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He also had a taste for the administration of the session of the Senate, but the appointment military affairs, and before the civil war was was not confirmed. The successor appointed Judge-Advocate of the Second Brigade of the after his suspension in July was confirmed in State militia. When Edwin D. Morgan became office at the following session of the Senate. Governor of New York, at the beginning of Two special committees investigated Mr. Ar1860, he appointed Mr. Arthur to the position thur's administration of the Collector's office, of engineer-in-chief on his staff, and he was and reported nothing on which a charge of afterward made Inspector-General, and then official dereliction could be based. Both the Quartermaster-General of the military forces President and the Secretary of the Treasury, in of the State, an office which he held until the connection with his suspension, acknowledged end of Governor Morgan's term, at the close of the purity of his official acts. A petition for 1863. He conducted the duties of his office his retention in office, signed by all the judges in equipping, supplying, and forwarding the of the New York courts, most of the promiimmense number of troops furnished by his nent members of the bar, and nearly all the State, with such success that his accounts were importing merchants of the city, was supaudited and allowed at Washington without pressed by Mr. Arthur himself. The only acdeduction, while those of some of the States cusation made against him. was that of diswere reduced by millions of dollars. It has regarding the President's order in respect to also been said that while he had the giving of active participation in political management. many large and profitable contracts, and the In a letter to Secretary Sherman, he produced control of enormous purchases, with opportuni- figures showing that in the six years of his adties for making gains, which most men would ministration as Collector of New York, rehave regarded as legitimate, he never profited movals from subordinate offices amounted to a penny from the business under his charge, only 24 per cent of the whole number, and left the office of Quartermaster-General against an average of 28 per cent under his poorer than when he took it. Presents offered three immediate predecessors, and that all to him were promptly rejected, and, if sent, but two appointments in one hundred to imreturned. In 1862 there was a secret meeting portant positions, commanding a salary of of " loyal Governors,” to discuss measures for $2,005 and more, had been made by promoproviding troops, at which Mr. Arthur was tion from the lower grades of the servico, on present by invitation, being the only person recommendation of the heads of bureaus. His taking part who was not the Governor of a reforms in the methods of conducting the busiState. Many instances are related of the ness of the office were generally acknowledged. notably vigorous administration of his military On retiring from the office of Collector of office.
the Port of New York, Mr. Arthur returned In 1863 General Arthur returned to the prac- to the practice of law in that city, and contice of law, and built up a large business in tinued to take an active part in politics, concollecting claims against the Government. Ho tributing materially to the nomination and also drafted many important measures of election of Mr. Cornell to the governorship of legislation, and promoted their adoption both the State. He was a zealous supporter of the at Washington and at Albany. For a short claims of General Grant to the Republican time he was counsel of the New York Board nomination for the presidency in the Chicago of Tax Commissioners. Meantime he took an Convention of 1880, being closely associatel active part in local politics, and became known with Senator Conkling in the effort to secure for his skill as an organizer and manager. On that result, as he had previously been in the the 20th of November, 1871, he was appointed political affairs of the State of New York. by President Grant Collector of Customs at When the movernent to nominate General the port of New York, an office to which he Grant was defeated, and Mr. Garfield was made was reappointed in 1876. His second appoint- the candidate, Mr. Arthur was nominated for ment was promptly confirmed by the Senate the vice-presidency by acclamation, for the without a usual reference to a committee. purpose of enlisting the hearty support of the President Hayes, after his accession to office in Grant Republicans for the ticket, and securing, 1877, promulgated an order forbidding persons if possible, the vote of New York. He took an in the civil service of the Government from active part in the management of the canvass taking an active part in political management, which followed, especially in his own State, Mr. Arthur was at that time chairman of the acting as chairman of the Republican Central Republican Central Committee of New York Committee. He presided in the Senate during city, and Mr. A. B. Cornell, who held the the special session, which began on the 4th of position of Naval Officer, was chairman of the March, with dignity and general acceptance. State Central Committee, of the same party. In the contest between the President and Both gentlemen neglected to comply with the Senator Conkling, in regard to appointments in President's order by resigning their party the State of New York, the Vice-President positions, and were suspended from office in took no part, but, after the resignation of the July, 1878. An attempt had previously been New York Senators, he went to Albany and made to supersede General Arthur by remov- actively participated in the effort to secure ing him, and appointing his successor during their re-election. It was during this contest
that President Garfield received the shot that ima are accidental, or whether their occurrence subsequently proved fatal, and it put an end to is in accordance with an undiscovered law, is a Mr. Arthur's electioneering efforts in behalf of question to be decided by future observations, Mr. Conkling. While the President lingered The dates of these periods are: January 17-21, between life and death froin July 2d to Sep- March 9-20, April 2-9, April 16-25, May 5-9, tember 19th, the Vice-President refrained from May 23-31, June 12–18, June 25-July 10, and all part in public affairs and the controversies July 24-August 4. M. Tacchini observes that of the time, only expressing on fitting oc- these epochs are frequently separated by half a casions his own sincere share in the common solar rotation. grief and anxiety.
