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of the annual meeting in tolerating. “grave'tion to do what is just and right, and the as departures from ancient principles," and a surance that if it pursued that course it would platform of principles, among which were have the support of the masses of the people. declarations in favor of baptism by trine im- A petition to Parliament was adopted in favor mersion, "both administrator and candidate of the suppression of the opium-trade. A pegoing into the stream, accompanied by the lay- tition coming from members of the Universities ing on of hands and prayer in the water, there of Oxford and Cambridge asking that the Bapbeing no gospel for baptizing either sick or tist Union, in connection with the Congregawell persons in a mechanical vessel, in a house tional Union, would arrange for the delivery or outside"; feet-washing by the double mode; of lectures or sermons in the university towns the Lord's Supper a full meal; sisters to have on the principles of non-conformity, was retheir heads covered with the plain white cap, ferred to a committee. brethren to have their heads uncovered in time The managers of the Baptist Building Fund of praying or prophesying; "plainness in all had granted thirty-five loans, amounting to things by all, and uniformity in non-conformity £8,032, and reported twenty-two new chapels to the world; ... colleges and high-schools, be opened and six chapels enlarged and improved. ing of the world, belong not to the church, nor The receipts of the

Bible Translation Society to the humble followers of Christ”; Sunday- had been £2,392._The invested capital of the schools not of Gospel authority; "taxation for Baptist Annuity Fund had been increased to missionary purposes unscriptural; salaried or £78,000. paid ministry unscriptural, as understood by The Union met in its autumnal session at our ancient brethren; special educational prep- Portsmouth, October 26th, and was opened aration for the ministry not according to the by President Dowson with an address on Gospel, as understood by our ancient breth- “Spiritual Life in Connection with the Asren"; no life insurance; no oath-bound or semblies and Operations of the Union.” secret orders; non-resistance; non-swearing; The eighty-ninth annual meeting of the brethren not to be permitted to engage in Baptist Missionary Society was held in London, political affairs by voting and holding oath- April 26th. The receipts of the society had bound offices under the civil laws. The sev- been £51,459, the largest amount of income eral churches and meetings have been consid- reported in its history. Of this amount £11,erably agitated in conseqnence of these differ- 915 had been contributed for special purposes. ences.

including £4,000 given by Mr. Arthington, of V. BAPTISTS OF THE MARITIME PROVINCES. Leeds, for the Congo mission, and £3,421 The thirty-sixth annual convention of the Bap- which had been given by the churches for the tists of the Maritime Provinces met at Yarmouth, benefit of sufferers by a cyclone in Jamaica. Nova Scotia, August 20th, and was attended by The missions of the society are in India, Cey. an unusual number of delegates. F. H. Rand, lon, China, Japan, Africa, the West Indies, and LL. D., was chosen president. The statistical Jamaica, and parts of Europe, and returned reports showed that 1,260 persons had been 95 missionaries and assistants wholly, and 18 baptized during the year. The convention partly, supported by the society, 61 pastors of sustained three foreign mission stations in the self-supporting churches, 258 evangelists, 536 Teloogoo country of India, at which eight con- stations and sub-stations, 3,373 persons baptized verts had been baptized since the previous year's during the year, 38,397 members, 172 teachers, report. The income of the Board of Missions 5,815 day-scholars, and 5,828 Sunday-scholars. had been $5,400, and its expenditures $6,150. In India, two editions of the New Testament The Board of Home Missions had employed in Bengali (one with references), and one edi48 missionaries, who supplied 86 churches and tion in Hindi, had been completed, and a large 206 out-stations at an outlay of $5,204. The number of Scriptures and tracts in the Kaithi "convention scheme" of finance, which con- language had been printed. The revision of templates the raising for benevolent purposes the Singhalese New Testament, begun in 1876, of a sum equivalent to a dollar a person for the had been completed. The thirty-two native entire membership of the churches, had been churches in Shansi and Shantung were all selfnearly successful.

