« AnteriorContinuar »
words to have been prophetic, and showed how place at the head of the Treasury, if he desired well the speaker knew the power behind him. to do so. The President-elect took leave of
Another prosecution incurred by similar his friends and neighbors on the last day of language, in a later speech to the electors of February, and arrived at the capital on the the twentieth arrondissement of Paris, seemed 1st of March. The inauguration on the 4th but to goad him to the attack, which he only was attended with unusual civic, military, relinquished as victor. A brief but fierce con- and social display, and there was a general flict between the President and the Chamber; feeling of hopefulness and confidence in the the downfall of the Broglie-De Fourtou and new Administration. The Senate met in spethe accession of the Dufaure or Parliamentary .cial session, and on the 5th the Cabinet appointMinistry (December); Gambetta's visit to Italy ments were submitted and promptly confirmed. and his conferences with Italian statesmen, Mr. Blaine appeared at the head of the list, as keenly piquing public curiosity; his angry was expected; Secretary Sherman had preencounter with De Fourtou, and the resulting ferred a re-election to the Senate; and the induel (November 18, 1878), and Gambetta's re- fuence of Mr. Conkling was not noticeable in fusal of a proffered portfolio—such were about the make-up of the Cabinet. The Senate was the only remaining events of importance re- in session until the 20th of May, but the time lating to our subject, until the resignation of was mostly taken up with a controversy over President MacMahon (January 5, 1879). On its organization, and it was not until May 4th January 30th, Gambetta accepted the presiden- that executive sittings were held to act on cy of the Legislative Assembly under the Grévy other nominations. On the 22d of March administration, having been elected by an al- several names were sent in for offices in the most unanimous.vote to that position, which he State of New York, including those of district quitted for that of Premier on November 14, attorneys and marshals, and the Collector of the 1881. The history of his public life since Jan: Port of Buffalo. The appointees were supuary, 1878, including his triumphant support posed to be entirely acceptable to the Senators of the plenary amnesty bill
, carried (June 21, from that State. On the day following Judge 1880) by 333 against 140 votes, as the result William H. Robertson was named as Collector of the first oration he had delivered from the of the Port of New York, the incumbent of tribune of the Palais-Bourbon since the som- the office, E. A. Merritt, being appointed conber days of the revolution of September 4, sul-general at London. These appointments 1970; the defeat of his cherished electoral were known to be displeasing to Senator Conkreform bill for the scrutin de liste, etc., is in ling, and provoked considerable discussion. form and in fact the history of the Corps Légis- When the Senate finally went into executive latif itself, and reference therefor may be made session, Mr. Conkling declared his opposition to the article France, in our volumes for 1878, to the appointnient of Mr. Robertson, claiming 979, '80, and the present one.
that he had a right to be consulted in the matGARFIELD, JAMES ABRAM, twentieth Pres- ter, and that the selection of a conspicuous ident of the United States, born at Orange, political enemy of his for so important an Cuyahoga County, Ohio, November 9, 1831; office in his own State was an insult, and in died at Long Branch, New Jersey, September violation of pledges given him by the Presi19, 1881. (For particulars of his life down to dent. Finding that the New York Senators his election to the office of President, see “An- were determined, if possible, to defeat the nual Cyclopædia" for 1880.) In the interval confirmation of Robertson and Merritt, the between his election and his inauguration on President withdrew all the other appointments the 4th of March, with the exception of a brief for that State in order that their cases might visit to Washington on private business in No- be acted on alone. Seeing that they could vember, he continued to reside at Mentor, not prevent the confirmation, Senators ConkOhio, where he was visited by many public ling and Platt both resigned on the 16th of men, some of whom came on his special invi- May, and returned to New York to seek a vintation. The composition of his Cabinet, and dication of their course by an immediate rehis general purposes in regard to public ap- election. Robertson and Merritt were then pointments, were the subject of constant specu- confirmed, and the other New York appointlation, and in consulting the political leaders ments renewed, a change being made in that of his party he manifested a desire to unite for Collector of Buffalo. Out of this conthem all in support of his Administration. It troversy grew considerable factional excitewas early understood that Senator Blaine, of ment between what were known as the “StalMaine, who had been one of the chief com- wart” and the “ Administration ” wings of petitors for the nomination at Chicago, was to the Republican party. be Secretary of State. Among those summoned On the morning of July 2d, the President to Mentor for consultation was Senator Conk- set out from the Executive Mansion with Secling, who had led the delegates in the conven- retary Blaine for the Baltimore and Potomac tion pledged to the nomination of General Railroad station, where he was to join several Grant; and it was given out that Secretary members of the Cabinet for a trip to New Sherman, who had been the other leading can- York and New England, including visits to didate for the nomination, could retain his Williams College and the White Mountains.
