« AnteriorContinuar »
contending societies, each of which claimed to been invented by Jacob Reese, of Pittsburg, be the White Lick quarterly meeting of Friends. which is found very useful in its industrial apIf those who had withdrawn from the West- plications, while the principle of its action is ern yearly meeting to form a new yearly a puzzling problem to scientific men. It is a meeting had never been recognized in accord circular, revolving saw, with which steel bars ance with the usages of the Society of Friends are cat in two. The material of the circular as a regularly and properly organized yearly saw is soft iron. It fuses steel bars which are meeting, they had no rights, powers, or au- brought into close proximity to it without thority which the civil courts could recognize touching. The bar to be cut is made likewise as such; and if, as was also alleged, the de- to revolve, in the contrary direction, with a fendant society had never been recognized by speed of 200 revolutions å minute. The rethe established Western yearly meeting, with- volving disk is 42 inches in diameter and $ in whose territorial jurisdiction they seemed inch thick. It turns with a velocity of 2,300 to have attempted to organize, as properly or- revolutions, equal to a tangential velocity of ganized, then they had no rights as such organi- 25,250 feet a minute. The circular disk is zation which the civil courts could protect or mounted on an arbor and set in motion with enforce. It might appear to the court or jury pulleys and belts, like an ordinary circular saw. that the recognized Western yearly meeting, When the bar is brought almost into contact or the recognized White Lick quarterly meet with the revolving disk, a small drop of molten ing, had utterly abandoned the ancient faith metal first appears on its surface. In a few and practices, doctrines and teachings of the seconds a notch is made, the molten metal Society of Friends; yet when the superior or- flowing downward in a stream of sparks, and ganizations have decided otherwise, when they being thrown in sparks in all directions. A continued to recognize and fellowship these singular circumstance is the fact that the inorganizations, notwithstanding such apparent candescent sparks, when they first leave the change, as regular and orthodox, and refused bar, are not hot. These sparks or drops of to recognize or admit to fellowship the new fused metal are of dazzling whiteness, yet organization which might appear to adhere their temperature differs but little from that strictly and tenaciously to such ancient faith of the surrounding atmosphere. In their path and practices, courts and juries must respect through the air those sparks which are protheir action, and in the judgment of the court jected sidewise acquire heat froin the friccould not go behind it.
tion. At the distance of five feet or more Issue was afterward joined upon the ques- they burn like a red-hot poker, while their tions of facts involved in the suit.
vivid incandescence has given place to a dullFUSION DISK. A simple apparatus has red color.
GAMBETTA, Léon Michel, a French states- The luster of a period marked by military sucman, born April 3, 1838, at Cahors, where his cesses in the Crimean and Italian Wars, and father, a Genoese of Jewish origin, was engaged efficient to repress but not subdue the oppoin commercial pursuits. After attaining high sition, had been dimmed by the sorry issue of lionors at the lyceum of his native town, he the Mexican expedition, and the disastrous studied law in Paris, and was there admitted Treaty of Prague; both indicative of the ento the bar in his twenty-second year. For feeblement, or, as it has been aptly termed, some time secretary to the late M. Crémieux, the precocious dotage, of the head of the the young advocate's talents soon won for him dynasty. Public discontent was at the full, the admiration and friendship of the veteran and the people looked forward to a solution democrat, in whom he afterward found a firm not long to be deferred, and already foresupporter. During the interval between 1859 shadowed in overt democratic demonstrations and 1868 he gained notice and distinction both of hostility to the Government. As an inas an eloquent forensic orator and as a writer, stance of such manifestations, we may cite the alternately pleading the causes of political of- popular tribute to the memory of Deputy Baufenders (mostly journalists), publishing essays din, the circumstances of whose death while on eminent members of the Paris bar, and con- endeavoring to shield the people from the fury tributing to the daily press articles on politics, of the troops on December 2, 1851, had been finance, art, and other topics. In the electoral vividly recalled in a recent publication on the campaign of 1863, the first in wbich he took an coup d'état. Numerous arrests followed; the active part, he acquired considerable popular- press protested, and a subscription for a monuity as an ultra-Liberal. But 1868 found him ment to Baudin was opened in the columns of popular and left him famous. The empire, “Le Réveil." Delescluze, the editor-in-chief which sprang from the coup d'état of Decem- of that journal, was prosecuted, and Gambetta ber 2, 1851, and silenced for a time the nation's called to his defense. In his speech on that voice, had' now become an impossible thing. occasion (November 14, 1868), the cause of