supporting and ministered to by Chinese pasVI. PARTICULAR BAPTISTS IN GREAT BRIT- tors, and had received a large number of conAIN AND IRELAND.—The annual meetings in verts. In Western Africa a branch station connection with the Baptist Union of England from Bukundu had been established, nearly a and Ireland were held in London in April, be- hundred miles in the interior. The missionginning on the 26th. The Rev. Henry Dowson aries to Central Africa had not yet reached their was chosen president of the Union for the year. destination at Stanley Pool, on the Congo, but The financial reports showed that the number had labored with effect in San Salvador and of churches and of single members contribut- the neighboring towns. ing to the funds of the Union had considerably VII. GENERAL BAPTISTS IN GREAT BRITAIN. increased. A resolution on public affairs was – The one hundred and twelfth annual meeting adopted expressing satisfaction with the domes- of the General Baptist Association was held at tic and foreign policy of the Government, the Norwich, June 21st

. The Rev. Dawson Burns belief that it would persevere in its determina- presided. Reports were received from 154

churches of 1,368 additions by baptism, of a Flanders, born March 24, 1837, lieutenantclear increase of 441, and a total of about 26,- general in the service of Belgium, who was 000 members. The receipts for foreign mis- married, April 26, 1867, to Princess Marie of sions had been £7,766, and the expenditures Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (born November 17, £8,518.

1845), and has two sons, Baldwin, born July Á “ Local Preachers' Conference” was held 3, 1869, and Albert, born April 8, 1875. The during the meeting of the association, at which oldest daughter, Princess Louisa, born Februa paper was read on the need of increased and ary 18, 1858, was inarried on February 4, 1875, better organized local preachers' work in the to Prince Philipp, Duke of Saxe-Cobourg and churches. The establishment of home-mission Gotha. centers, to be under the direction of the con- The area of this kingdom is 29,455·16 square ference to which they belong, was recom- kilometres (1 square kilometre = 0.386 square mended. In a Sunday-school conference, the mile) or 11,373 square miles. The population, establishment of weekly services for children, according to the census of December 31, 1876, a union for young converts, and special evan- was 5,336, 189, and in December, 1879, accordgelistic services, were recommended. Numer- ing to a calculation based upon the movement ous services for children of the kind suggested of population, 5,536,654. The following table were already beld weekly in London, Liver- exbibits the population of each province at the pool, and Paris. The "association letter" on close of 1878: the adaptation of the church to the wants of the times, suggested that such modifications in

Antwerp.

669,279 creed and practice as were made necessary in Brabant. . the light of modern discoveries should be ac

Flanders, West.

698,761

886,776 cepted, that a wider policy should be allowed Hainault.

982,402 in baptism, and that open fellowship should be Liége

Limburg permitted. Another 's association letter" was

Luxemburg

210,053 read upon the subject of "open fellowship." Namur.....

324,510 BEACONSFIELD, EARL OF. (See Dis

5,536,654 RAELI, BENJAMIN.)

BELGIUM, a kingdom of Europe. Leopold The population of the principal cities on II, King of the Belgians, born April 9, 1835, December 31, 1879, was as follows: Brussels, is the son of King Leopold I, former Duke of 170,345; Antwerp, 163,011; Ghent, 132,839 ; Saxe-Cobourg, and ascended the throne at his Liége, 121,787; Bruges, 44,833; Malines, 41,death, December 10, 1865. He was married 328; Verviers, 40,362; Louvain, 35,090; TourAugust 22, 1853, to Marie Henriette, daughter nay, 32,832; Courtrai, 27,061; Saint Nicolas, of the late Archduke Joseph of Austria (born 25,698; Namur, 25,792; Seraing, 25,046; August 23, 1836), who has borne him three Mons, 24,696; Alost, 21,631. daughters. The leir-apparent to the throne The movement of population from 1873 to is the brother of the King, Philip, Count of 1879 is shown in the following table:

PROVINCES.

Pop. in Dec., 1879.

993,696

East..

659,808 211.694

Total .....

[blocks in formation]

cent...

of the total births in 1879, 168,724 were

Francs. legitimate, and 14,059 were illegitimate. The Two and a half per cent debt...

219,959.632 Three per cent loans from 1873 to 1878.

883,707,100 pomber of divorces amounted to 151.