The two entered the station arm in arm, and most universal outbreak of sorrow and indignawhile they were passing through the ladies' tion at the crime, and sympathy for the sufferer waiting-room two pistol-shots were heard in and his family, and this found expression in quick succession, one of which took effect in the action of numerous public bodies and politthe President's back. He sank to the floor, ical assemblies, of both parties and in all secbleeding profusely, and for a moment was un- tions of the country. It extended to foreign conscious, and then was affected with vomit- lands, and brought forth many official and uning. To get him out of the confusion he was official expressions of sympathy. After the carried to the offices of the company, on the first shock had passed, the announcement that second floor. Several physicians were sum- the wound was not necessarily fatal, and that moned, and, after a superficial examination of there was a chance of recovery, gave rise to a the wound, the President was taken back to hopeful feeling, which increased with daily rethe Executive Mansion. His wife was sum- ports of favorable progress. As early as the moned from Long Branch, whence she was to 10th of July Governor Foster, of Ohio, sughave joined him on his Eastern trip. Among gested to the Governors of all the States the the physicians first summoned was D. W. appointment of a general day of thanksgiving Bliss, an old friend of Garfield, for whom for the President's escape from death, and the Secretary Lincoln had sent his carriage, and, prospect of his speedy recovery. In several at the request of the President, he took charge States this suggestion was acted on. The faof the case. With the acquiescence of Mrs. vorable reports continued for some days, and Garfield, he selected Drs. J. K. Barnes, Sur- the President's recovery was confidently pregeon-General of the Army, J. J. Woodward, dicted by the surgeons in atteudance. They also of the army, and Robert Reyburn, as his concluded that no important organ had been assistants. The result of their first careful injured, and that the bullet was likely to beexamination was the opinion that the bullet come encysted and harmless, or might possibly had penetrated or grazed the liver, and had declare its presence in a way that would admit lodged in the front wall of the abdomen. They of its successful removal. The first check in believed that the injury was not necessarily the favorable symptoms was on the 18th of fatal, but concluded that it was not advis- July, and was followed by an apparent resumpable to attempt the removal of the bullet. tion of progress. The first serious relapse ocOn the
evening of July 3d it was decided to curred on the 23d of July, being attended with call in Drs. D. Hayes Agnew, of Philadelphia, chills and more or less of fever. The bullet and Frank H. Hamilton, of New York, for had entered between the eleventh and twelfth consultation and advice. They approved of ribs about four inches to the right of the spinal what had been done, acquiesced in the opinion column, the assassin standing about six feet of the other physicians as to the course of the behind and a little to the right of his victim, bullet, the inadvisability of attempting to ex- and the bones had been somewhat splintered. tract it, and the chance of recovery.
The diagnosis assumed that there had been a The person who had fired the pistol at the deflection which sent the bullet downward and railroad-station had been promptly seized and the right. The probing and treatment of taken into custody. He proved to be Charles the wound had followed this supposed course, J. Guiteau, who had been a persistent but un- where there was by this time a channel several successful applicant for an appointment, first inches in depth. The unfavorable symptoms as minister to Austria, and then as consul- were caused by obstruction in the flow of pus, general to Paris. He describes himself as a and on the morning of the 24th an incision was lawyer, a politician, and a theologian, and is made by Dr. Agnew to give a freer passage reported to bave said, on being taken into cus- from the supposed track of the wound. This tody: “All right, I did it
, and will go to jail was followed by relief and a resumption of for it. I am a Stalwart, and Arthur will be hopeful reports. On the 28th there was a President.” A letter was found on his person slight recurrence of fever, and day by day in which the death of the President was spoken thereafter there was more or less of febrile rise of as a "sad necessity" that would "unite in the temperature and pulse, attended with the Republican party and save the republic." abnormal respiration. Guiteau was lodged in the District of Colum The heat of the season aggravated the diffibia jail, to await the result of the President's culty of dealing with the case, and artificial wound.