“Le Réveil” was to some extent overlooked, racy, but twice the age of Gambetta; and those doubtless by design; but the authors of De- for the second, such men as Thiers, the civil cember 2d were lashed unsparingly in a tor- engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, and the Marrent of eloquence unparalleled for impetuosity quis de Barthélemy. He chose to sit for Marand daring since the days of Mirabeau: seilles, and took his place on the Extreme
Why talk here of plébiscites and ratifying clauses ? Left. After an absence of several months, A specious argument, in sooth, to draw from article occasioned by a severe throat affection brought 1338 of the civil code, and drag to this gloomy do- on by the fatigues of an arduous electoral cammain where it was little expected! Ah! you are not paign, he returned to the Corps Législatif and content with five million votes! After a reign of made a series of remarkable speeches, especially seventeen years, you perceive that it would be well to prohibit the discussion of your deeds by means of a one in which he protested (February 1, 1870) posthumous ratification emanating from a criminal with indignation against the arrest of his colcourt? No; it shall not be. No; you shall not, you league Henri de Rochefort, deputy-elect for can not have that satisfaction. For such a cause there Belleville in the place of Gambetta ; and more exists no court of appeals. It has been judged ala particularly the memorable one in which (April the day after, and for ever, until justice shall have 5th) he denounced the plebiscitum as unconreceived her supreme satisfaction. The cause of De- stitutional; juridically reviewed the value, escember 2d, do what you may, will survive indelible sence, and economy of the various political in Paris, in London, in Berlin, in New York, and the systems; and, pointing out why the republican the same. But our adversaries have, besides, another system ought to be preferred, seemed to invite accuser. Hearken : For seventeen years you have that avowed anti-republican assembly to make been the absolute masters of France. We would not the trial. It was no small triumph to be heard ask what use you have made of her treasures, her on such a theme for the space of three honrs, blood, her honor, her glory; nor speak of her in- with admiration and almost without interruptegrity jeopardized, or of what has become of the fruits of her industry : for no one needs to be told of tion, by a House notoriously hostile no less to the financial catastrophes now, at this very moment, the person than to the ideas of the speaker. springing as mines beneath our feet. Your most re- He could charm, but not persuade. But events lentless accuser, because it is the attestation of your already in preparation would soon place him say, We will celebrate, we will add to the list of in a sphere of action with the difficulties of solemnities in France, the 2d of December, as a na- which only abilities of a superior order, united tional anniversary !" 'Yet each successive régime in to an indomitable energy and marvelous acour country has so honored the day of its birth.July tivity, could cope. 14th and August 10th have had their fêtes ; and the days of July, 1830, and February 24th, in like man
M. Gambetta's opposition to the war with ner. Two anniversaries only-the 18th Brumaire and Prussia was at first more measured than that 2d of December-have never been included among of many of bis colleagues; so much so, that he the solemnities of accession; for you know that the refused to seek, in the embarrassments to the nation could not in conscience sanction them. Hear, Government consequent upon the early disaswill take for ourselves we will celebrate it year after ters of the campaign, a favorable opportunity year; and it shall be the anniversary of our dead, for revolutionary movements. After the cauntil the day when the nation, once more in posses- pitulation at Sedan, however, hesitancy gave sion of her sovereignty, shall visit upon you the great place to decision: the republic was now to be national expiation in the name of Liberty, Equality, established, and he joined the ranks of its zealand Fraternity.