Nero Minor Planet.- On the night of May The death of President Garfield was an. 18th, Dr. Palisa detected a new minor planet, nounced to him in New York by a telegraphic the 220th of the group. This is the only plandispatch from the members of the Cabinet, etoid discovered during the year. Its light at who expressed the wish that he would repair the time of discovery was extremely feeble, to Long Branch the following morning. In the apparent magnitude being 13.5. accordance with the advice of his friends, he Jupiter's Spots.— Within the past year Protook the oath of office at his own house in fessor Hough, Director of the Dearborn ObseryNew York before one of the judges of the atory, Chicago, Illinois, has given special study State Supreme Court, at about two o'clock in and attention to the spots of Jupiter. A discusthe morning of September 20th. After visiting sion of all the measures of the great red spot, Long Branch and accompanying the remains of commenced in the autumn of 1879 and continued the dead President to Washington, Mr. Arthur through 490 days, gives a mean rotation period was sworn into office in a more formal manner of gh. 55m. 35.2". But individual observations before the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court seem to indicate a motion of oscillation of the on the 22d, and delivered a brief address in spot itself; the displacement in longitude which he expressed his sense of the grave re- amounting to 3,200 miles. The observations sponsibilities devolved upon bim. The same of small spots during two months indicated an day, as his first official act, he proclaimed a average drift in longitude of about three miles general day of mourning for his predecessor. per hour. The rotation period derived from A special session of the Senate was called, to observations of a small white spot almost exbegin on the 10th of October, for the purpose actly on the equator was 9h. 50m 0:56“. If the of choosing a presiding officer and confirming great red spot, therefore, be regarded as fixed, such appointments as might be submitted. the mean drift of the equatorial parts will be The members of the Cabinet were requested to 265 miles per hour in the direction of the planretain their places until the regular meeting of et's rotation. The true diameter of the equaCongress in December. Only Secretary Win- torial white spot measured about 2,800 miles. dom, of the Treasury Department, who de- 'i hese observations, it must be confessed, leave sired to become a candidate for the Senate the true rotation period of the planet somefrom Minnesota, insisted on his resignation. what uncertain. As they indicate, however, Chief-Judge Folger, of the New York Court of but slight deviations from permanency in the Appeals, was chosen as his successor, after position, form, and dimensions of the red ex-Governor E. D. Morgan, of the same State, spot, the period can differ but little from 9h. had declined the appointment, though it had 55m. 35" been submitted to the Senate and promptly Comets.—The sixth comet of 1880 was disconfirmed. The new President took a proini. covered December 16th, by Dr. Pechüle, of Conent part officially in the Yorktown celebration penhagen. Its motion is direct, and the eleon the 19th of October, delivering an appro- ments of its orbit resemble those of the comets priate address.
of 1807 and 1881 b. ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND The first comet of 1881 was discovered May PROGRESS. The Sun. – The “ American 1st, by Dr. Lewis Swift, Director of the WarJournal of Science” for June, 1881, contains ner Observatory, Rochester, New York. Its a discussion of the American photographs of elements have no marked resemblance to those the transit of Venus in 1874, by Professor D. of any known comet. P. Todd. The mean equatorial, horizontal On the night of May 22d, Mr. John Tebbutt, parallax of the sun derived from these photo of Windsor, New South Wales, discovered a graphs is 8.883'', corresponding to a distance of comet which proved to be one of more than 92,028,000 miles.
ordinary interest. The same body was indeSolar Activity.—The “Comptes Rendus," pendently detected a few days later by Dr. vol. xciii, No. 8, gives the result of M. Tac- B. A, Gould, at Cordoba, South America. It chini's solar observations up to August 1st. The was observed at many places in Europe and number of spots and prominences continues to America on the morning of June 23d, and was increase. At no time between January 1st and conspicuously visible to the naked eye from July 31st was the sun's disk found free from June 23d to August 1st. Its tail could be traced spots. The daily record of their numbers has to a distance of 12° or 13° from the nucleus, indicated several well-marked epochs of special the true length being nine or ten millions of solar activity. Whether these secondary max- miles. Its orbit resembles that of the comet
219° 58' 48"
97 51 23 142 16 56
of 1807, and its period exceeds two thousand its descending node, so that the comet is occayears.
