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and anomály only are commonly perceived. are substituted for the ordinary bread and The new order is the happy welding of these wine. The "vow of self-surrender" is taken together, and in it the fulfillment of Christ's by persons who enroll themselves in the order prophecy of the coming of the Comforter is to of “Grihastha Vairagi,” or ascetic householdbe sought. Christ is not held to be divine, as ers-men of the world who, following secular in the orthodox churches of Christianity, but employments, give all they make to the church. is regarded with great reverence and devotion The singing of hymns from door to door, for as a prophet, and is allowed a subjective not the benefit of the worldly-minded, which was an objective divinity. God is believed in as formerly confined to the lower classes of peoan objective reality, a supreme Father, whose ple, has been commended under the New Discharacter of divine holiness worshipers aim to pensation to the middle and upper classes as assimilate and realize in their hearts. Com- an "exalted work." munion is sought to be promoted with proph The fifty-first anniversary of the Brahmo ets and departed saints, who are supposed to Somaj was celebrated by the adherents of the be real persons and children of God, by the New Dispensation in a series of meditative and 80-called pilgrimages, in which a particular mystic ceremonies, which, with the days of room represents the historical site, and con- preparation, occupied most of the month of versations are carried on, by the aid of a vivid January. A portrait of Ram Mohun Roy was imagination, with the person invoked, whose unveiled. Five missionaries were consecrated utterances of centuries ago, says Dr. William to a life in which they were told they would Knighton, in the “ Contemporary Review," be wholly under the guidance of Heaven, and " are applied, more or less skillfully, to the would find themselves always in a state of comexigencies of the present time, or the difficulties plete harmony with each other, drawing their of existing theological speculation.” The spirits inspiration from the Almighty alone, who are not supposed to be materialized or actually would speak to and through them. The report present, but to be spiritually drawn into the for the past year mentioned as its peculiar, life and character of the devotee; the pilgrim- pre-eminent feature, the communion with ages being explained to be simply practical ap- saints," which was observed by eight pilgrimplications of the philosophy of subjectivity” ages of the missionaries and other Brahmos to The believer may be aided by the perasal of the house of the minister (Mr. Sen), with honthe sacred books of the several religions, by ors to the following saints: Moses, February studying the precepts and examples, and ab- 22d; Socrates, March 7th ; Sakya, March 14th; sorbing the spirit of which he is believed to be Mohammed, September 19th; Chaitanya, Sepbrought into communion with the authors of tember 26th; scientific men, October 3d. An those religions, or to have "conferences" with average of one hundred students had attended them. The immortality of the soul is taught, the theological institution. Fifteen missionwith the idea that the future life is a continu. aries had been employed in Calcutta and six in ation and development of the present life. The Dacca, besides fourteen secular missionaries. incarnation of Deity is denied, but all the great Thirteen somajes had been established, and the teachers of religion, from Moses to Mohammed, flag of the New Dispensation had been carried are recognized as God's servants and as useful all around India. A letter was read from the teachers. A violation of duty is sin, and every Prarthana Somaj, of Bombay, expressing the sinner must suffer the consequences of his own hope that all schism might be healed, and that sinfulness, in this world or the next. Holiness there might be a united theistic church in may be attained, however, and sinfulness ex. India, which was suitably responded to. Steps tirpated by the worship of God, by self-control were taken to publish a reply to misrepresenand self-denial, by repentance, by the study of tations which, it was alleged, had been made God in nature and in 'good books, by good of the Brahmo Somaj in India and England. company, and by solitary contemplation; and The missionaries were given the distinctive by these means salvation is attained. No me- title of Sraddheya Bhai, or Reverend Brother. diation between God and man is suggested. A sacramental ceremony was celebrated on Salvation brings with it a perpetual growth in the 6th of March. On the 7th of June "a new parity, which goes on for all eternity. The Hom ceremony," or fire-sacrifice, was celeNew Dispensation is openly and fearlessly de- brated as the "ceremony of overthrowing clared to be the work of God and not of man, temptation," and was followed on the 12th by a beautiful symmetrical plan of providence in a "new baptismal ceremony," in which it was a course of daily developinent, which provides claimed that “the rite was administered by an infallible remedy for huinan wants and John the Baptist himself, who was present in short-comings; a “system of Divine eclecti- spirit.” cism, absorbing all religions, incorporating in A considerable majority of the Brahmo itself all the prophets of God.”