ous promoters. On September 3d he signed, Rather than a defense of Delescluze, there as member of the Provisional Government of was here an indictment of Cæsarism, and the the National Defense, Jules Favre's proposition knell of the second empire; for the structure, declaring the Napoleonic dynasty deposed; the still so brilliant without, must be decayed with next day saw him in possession of the portfolio in and tottering to ruin, when the very judges of the Interior; and on the 7th he signed the whose first daty it was to silence the seditious convocation of the electoral colleges for the orator, heard him, as if spell-bound, to the 18th * of October, for the purpose of appointing end. Unanimous acclamations of the Liberals a Constituent Assembly. "The new Minister of throughout France signified the adhesion of the Interior remained but a short time at Paris. that party to the young advocate, thencefor- His colleagues counting, and with reason, upon ward one of its chieftains. During the ensuing his energy and the magic power of his elosix months he won new laurels, in the defense quence to rouse the inhabitants of the prov. of the “Progrès du Nord," at Lille, and of the inces against the invader, and meet the cruel “Emancipation,” at Toulouse. In the general necessities of the hour, he was attached, ty elections of 1869, M. Gambetta was pre- decree of October 7th, to the delegation (Crésented as a Republican candidate to the Legis- mieux, Glais-Bizoin, and Fourichon) already lative Assembly for Belleville (first electoral sent to Tours, and whose tardiness in the or district of Paris) and Marseilles, he announc- ganization of the national defense in that region ing that he would accept no mission but that was a source of anxiety to the Central Govern. of an opposition irréconciliable. He was elect- ment. He set out from the capital in a balloon ed in both districts by an immense majority, on the 8th of October, and, reaching Tours on the rival candidate for the first being M. Car
* On the 16th, an earlier date, October 20, was fixed upon ; nut, one of the favorite names of the democ- but the elections were in the event postponed indefinitely
the 9th, issued proclamations appealing to the pire would deprive him of his seat in the patriotism of the inhabitants in terms so earnest Ohamber. At the complementary elections of and irresistible as to produce a profound im- July 2d, he was returned by three departments, pression throughout the departments. Come and gave his option this time for Paris. He bining in his own direction the cumbrous func- took his place at the Extreme Left, became a tions of three ministries—Interior, War, and member, and was chosen President of the Finance-his energy presided in all branches Union Républicaine. During the turbulent of the public service, in the Cabinet and on the period of the Commune, and before the July battle-field; now at Orleans, Lille, or Lyons; elections, M. Gambetta had spent a brief vacaagain at Tours, or, after December 7th, at Bor- tion at San Sebastian, in Spain. After his redeaux-wherever there were measures to be turn he was for a long time seldom seen at the concerted, discouragement to be dispelled, dis- Chamber, the Extreme Right being then in maorders to be repressed, armies to be organized, jority. And later, when he again took part in or even military operations to be planned the debates, his attitude was uniformly concilThus Gambetta, vigorously seconded by M. iatory, spite of incessant and petulant attacks de Freycinet, maintained his authority for a on the part of his colleagues of September 4th, period of nearly four months, in the midst of and to which he had decided never to reply. the-situation here briefly sketched. In a word, On more than one occasion he prevailed upon he was dictator by force of circumstances. his party to sustain the government of Thiers, True, this dictatorship has been rudely criti- notwithstanding the latter had frequently ascised by some, and sneered at as the dictature sailed him in parliamentary discourses; but de l'incapacité; but such harsh reflections on once he left Thiers to support the candidature the “inutility and impotence of the dictator's of M. Barodet against that of M. de Rémusat. impetuous efforts" did not find utterance until In 1871 and 1872 it was usual to see Gambetnear the end. Among the acts and speeches ta's name associated with the preparation of a pertaining to that period, French biographers government party in the republic, with its cite the decree for the mobilization of the Na- Whigs under Gambetta and its Tories under tional Guards, at the expense of