means of cooling the atmosphere of the ExecuThe news of the attempted assassination tive Mansion were resorted to. Large quancreated intense excitement throughout the tities of ice were placed in the cellar, over country, and it was considered in some quar- which air was passed and then admitted to the ters as an indirect result of the political system sick-room by means of an apparatus specially that encouraged unregulated office-seeking and devised for the purpose. The case was also occasioned many disappointments, and to the believed to be more or less complicated by quarrel between the so-called “Stalwarts" and malarial influences prevailing in and about the Administration Republicans, which had origi. White House. Besides the physicians already nated in the controversy over appointments mentioned, there were in constant attendance in the State of New York. There was an al- on the President his intimate friends Colonel
A. F. Rockwell and General Swaim, and Mrs. There was an apparent recovery from the reDr. Edson, the family physician of Mrs. Garo lapse of the 15th, and hope was still cherished. field; Dr. Boynton, the President's cousin and on the 18th inflammation of the right parotid former physician, was also a careful and solici- gland was announced, which increased until an tous watcher. Experiments were made for incision was made in it on the 24th. The conlocating the bullet by means of the induction dition of the patient was fluctuating during balance under the direction of Professor Gra- these days, and he began to express a strong ham Bell and an assistant, the result of which desire to be removed from Washington. On was announced, as follows, in one of the medi- the 25th his condition became critical, and on cal bulletins of August 1st :
the day following fears of a fatal ending of all Under the supervision of the attending surgeons, hope were entertained throughout the country. Professors Bell and Taintor this morning made anoth- There were, however, slight indications of imer application to the patient's body of the electrical provement on the 27th, which increased until apparatus known as the induction balance, with a view to completing the tests of last week, which were
by the 30th there was a renewal of hopeful annot entirely conclusive, and ascertaining definitely nouncements. On the 1st of September the and certainly, if possible, the location of the ball question of removal was taken up again, and Professors Bell and Taintor have been almost con
the gastric disturbance returning on the 4th, it stantly engaged for two weeks in experiments with the induction balance, and have made several modi
was decided to take the patient to Long Branch, fications and improvements which greatly add to its in accordance with his own earnest desire. efficiency. They tried this improved apparatus upon The journey to Long Branch was made on the President's body for the first time last week,
and the 6th of September. The cottage of Mr. O. although it indicated faintly the location of the ball, J. Francklyn, in Elberon Park, had been preit was afterward found to be slightly out of adjust- pared for the reception of the President, and, fectly conclusive. The results of this morning's
tests, with two others near by, was to be occupied however, are entirely satisfactory both to Professors by his family and attendants. A special train Bell and Taintor and to the attending surgeons, and of the Pennsylvania Railroad was fitted up for it is now unanimously agreed that the location of the the transfer from Washington to Long Branch, and that it lies, as heretofore stated, in the front wall and arrangements were made for running it of the abdomen, immediately over the groin, about without delay and at a high rate of speed over five inches below and to the right of the navel. the 228 miles of distance, which included parts
Favorable reports continued during the first of six different lines of railroad. The patient days of August, and plans were discussed for was removed from the Executive Mansion to removing the patient to the Soldiers' Home. the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station On the 6th unfavorable symptoms were re- without serious disturbance, at an early hour ported as the effect of the heat, and on the in the morning, and was made as comfortable following day they were declared to be more as possible in a car specially fitted for the purserious, and attributed to further obstruction pose. The departure from Washington took of pus in the wound. A new incision was place at 6.30 A. M. The route was over the made, this time below the rib, giving another Baltimore and Potomac Railroad to Baltimore; and freer outlet from the assumed track of the thence, passing the outskirts of the city, it wound. Relief and renewed progress were an- entered upon the Philadelphia, Wilmington nounced as the result, but there seemed to be and Baltimore Railroad; passing over the Juncno satisfactory evidence of healing. On the tion Railroad from Gray's Ferry to West Phila10th the President, for the first time since the delphia, and thence to Mantua, it proceeded by