Four per cent debt (1871 to 1879).

672,741,882 The number of representatives in the Lower Four per cent loan of 1880..

134,719,000 House of the Chambers is 132, the number of Rentes funded at 5 per cent..

1,409,685

7,611,960 senators is 66. lu order to be eligible for elec- Five per cent annuities to the Netherlands. 2,539,680 tion to the Chamber of Representatives, it is Annuities for repurchasing railroads at 47 per

318.511,878 necessary to be twenty-five years of age, and a citizen of Belgium. On the other hand, no one Total.......

1,741,200,267 is eligible to the Senate who does not pay diPect taxes to the amount of 1,000 florins (2,116 The immigration into Belgium has since francs). Under this law there are at present 1871 always exceeded the emigration from the but 507 Belgians eligible to the Senate. The country. In 1879, there were 14,234 imminumber of persons entitled to vote at general grants and 12,474 emigrants. elections was, in 1881, 116,090.

The budget for the years 1879 and 1880 estiThe public debt on August 1, 1880, was as mated receipts and expenditures as follows (in follows:

francs) :

1879.

The Chamber of Deputies, which adjourned I. RECEIPTS.

1880.

December 24, 1880, resurned its sittings on 1. Direct taxes..

44,418,000 44,110,000 the 25th of January. The conflict between the 2. Indirect taxes

102,785,500 105,624,500 Church and the Liberals, on the educational 3. From means of communication

(railroads, telegraphs, post, etc.) 108,922,600'110,272,400 question, continued in and out of Parliament. 4. Miscellaneous

10,101,000 10,005,000 By the gain of a seat by the Clericals, the 5. Reimbursements.

8,263,160 3,485,160

Liberal majority in the Senate was rednced to Total receipts..

204,435,260 273.497,060 four. A parliamentary investigation into the IL FXPENDITURES.

condition of schools and the character of the 1. Public debt ....

77,990,229 79,024.246 instruction imparted excited the indignation of 2. Dotations ..

4,699,475 4,647,475 the Clericals, who appealed to the article of the 8. Ministry of Justice

15,901,169 16,042,809 4. Ministry of Foreign Affairs.. 2,078,110 2,188,435 Constitution which leaves it free to any one to 5. Ministry of the Interior.. 9,806,278 9,529,883 open a school and receive pupils. The purpose 6. Ministry of Education.. 7. Ministry of Public Works. 54,240 362 96,682,168 of the investigation was to show by the testi8. Ministry of War...

44,040.000 44,162,700 mony of experienced pedagogues and schoolBudget of the gendarmery. 8.410,000 8,488.200 inspectors, whose judgment would have weight 9. Ministry of Finance..

15,242, 110 15,880,010 10. Reimbursements and outstanding

in the country, that the schools which had debt..........

1,187,000 1,187,000 been hastily established everywhere by the Total expenditures...... 272,844,817 278,818,548 clergy to compete with the state schools, were

taught by incompetent and ignorant persons. The special commerce with foreign countries The majority in Parliament were moved, by in 1878 was as follows (values in francs):

the obstructions cast by the Church party in

the way of the new system of education, to COUNTRIES.

Importa. Esports. take reprisals in the form of a reduction of the Russia:..

129,685,000 22,935,000

budget of Public Worship. Sweden and Norway

28.886,000

6,775,000 The Minister of Justice, by request, laid beDenmark

2,241,000 2,208,000 fore the Chamber of Deputies a statement of German Customs Union.. 222,108,000 200,025,000 Bremen

1,167,000 889,000

the amount of the stipends paid to the clergy Hamburg

13,339,000 19,565,000 as compared with 1832. There are 4,997 of the Netherlands..

186,937,000 146,147,000 Great Britain.

194,252,000 249,598,000

lower clergy, whose salaries amount to 4,384,France

$23,161,000 829,855,000 937 francs, against 2,335,795 for 3,870 stipenPortugal

2,066,000 5,723,000 Spain...

diaries fifty years ago. The lower clergy con

22,789,000 18,804,000 Italy.