sionally liable to considerable disturbance. The third comet of the year was detected on On the evening of November 16th, Dr. Swift, the morning of June 14th, by Dr. J. M. Scha- of the Warner Observatory, Rochester, New berle, at Ann Arbor, Michigan. It was observed York, discovered a faint comet in Cassiopeiatelescopically more than three months, one the second detected by him since May 1st. third of which time it was visible to the naked The Meteors of August and November.—The eye. The striking resemblance of its elements number of meteors seen about the 9th and 10th to those of the third comet of 1822 is seen by of August, 1881, was less than usual-a fact the following comparison :
partly due to the brightness of the moonlight.
The shower of November 14th-15th also failed, ELEMENTS. 1822 ni. 1880 III.
no Leonids having been seen in certain places Perihelion passage..
1822, July 16. 1881, Aug. 22. where looked for. According to the “National Longitude of peribelion...
Republican" of November 15th, a meteor of
great brilliance was seen at Washington, D. C., Perihelion distance..
about five o'clock on the morning of the 14th. Calculator.. Heiligenstein. Abetti.
It was described as a broad band of meteoric On the night of July 6th a great outburst of light starting from a point a little west of the comet was observed at Cincinnati, Ohio, by north, and about 60° above the horizon. This Mr. Wilson and Professor Stone. The former meteor, which was visible at least ten seconds, first noticed a peculiar glare on the side toward was probably a member of the Leonid stream. the tail. The appearance was that of a large
Motions of the Fixed Stars.—The monthly jet of matter, of a red or exceedingly bright notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for color, shooting out from the comet. "The phe- January, 1881, contain a fourth paper by Sir nomenon was so striking as to suggest the in- George B. Airy on spectroscopic
results for the cipient separation of the comet into parts.
motions of stars in the line of sight, observed Encke's comet was detected on August 20th, at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. Acby Dr. Hartwig and Professor Winnecke, with cording to this table, the following are the rates the six-inch comet-seeker of the Strasburg Ob- of motion of certain well-known stars: Of servatory. This was its twenty-ninth return the two pointers in the Dipper, Dubhe, that since its first appearance in 1786. The posi- nearer tlie pole-star, is approaching the sun at tions of this body are observed and discussed the rate of twenty-seven miles per second, with a lively interest at each successive return, while Merak is receding with nearly equal veas Encke's celebrated theory of a resisting locity: In the same asterism, Phekda, Migrez, medium must stand or fall by the evidence de Alioth, and Mizar, are all receding at the averrived from its motion.
age rate of sixteen miles per second, while The fifth comet of 1881 was discovered on Benetnash is approaching the solar system the
morning of September 19th, by Professor E. with a velocity of eight miles a second. In the E. Barnard, of Nashville, Tennessee. Its ele: Square of Pegasus, Alpheratz, Algenib, and ments are somewhat like those of the comet of Markab, are approaching at the rates of thirty1698, as is shown by the following comparison : three, forty-six, and thirty-four miles per sec
ond, respectively, while Scheat is approaching ELEMENTS.
1698. 1881 v. at the rate of nineteen. The distance of CasPerihelion passage. 1698, Oct. 18. 1881, Sept. 15. and that of Pollux decreasing at the rate of
tor is increasing twenty-five miles per second, Longitude of perihelion.. 270° 51' Longitude of ascending node.
twenty-six. The distances of Aldebaran and Inclination.... Perihelion distance.
Regulas are both increasing ; the former twenty
The Distribution of the Variable Stars.--In Another comet, the sixth of the year, was “The Observatory” for September, 1881, Mr. T. discovered October 4th, by Mr. W. F. Denning, E. Espin gives the following results of a careful of England. Its appearance was that of a small
, study of the distribution of the variable stars : round nebula with a bright, central nucleus. “1. The variable stars show a decidedly Herr Palisa has computed the following ele- well-marked zone inclined 15° or 20° to the ments:
equator. Perihelion passage.
.1831. Sept. 12. "2. This zone crosses the preceding side Longitude of perihelion.
22° 18' 5" Longitude of ascending node.
of the galactic circle north of the equator, and Inclination.
7 85 57 the following south of it. Perihelion distance..
“3. In crossing the preceding side of the Elements have also been computed by M. galactic circle, the zone is not many degrees Schulhof, of Paris, and Professor 8. o. Chand- broad, and is very clearly marked; where it ler, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. The period, crosses the following side it is broken up into according to the rmer, is seven years and two streams. nine months; according to the latter, eight 14. The division into two streams occurs years and four months. The orbit makes a where the galaxy is also divided into two rather close approach to that of Jupiter, near streams.