shooting, signed an official document, pre- the New York division of the Pennsylvania sented for the purpose by the Secretary of road to Princeton Junction, thence to MonState, being one of the papers in an extradi- mouth Junction, entering upon the Amboy tion case pending with Canada. About this division, and reaching the Long Branch divis. tiine there was considerable discussion as to ion of the Central Railroad of New Jersey at the correctness of the medical treatment, and Sea Girt. The rate of speed was at times as also as to the propriety of leaving the execu- high as sixty miles an hour; few stops were tive department of the Government without made, and Long Branch was reached at one an active head, some maintaining that the ex- o'clock-3,500 feet of railroad-track having igensy existed under which the Constitution been laid specially to convey the train from the provided for the devolving of the powers and regular station to the immediate vicinity of the duties of the presidential office on the Vice- Francklyn cottage, at Elberon. The following President on account of “inability.” After is the medical bulletin issued the same eventhe 10th of August the reports from the suf- ing: ferer were less hopeful, and unfavorable symptoms declared themselves on the 13th. On the President has been removed from Washington to
6.30 P. M.--Since the last bulletin was issued, the 15th the patient was admitted to be in a pre- Long Branch. He was more restless than usual last carious condition. His pulse went to 130, and night, being evidently somewhat excited by anticipahe was affected with rigors" and vomiting. tions of the journey: This morning, at 5.30 oclock, Thereafter the stomach was continually troub his pulse was 118; temperature, 99-8° ; respiration, lesome, and much of the time nutriment and A. M. Owing to the admirable arrangements made stimulants were alministered by injection. by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, and to the
ingeniously arranged bed, designed by Mr. T. N. Ely, The following personal message was sent to Mrs. the fatigue incident to the transportation was reduced Garfield by Queen Victoria : to a minimum. Nevertheless, as was anticipated,
BALMORAL COURT. some signs of the disturbance produced by the jour- MRS. GARFIELD, LONG BRANCH: Words can not exney have been exhibited since his arrival, by rise of temperature and increased frequency of pulse. At ble moment. May God support and comfort you as
press the deep sympathy I feel with you at this terripresent his pulse is 124; temperature, 101.60° ; respi- he alone can!
THE QUEEN. ration, 18.
D. HAYES AGNEW,
afternoon of September 20th, Dr. D. S. Lamb, J. K. BARNES,
of the Medical Museum at Washington, handJ. J. WOODWARD, ROBERT REYBURN.
ling the knife, and all the physicians who bad
taken part in the case, as well as Dr. Andrew The President showed signs of gratification H. Smith, of Elberon, being present. The reat the change, but there was no immediate sult showed that the diagnosis of the wound, evidence of improvement. On the 8th the so far as it concerned the course of the bullet, symptoms were regarded as promising again, had been mistaken from the start. The foland at the patient's request Drs. Barnes, Wood- lowing is the official announcement of the reward, and Reyburn withdrew from the case, sult of the autopsy: leaving it in the hands of Drs. Bliss, Agnew, By previous arrangement a post-mortem examinaand Hamilton. The same week a day of prayer tion of the body of President Garfield was made this for the recovery of the President was observed afternoon, in the presence and with the assistance of in several of the States. For two or three Reyburn, Andrew H. Smith, of Elberon, and acting
Drs. Hamilton, Agnew, Bliss, Barnes, Woodward, days the reports were hopeful, but bronchial Assistant Surgeon D. S. Lamb, of the Army Medical trouble was developing, and threatening the Museum, Washington. The operation was performed lungs. From the 11th to the 15th the reports by Dr. Lamb. It was found that the ball, after fractwere fluctuating and rather dispiriting. The uring the right eleventh rib, had passed through the patient was placed for a few hours each day the body of the first lumbar vertebra, driving a num
spinal column in front of the spinal canal, fracturing in a reclining chair where he could gaze from ber of small fragments of bone into the adjacent soft the window of the cottage upon the sea. On parts, and lodging below the pancreas, about two the 16th there was a serious relapse, with inches and a half to the left of the spine, and behind marked symptoms of blood-poisoning, includ- cysted. The immediate cause of death was secondary ing severe chills, fever, and inability to retain hæmorrhage from one of the mesenteric arteries adanything in the stomach. The last day is thus joining the track of the ball, the blood rupturing the briefly described by Dr. Bliss :
peritonæum, and nearly a pint escaping into the ab
