy meeting with which he was connected. A meetings. The court held, in answer to an suit which was brought in the State of Indiana argument on demurrer in which these allegafor the control of the property of the society, tions were set forth, that the highest church and of a legacy which had been left it, involved organization must decide whether there has the question of the legality of departures of been departure in doctrines, and, until the suthis character. The points wherein the “Pro- perior organization has so determined, the civil gressive" party, who brought the suit, differ court can not enter upon an investigation of from the Orthodox party, or adherents of the that question; that no organization can be recold order, were defined in the pleadings as fol- ognized by the civil courts as legal and valid, lows: The Progressive party deny that Chris- whether a yearly, quarterly, or monthly meettians should await the influence of the Holy ing, which has not been recognized in accordSpirit in conducting religious services, but ance with the rules and usages of the Church claim that they should be governed by fixed as having been regularly established. By the purposes, or a sense of duty, in such matters; averments of the papers as presented in the they deny that men have an inward light, such proceedings, it appeared, in effect, that all the as the light of Christ, till after conversion; yearly meetings throughout the world hold they teach that Christ had a human and a di- control over the establishment of each provine nature, and that the divine nature or God. posed new yearly meeting, not like the Preshead died on the cross; that the material byterian Church, through a General Assembly, bodies of the redeemed will be raised ; that it or, like the Methodist Church, through a quadis no longer necessary to continue the peculiar rennial General Conference, but through corhabit, dress, address, and forms of worship of respondence of recognized officers of each the Friends; they hold protracted meetings by yearly meeting, the means only being different, prearrangement, and call publicly on persons but the end accomplished, so far as the present to speak, or pray, or relate their Christian ex- inquiry is concerned, being the same. Apply. perience, ask the unconverted to make con- ing these principles to the facts stated in the fession of their sins, setting seats apart for answer, the subject of inquiry in the case was them, and have singing; their Sunday-schools narrowed down practically to the recognized are formally opened and closed, and vocal and legitimacy of succession of each of the two

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