6,247,000 18,109,000 sists of 91 parish priests of the first and 140 of Switzerland.

999,000 19,152,000 the second class, 2,804 curates, 179 chaplains, Austria....

1,400,000 2,948,000 Turkey.

12,166,000 5,036,000

1,667 vicars, and seven coadjutors, with ten Africa..

3,898,000 8,965,000 chaplaincies and ninety-nine vicarships unAsia..

10,747,000 5,725,000

filled. The higher clergy and seminaries draw United States...

175,867,000 9.807,000 Cuba and Porto Rico..

1,921,000 5,942,000 from the state 321,000 francs against 235,232 Hayti and Venezuela..

4,844,000

in 1832. Brazil..

20.969,000 23,610,000 Uruguay

In the discussion upon the proposed revis

15,872,000 898,000 Rio de la Plata...

63,989,000 6,989.000 ion of the annual fund for ecclesiastical mainChili and Peru..

85,930,000 Other countries.

1,384,000
12,879,000 tenance, Minister Bara laid down the principle

that the granting of the budget for Public WorTotal. ..... 1,472,764,000 1,112,352,00ship was purely a state act, to be determined

from motives of public policy, and that it was The transit trade in the same year amounted based upon no convention between the Church to 897,347,000 francs.

and the state. Jacobs, the Clerical champion, The movement of shipping in Belgian ports argued on the contrary that the budget was a in 1878 was as follows:

poor and inadequate indemnity repaid to the

Church for the property of which it was robbed AT ALL PORTS.

Tonnage.

in the Revolution. The Government refrained Total vessels entered.

6,505

8,184,747 from retaliating the hostilities of the clergy by Total vessels cleared.

6,826
8,124,796

cutting down the salaries of the bishops and Steamers entered.

4,143

2,447,820 Steamers cleared.

4,119
2,414,468 the parochial clergy. A motion of the Radi-

cals to do this was voted down by 95 to 26 The length of railways in operation at the majority. In the budget, which was voted in close of 1879 was 4,012 kilometres. The March, a large aggregate reduction was effected length of telegraph-wires was 23,572 kilome- by abolishing chaplaincies, suppressing the pay tres, and of lines 5,410 kilometres. The num- of supernumerary assistant clergy, and with ber of stations was 708, and the total number holding the annual grants to the ecclesiastical of dispatches 3,242,615. The number of post- seminaries. The last retrenchment was justioffices was 638; of letters (ordinary, regis- fied on the ground that these institutions have tered, and insnred), 69,026,949; of newspapers, abundant revenues of their own. Bara an69,712,000; of printed matter, 28,041,000; of nounced that the care of souls in the army postal-cards, 16,720,652; and of official corre would devolve upon the parochial clergy. The spondence, 10,841,141.

army he declared to be no more in need of re

[graphic]

No. of vessels.

ligious ministers of its own than the judicial insult to the army. The Deputies elected in bench or the Legislative Chamber. If the Guillery's place Descamps, the first vice-presiparish vicars in the garrison towns refused to dent. extend their spiritual ministrations to the mili The Government carried a measure for the tary, their pay would be stopped. A provision reorganization of secondary schools. A proin the budget cuts off the salary or stipend at- posal brought forward by the advanced Libertached to any place in which a foreign priest als to abolish religious instruction in the midofficiates who has not received the permission dle-class schools was not accepted by the Govof the Government.

ernment, and was defeated in the Chamber. The Government declared, in response to an The motion was to rescind the provision of the interpeliation, in May, that no overtures had law of 1850, according to which the clergy are been made by the Vatican toward the reopen- invited to impart religious instruction in seconding of diplomatic relations. During King Leo- ary schools, and leave religious teaching to the pold's visit to Vienna, on the occasion of his families of pupils. daughter's wedding, he met the former nun The Government has established 12 addicio, Vanutelli, in the presence of his cabinet- tional colleges and 100 intermediate schools, chief, Frère-Orban, but was not approached on 56 for boys and 44 for girls. the subject of resuming diplomatic intercourse. The election registry for 1881 contains about