“5. In this part the variable stars are in- which depend upon the density, and their comtimately connected with the galaxy, often fall- bining numbers in compounds with other eleing in the gaps, and constautly on the edges ments, each follow a certain progressive order of the gaps, but rarely in the center of the in successive groups of the elements. Similar star-sprays from the galaxy. Where the zone properties recur with complete regularity, and crosses the preceding part of the galaxy, it is follow the same order of progression in the sucmarked sharply and clearly, and seems uncon- cessive series. The properties are modified as nected with the galaxy.
the atomic weights increase; but the modifica“6. It is a remarkable thing that all the tions affect entire groups, and do not interrupt temporary stars with one or two exceptions the gradual progression within the periods. The have appeared in the region where the galaxy elements of the different periods in which the and the variable star zone are both broken into same or similar properties are repeated constitwo streams.
tute the natural families already established by “7. The exceptions to the zone are chiefly other chemists upon the ground of their idenfound in the bright and short period variables. tical combining numbers. The atomic weights
“8. The addition to the chart of the stars of contiguous elements usually differ by only a more strongly suspected variable, and that on few units. In cases where there is a considercompetent authority, strengthens the zone very able hiatus there is also found a gap in one or much indeed, and but very slightly the number more of the natural orders, which should be of exceptions."
represented here by members of intermediate The fact that nearly all variable stars of short atomic weights between those of the preceding period are found in a particular zone has also and the following periods. Some of the gaps been remarked by Professor E. O. Pickering, in Mendelejeff's scheme have already been filled of the Harvard College Observatory. Pro- by subsequently discovered elements. Gallium fessor Pickering describes this zone as extend- corresponds in atomic weight and in properties ing 16° on each side of a great circle whose to one of the predicted elements, as do also the pole is in right ascension 195° and north decli- descriptions of scandium and ytterbium. Mennation 20°. The average distance of thirty-one delejefi's periodic law is expressed in general well-known variables of short period from this terms in the following predicate: All the propgreat circle is 5° 30', while a random distri- erties of elements, and consequently of the bution would give an average distance of 30°. compounds which they form, are functions of
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical 80- their atomic weights, to which they stand in ciety.-At the annual meeting of the Royal periodic relations. In the following table all the Astronomical Society of London, in February, known elements are arranged in the order of 1881, the gold medal of the society was award- their atomic weights. The horizontal series ed to Professor Axel Möller, for his researches gives the successive cycles in which the period on Faye's comet.
of progressive development is completed ; and ATLANTA EXPOSITION. (See Exposi- the vertical series, the natural or homologous TION, ATLANTA.)
orders of elements in which the same properties ATOMIO THEORY. There have been many reappear. attempts to establish a law of numerical rela In the following table, it will be seen, telluritions between the atomic weights of the ele- um is the only substance which is ont of place. ments. The discovery of definite ratios between Possibly a redetermination of its atomic weight the atomic weights and other quantitative at- will give it in this respect the position between tributes, the division of the elements into spe- antimony and iodine which its intermediate cific groups distinguished by well-marked prop- properties indicate. Iron, manganese, and erties, and the tendency to doubt their primary chromium, which differ very slightly in atomic character and to regard them as derivative weight, do not exhibit the close resemblance combinations of simpler bodies, give a fresh in behavior and properties which the theory impetus to speculation in this direction. requires; and cobalt and nickel, which have
Mendelejeffos periodic law, confirmed as it almost identical atomic weights and densities, has been by the discovery of gallium and other possess, in some respects, quite dissimilar predicted elements, and by the agreement of properties. Other differences as remarkable many established facts with his scheme of pe- are shown by potassium and calcium, and other riodic functions, which more exact quantitative proximate elements. Copper, which has wany determinations have rendered more complete, analogies with mercury, here falls in a different has been elevated into the rank of an accepted group. The gradations of properties are certheory.
tainly not uniform and proportionate to the The Russian chemist has correlated the ele- atomic weights in the different series, being ments according to a synthetic law which is excessive, for example, between carbon, nitrothe most comprehensive yet established in gen, oxygen, and fluorine. chemistry, co-ordinating all the physical prop Besides the density, the malleability, ducerties and the chemical affinities of the whole tility, fusibility, volatility, and conductivity to list of simple bodies. Arranging the elements heat and electricity of elements seem, in the in the order of their atomic weights, their den- same manner, to be subject to periodic variasities, and consequently their atomic volumes, tions following the increasing order of their