dominal cavity. This hæmorrhage is believed to have At 8 a. M., September 19th, the pulse was 106 and been the cause of the severe pain in the lower part of fecble ; temperature, 108.8°, and all the conditions un- the chest complained of just before death. An abfavorable. In half an hour afterward there was still scess cavity, six inches by four in dimensions, was another chill, followed by febrile rise and sweating, found in the vicinity of the gall-bladder, between the and also with pain as before. During the periods of liver and the transverse colon, which were strongly chill and fever he was more or less unconscious. He adherent. It did not involve the substance of the passed all day in comparative comfort, and at 8.30 in liver, and no communication was found between it the evening his pulse was 108, respiration 20, and tem- and the wound. A long, suppurating channel experature evidently a little lower than normal. At 10.10 tended from the external' wound between the loinP. m. I was suminoned hastily to the bedside, and muscles and the right kidney almost to the right found the President in an unconscious and dying con- groin. This channel, now known to be due to the dition, pulseless at the wrist, with extreme pallor, the burrowing of pus from the wound, was supposed dureyes opened and turned upward, and respiration 8 ing life to have been the track of the ball. On an per minute, und gasping. Placing my finger upon examination of the organs of the chest evidences of the carotid, 'I could not recognize pulsation; applying severe bronchitis were found on both sides, with my ear over the heart, I detected an indistinct
flutter, broncho-pneumonia of the lower portions of the right which continued until 10.35, when he expired. The lung, and, though to a much less extent, of the left. brave and heroic sufferer, the nation's patient, for The 'lungs contained no abscesses and the heart no whom all had labored so cheerfully and unccasingly, clots. The liver was enlarged and fatty, but free had passed away.
from abscesses. Nor were any found on any other
organ, except the left kidney, which contained near Besides the physicians there were present at its surface a small abscess about one third of an inch the moment of death Mrs. Garfield and her in diameter. In reviewing the history of the case in daughter, Colonel Rockwell
, Mr. 0. C. Rock connection with the autopsy, it is quite evident that well
, General Swaim, Dr. Boynton, J. Stanley fractured, spongy tissue of the vertebræ, furnish a sufBrowne and Warren Young, the President's ficient explanation of the septic condition which exprivate secretaries, and four attendants of the isted.
D. W. BLISS, sick-chamber. Death was preceded by a se
J. K. BARNES, vere pain at the heart, and the President's last
J. J. WOODWARD,
ROBERT REYBURN, words were, “O Swaim!” The announce
FRANK H. HAMILTON, ment of his demise evoked expressions of uni
D. HAYES AGNEW, versal grief, not only throughout this country
ANDREW H. SMITĂ, bat from the principal cities of the Old World.
D. S. LAMB. Messages of condolence came from representa- Dr. Bliss concluded a review of the case, tives of authority abroad as well as at home, published in the “Medical Record,” in Octoand from many private and unofficial sources. ber, as follows:
The most important points revealed by the autopsy, anterior and to the left of the kidney, and finding its and which are to be considered by the profession, are: lodgment below the left extremity of the pancreas,
1. Would the condition of the President, immedi- wounding in its track the splenic artery. I would ask ately after his injury, have justified a more thorough if any known instrument or means of exploration has exploration of the wound, or would such a procedure ever been presented to the profession capable of trachave been safe at any time before primary reaction ing before the death of said patient the course of this was established?
bullet? Also whether the conditions could have been 2. Was bis transfer to the Executive Mansion time- improved or mitigated, or his life preserved longer by ly and properly made ?
any other line of treatment; whether, in view of the 3. Were the best and most judicious means insti- facts, modern conservative surgery could offer anytuted to secure prompt reaction?
thing more for the comfort or recovery of the illus4. After reaction was comparatively complete on trious patient? the 3d of July, and when there had occurred sponta- It is proper to state, in conclusion, that the most neous evacuations of normal urine and alvine evacua- approved antiseptic dressings were used during the tions, and an absence of any evidence of internal hæm- entire progress of the case. orrhage or peritonitis, would further exploration have been necessary, especially when it is considered that
There was considerable lay and professional the probable reopening of the lacerated vessels would discussion of the medical treatment, the geninduce hæmorrhage ?
eral conclusion being that, aside from the mis5. Were the surgeons then in attendance justified taken diagnosis, the wound was necessarily in deferring any further exploration until the arrival mortal, and it is doubtful if anything more of the distinguished counsel on the morning of July could
have been done to mitigate the suffer4th ?