An angry controversy broke out among the 9,000 names less than in 1879, the number of Clericals between the extreme Ultramontanes, voters in a total population of 5,536,654 souls represented by Professor Périn, of Louvain, being 116,090. A large number of names were and the moderate portion. The former held dropped from the lists in 1880, and an additionpersistently to the doctrine advanced in the al number in 1881, on the ground that the Syllabus of Pius IX, and would not acknowl- omitted persons did not pay the amount of edge the secularized Belgium, in which the taxes which legally qualifies them for the frantherein defined relations to the Church were chise. They were mostly peasants and men in disregarded, to be a legitimately constituted holy orders. At the rate of progression which state. The Clerical representatives in Parlia- took place anterior to this strict construction ment were bitterly assailed for accepting the of the law, the number of voters would be new order of things and seeking a modus vi- 131,000 or over. The lists of communal electvendi with the state. This contest called forthors have, by a like rigorous application of the a reproof from Pope Leo, who significantly election laws, been reduced from 384,549 admonished the Catholics of Belgium that the names in 1879 to 373,666 in 1881. The fees Church, while maintaining unalloyed its holy for naturalization have been reduced by Parliateachings and principles of jurisprudence, pre- ment from 1,000 and 5,000 francs for the two serves always a "discreet attitude,” has “due grades, to half those amounts. regard for the right mode suited to the time In the summer an agitation was commenced and place," and often finds itself obliged "to in favor of universal suffrage, or for the estabsubinit to evils which it finds it almost impos- lishment of an educational instead of the tax sible to prevent without exposing itself to still qualification. Mass-meetings were held in worse evils and complications." The bishops Brussels, Antwerp, and elsewhere. The Radifelt impelled by the Pope's letter to remove cal, Janson, demanded in the Chamber that the Périn, the pragmatical upholder of the Sylla- Government show its colors on this question. bus, from the chair of Civil Law in the Univer- For communal and provincial elections to besity of Louvain.

gin with, the abolition of the limitation or the A law has been made providing that the substitution of an intellectual test was asked glebe-lands shall be administered in the same for. The Minister of Finance replied that the manner as the other state demesnes, and may question was not yet ripe, that the Constitution also be alienated by the Government. Clergy prescribed the cense, and that if the matter who have received the revenues of the church were carried before the country the Liberal estates are to be paid entirely out of the pub- party would be divided and the Clerical oppolic treasury. The vicar Yserbyt, and villagers sition would succeed to the helm. The subject of Heule, near Courtrai, who created a disturb- was brought forward again when a law relating ance in the latter part of 1880, were sentenced to the provincial assemblies was under considto prison.

eration. The Prime Minister proposed to dePresident Guillery, of the House of Deputies, fer Janson's proposition, to which the mover was overruled by the vote of his own party on agreed; but the seconder, Dufuisseaux, dea question of order, March 10th, and conceiving serted by his friends, felt called upon to resign the action of the House to be an infraction of his seat. An extension of the franchise would his authority, he resigned. A member of the benefit the Clerical and Social-Democratic parRight had stated that the army had resented ties; for which reason the Liberal ministry, partisan orders of the War Minister. The though not opposed to the reform, will not president accepted as sufficient a declaration of take the step without cautiously measuring the the member, Woeste, that he would retract the effects. The elections of delegates to the muwords, but still held to the opinions; but the nicipal councils in October resulted in a House demanded a completer apology for the marked victory for the Liberals.

Stéphanie, daughter of the King of the Bel- surplus stock of silver; and the United States, gians, was married, May 10th, to the Crown- which had resumed the coinage of legal-tender Prince Rudolph of Austria. (See Austria.) silver dollars, was apprehensive of derange

The Minister-President, Bounder de Mals- ment of her financial system by a further debroek, was transferred in January from Copen- cline in the value of silver. France and the hagen and Stockholm to Washington.