the respective Thiers. The year 1872 was marked by two nodepartments; the proclamation containing the table speeches from the leader of the Left. In announcement to France of the surrender of one of these, on the anniversary of the taking of Metz, and the denunciation of Bazaine as a the Bastile (July 14th), he dwelt on the necessity traitor-the loan of 250,000,000 francs nego- of reconstituting the union of the middle classtiated with British capitalists; the dissolation es, of adopting secular and compulsory instruc-, of the Councils-General elected under pressure tion, universal military service, and a policy of of the imperial administration; the successive conciliation, crowned by an amnesty without organization of the two Armies of the Loire restriction. In the other, delivered at a priunder Generals Aurelle de Paladines and Chan- vate reunion, he referred to the advent of a zy; the organization of the Army of the North, “new social stratum, by no means inferior to its commanded in turn by Generals Bourbaki and predecessors." The theme of this latter speech Faidherbe; the disastrous issue of the campaign and its tone of hostility to the existing adminof the east (under Bourbaki), hastened by the istration alarmed the public mind in the south, armistice, and the removal from office of such and provoked the open resentment of the Govmembers (even life-members) of the magistracy ernment. His most important speech in 1873 as had taken part in the mixed committees was one against the Septenpate (November in 1852. After the surrender of Paris, which 19th). On June 9, 1874, he interpellated the he spoke of as an act of culpable haste, he is- De Fourtou Ministry concerning Bonapartist sued the convocation of electors for the Na- intrigues, and M. Rouher, in the course of his tional Assembly, but stipulating the ineligibility reply, having touched upon the revolution of of such persons as had been candidates for or September 4th, Gambetta retorted: “There had held office under the empire. The Central are certain men to whom I deny the right and Government, however, annulled that stipula- privilege to arraign the revolution of Septemtion, and, on Gambetta's refusal to comply, dis- ber 4th -I mean the wretches who have been patched one of its members, Jules Simon, to the ruin of France.” On being called to order, Bordeaux, with orders to execute the decree as he added, "My expression undoubtedly imat first drawn up. On this, M. Gambetta re- plies more than an outrage—it implies a brand signed all his functions, and withdrew from a of dishonor, and I maintain it." government with which be was now in open In the course of the winter of 1874-75, for disagreement. The elections of February 8, the most part occupied in the task of effecting 1871, afforded abundant proof of the contin- & union between the several subdivisions of ued prestige of his name. He was spontane- the Left and the Right Center, with a view ously proposed as candidate in a number of de- to the adoption of the constitutional laws, partments, and elected in nine, among these M. Gambetta delivered one of his most effectbeing that of Bas-Rhin, for which he chose to ive and most finished speeches (February 12, sit, as a protest against all measures entailing 1875). From that day forward the so-called the dismemberment of France, although the policy of “opportunism” has been the discession of that province to the German Em- tinctive policy of the entire Left, save the
small groups of Intransigeants, then headed there is the enemy!' to-morrow we must be by Louis Blanc and Alfred Naquet. Through- able to say, 'Clericalism-behold the vanout the remainder of 1875, Gambetta was the quished !'" Yet the Premier had another most formidable adversary of the Buffet Cabi- enemy behind the Churchmen. M. Simon net, though without any departure from those was the genuine representative of Thiers in principles of conciliation embodied in his own the Government, and MacMahon regarded his maxim, “Moderation is the true course in presence in the Council as a check upon his politics." In the ensuing senatorial elections, own movements, and the Marshal-President his influence preponderated, as usual ; and in preferred to be surrounded by men willing to those for the Chamber he busied himself, be- adopt his mode of thinking. More than all sides his own candidatures (Paris, Lille, Mar- this, there existed a strong personal animosity seilles, Bordeaux, and Avignon), in suggesting between the two men, which was not likely or ratifying the choice of other candidates in to be diminished by the recollection of the disthe several departments.