6. At the consultation, July 4th, and after it was ings of the patient. proved to be impossible to follow the track of the ball The remains lay at the Francklyn Cottage, any considerable distance beyond the fractured rib, Elberon, until Wednesday, September 21st, and would an operation have been justifiable, necessitating the public was admitted to view the face of an incision through the soft parts, and a removal of a the dead President. After brief religious cereportion of the rib, so as to develop the track ?
7. In the light of modern military surgery, which monies at ten o'clock, on the 21st, the body was teaches the readiness with which leaden balls become borne by special train froin Long Branch, and, encysted, would an operation at any time for removal passing silent and reverent crowds at every of the missile have been justified unless there was some evidence of the missile being a source of irritation?
station, reached Washington at about 4.30, 8. Considering carefully the condition of the Presi- where it was received by an imposing funeral dent during the entire period of his illness, and the escort and taken to the Capitol. It was laid in facts revealed by the autopsy, would not any operation state under the great dome, previous to being for the purposes before mentioned have placed the taken to Cleveland, Ohio, for burial. It was hastened the time of his death without'affording any exposed to view during the 22d, and crowds of signal relief?
people passed through the rotunda to look 9. Was the treatment of the case as presented prop- upon the face of the deceased. Meantime, er, and did it or not prolong his life to the utmost preparations were made in Cleveland for relimit ?
10. Was the mistaken diagnosis a natural result of ceiving the remains, and there the principal the conditions present, and, to have developed a cor- obsequies were to take place. On the afterrect diagnosis, would 'not operative procedures have noon of the 23d, after impressive ceremonies ensued ? 11. If we had known the exact course and locality borne to the station of the Baltimore and Po
in the rotunda of the Capitol, the coffin was of the ball, and the organs injured in its passage, tomac Railroad, and the funeral train started a should the treatinent have been modified in any par- little after five o'clock. Official representatives ticular?
I desire to say, in a brief review of the leading facts of the various departments of the Government, as to the general conduct of the case, that it has been of most of the States, and many municipal corapparent to the medical reader that my prognosis was favorable, and, notwithstanding the mutations, I au
porations, accompanied or followed the regured a successful termination. It is but justice to
mains. The train, heavily draped with mournmyself to state that my prognosis was based on a le- ing emblems, entered Cleveland at 1.20 o'clock sion of minor importance. Had our diagnosis been P. M., on the 24th, and the body was placed in correct, modern surgery should have conducted tho case to a successful termination. I believe the medi- state on a catafalque beneath a pavilion erected cal profession, whom I address, will bear me out that for the purpose in the center of Monumental the prognosis was correct, if the diagnosis had been Park. All day on Sunday, the 25th, a great also correct. I was not always able, during the prog- conoourse of people passed the pavilion, and ress of the case, to account for many of the more pro- on the following day an impressive funeral found symptoms, and yet could not succeed in learn- took place, and the remains were deposited in ing of any more extensive or complicated lesions than were first suspected. I desire to make the inquiry a tomb in Lake View Cemetery, to await the whether more extensive explorations could have been preparation of the place of final sepulture safely made, or whether the condition presented—a wbich had been set apart for the purpose by knowledge of the relative position of the patient to the trustees of the cemetery. The procession the assassin, the character of the missile, and the con- included a military and civic pageant of unwould have directed the investigation toward the actual usual proportions. The day of the funeral, track and lodgment of the ball, the track of the ball September 26th, was observed throughout the presenting a course of entrance downward and for- country as an occasion of general mourning, in ward to the point of impingement upon the eleventh rib, and being then deflected to the left at almost a response to a proclamation of President Arthur, right angle, passing behind the kidney, perforating which had been supplemented in many of the the intervertebral cartilage and first lumbar vertebrå States by the recommendations of their Gov.
VOL. XXI.--21 A