United States were disposed to adhere to biThe German commercial treaty of 1865 was metallism, but it was generally recognized that renewed, and is to continue in force until one some broader international agreement was necyear after one of the contracting powers has essary in order to maintain the relative value given notice of dissolving it.

of the metals and give it stability. Great Count Auguste Van der Straaten-Ponthoz Britain showed no disposition to yield its sinwas transferred from his post at the Hague to gle-standard policy, but was interested in sussucceed the venerable Baron Nothomb (see taining the value of silver on account of its exOBITUARIES) at Berlin. Baron d'Anethan, for- tensive use as currency in her Eastern colonies. mer Belgian representative at the Vatican, was Germany had given no evidence of a desire to appointed minister to the Hague.

recede from its action of 1873, but was apparThe latest law for military organization pro- ently willing to discuss the subject, and to subvides for an army of 46,277 men, including mit her sales of silver to restrictions. Austria all officers, police, and non-combatants, with was inclined to a cautious policy, dependent 10,014 horses and 204 guns, in time of peace; on the future action of Germany and Great and for a war force, of 103,683 men, not count- Britain. ing officers, gendarmery, etc., with 13,800 An effort was made in 1880 by France to horses and 240 guns. The army comprises 18 secure a monetary conference at Paris in Noline regiments of infantry, with 3 line and 1 vember of that year. This effort failed, but reserve battalion each, and 1 rifle regiment the co-operation of the United States was obwith 4 line and 2 reserve battalions, every bat- tained, and on the 8th of February the Foreign talion consisting of 4 companies, and the com- Secretary was able to announce, in a council of pany of 100 men in peace and 225 in war, ex- ministers, that the Government of the United clusive of officers. The cavalry consists of 8 States had agreed to the proposition of France regiments, of 4 line and 1 reserve squadron for an International Monetary Conference to each, the squadron having 120 horses in time consider the question of a more general adopof peace and 154 in war. The field-artillery tion of the double standard of gold and silver. consists of 2 regiments with and 2 without Invitations would be addressed to the other mounted batteries, each regiment containing 10 powers, and the question then was whether batteries of 6 guns, with 94 men and 64 horses it should be in the name of France alone or in time of peace and 155 men and 152 horses France and the United States jointly. Subseon a war-footing. There are 3 regiments of quently, early in March, a joint note of the standing artillery of 18 batteries, each battery two Governments was addressed in identical being manned with 78 men in peace and 176 terms to their ministers in other countries, to in war; 1 engineer regiment of 3 battalions be by them communicated to the several govwith 10 companies each, 85 men strong in ernments to which they were accredited. The peace and 300 strong in war. The Belgian note was as follows: Citizens' Guard, or militia, has 120,000 men enrolled, of which 30,000 are active. The King, Government of the United States, having exchanged

The Government of the Republic of France and the in an address on the occasion of the opening of views upon the subject of a conference between the the new dock at Ghent, declared that the se- powers principally interested in the question of estabcure establishment of national military de- lishing internationally the use of gold and silver as bifenses ought to keep even pace with the ad- tween those metals, and finding

themselves in accord as vancement in material prosperity, referring to to the usefulness and importance of such a conference, the development of a strong military reserve, and

as to the time and place at which the same should which has been the aim of the Belgian Govern. be held, have the honor now to invite the

Government for many years.

ments of - to take part in a conference by such BI-METALLIO STANDARD. The Inter- at Paris on Tuesday, the 19th of April next, to con

delegates as each government may appoint, to be held national Monetary Congress, which was held sider and adopt for presentation to the governments in connection with the Paris Exposition of so represented for their acceptance a plan and system 1878, having produced no practical result, the for the establishment by international convention of Government of France endeavored during the the use of gold and silver as bi-metallic money at a

fixed relative value between those two metals. two years following to initiate a movement for bringing the nations together for some more Messrs. William M. Evarts, Allen G. Thurformal action. France and other members of man, and Timothy 0. Howe were promptly the Latin Union still maintained the double, appointed as delegates on behalf of the United or bi-metallic, monetary standard; Great Brit- States, and Mr. S. Dana Horton was subseain persisted in the single gold standard, ex, quently added. The French Government apcept for India, where silver constituted the pointed M. Magnin, the Minister of Finance; currency; Germany, having recently adopted M. Dumas, Secretary of the Academy of Scithe gold standard, continued to dispose of her ences, and President of the Mint Commission;

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