paraging if not contemptuous terms in which In an address to his constituents of Belle- Simon had spoken of MacMahon, when the reville he found occasion to explain the philoso- election of the latter had been proposed. On phy of his political creed: “I deny the abso- · May 16th the Premier received a note of dislute in all things, so you may well imagine that missal from the President, who assigned as the I will not admit it in politics. I am of a school reason for such a sudden determination the atthat believes only in relation, analysis, and ob- titude of the Cabinet in the debate on the press servation, the examination of facts, the com- law the day previous, when, by the immense parison and combination of ideas; a school majority of 398 to 56, the House resolved to that takes into account mediums, races, ten- abrogate the law passed by the reactionary Asdencies, prejudices, and antagonisms. Politics sembly of 1875. Gambetta protested, and the are not, nor can they be, always the same.” resolution was adopted that “the Chamber, As the acknowledged leader of the Republican considering that it is of importance in the majority in the new Chamber he again essayed, present crisis, and with a view to the fulfillbut in vain, to accomplish the unification of ment of the mission which it has received from the Left; and combated clericalism, denounc- the country, to remember that the prepondering pulpit interference in electoral concerns. ance of the parliamentary power, exercising
The position of President of the Budget itself through the ministerial responsibility, is Committee (April 5, 1876) offered him an op- the first condition of the government of the portunity for the introduction of needed re- country by the country, declares that confiforms. But the preparation of his vast finan- dence of the majority can not be obtained excial schemes for the future, and in which he cept for a Cabinet free in its action, and rerevealed surprising skill, did not prevent him solved to govern according to those republican from following up the politique opportuniste, on principles which alone can guarantee order and which he had staked his name and parliament- prosperity at home and peace abroad.” ary success. Thus he supported M. Margue's M. Gambetta thenceforward concentrated all proposition of amnesty by categories against his forces on the one grand object of forcing M. Raspail, the advocate of universal amnesty; the Marshal-President to resign, and triumphed adopted the bill for reducing the period of serv- in the end, though he himself did not pass unice in the army to two years; protested en- scathed through the struggle. The time had ergetically against the attacks leveled at him come to precipitate the overthrow of an adminfrom the rostrum and through the press by a istration now grown obnoxious to all parties, certain group of Intransigeants; and reiterated save the two which were themselves most ob his decisions in favor of amnesty by categories, noxions to the majority of the French people stigmatizing "those disreputable men who had and to republicanism. Division had been exsought to turn the Commune's despair to their tinguished in the republican ranks, and Gamown advantage.” On January 28, 1877, he betta held the command more firmly than ever. was re-elected President of the Budget Com- To add to the unpopularity of the Government, mittee.
Jules Simon and his ministers had been sucM. Jules Simon, appointed Premier and ceeded by the Broglie-De Fourtou Cabinet, Minister of the Interior in December, 1876, called by Gambetta a “government of priests.” was early assailed by the Bonapartists and the In the ensuing electoral campaign, the ubiquiprelates; but Gambetta's preponderant influ- tous orator kept the public mind vividly imence was such that he obtained the passage by pressed with the real interests at stake, rethe Chamber of a resolution requesting the iterating at every stage of the crisis his protest Government “to use all the legal means at its against personal régime. “When France makes disposal to repress the anti-patriotic agitation.” her sovereign voice heard," he cried, in his Some time afterward, in a famous speech before speech of August 15th, at Lille, and pointedly his Belleville constituents, he exclaimed, at the alluding to the Marshal-President, " he must close of a vehement tirade against the Church quit or submit (il faudra se soumettre ou se party, and referring to the concluding words démettre)." For his temerity he was sentenced of his address to the House in behalf of Jules to three months' imprisonment, and fined two Simon: “ Yesterday we said, “Clericalism, thousand francs; but the event proved the