Somajes, including one hundred and forty Among the peculiarities of ritual of the New churches in different parts of India, from Assam Dispensation are the Arati ceremony, with to Sinde, and from Lahore to Madras, adhere which the flag was inaugurated, and which has to the old order, and either oppose the New been criticised as savoring of idolatry; and the Dispensation or hold aloof from it. The chief sacramental ceremony, in which rice and water of these societies is the Sadharan (or Univer:
sal) Brahmo Somaj of Calcutta, which bas also The Emperor is Dom Pedro II, born Demany members among the provincial somajes, cember 2, 1825; proclaimed April 7, 1831; reand has regular agents in various parts of India. gency until July 23, 1840 ; crowned July 18, Its aims are stated in its annual report to be, 1841; married September 4, 1843, to Theresa first, " to develop within itself and encourage Christina Maria, danghter of the late King in others a life of piety, based upon direct and Francis I of the Two Sicilies. immediate communion with the living God; to The Cabinet in 1881 was composed of the promote absolute spiritual freedom by combat- following ministers: Interior, Baron Homem ing all doctrines of incarnation, mediation, or de Mello; Justice, Councilor M. P. S. Dantas, prophetship; to build morality and piety on Senator; Foreign Affairs, Councilor P. L. Pefoundations of reason and conscience, illumined reira de Souza, Deputy ; Finance, Councilor by the light of divine intercourse; and to strive J. A. Saraiva, Senator, and President of the for a life in which devotion and earnest work Council of State ; War, Councilor Franklin will commingle”; and, secondly, to introduce Doria, Deputy; Navy, Councilor J. R. Lima a constitutional and representative mode of Duarte, Deputy; Public Works, Commerce, church government. The declaration of prin- and Agriculture, Councilor M. Buarque de ciples, read at the dedication of the church in Macedo,* Deputy. Calcutta in January, enforced the worship of The Council of State was composed of the the One True God, to the exclusion of every following members in ordinary: The Princess created person or 'thing, and of divine honors Imperial, Donna Isabel; Prince Gaston d'Or"to any man or woman as God, or equal to léans, Count d'Eu; the Senators Viscount de God, or an incarnation of God, or as appointed Abaeté, Viscount' de Muritiba, Viscount de of God"; the renunciation of distinctions of Bom Retiro, Viscount de Jaguary, Viscount caste or social position; the catholicity of de Nictheroy, Viscount de Araxá, J. P. Diaz Brahmoism (“no book or man shall be acknowl. de Carracho, and J.J. Teixeira, Vice-Admiral edged as infallible, and the only way to sal- J. R. de Lamare; Dr. P.J. Soares de Souza; vation; but, nevertheless, due respect shall be and of members extraordinary: Senators J. L. paid to all scriptures, and the good and great 0. Paranaguá and M. P. S. Dantas; Counof all ages and countries "); and the main- cilors Martin Francisco, B. A. de M. Taques, ienance of spirituality of doctrine. “Flowers, and J. C. de Andrade ; and Viscount de Praspices, burnt-offerings, candles, and other ma- dos. terial accompaniments of worship," it said, The President of the Senate, which com"shall never be used, and care shall be taken to prises 58 members elected for life, was Visavoid everything tending to reduce religion to count de Jaguary; and the Vice-President, mere parade and lifeless forms. ... Anything Count de Baependy. that will directly or indirectly encourage idola- The President of the Chamber of Deputies, try, engender superstition, take away spiritual with 122 members elected for four years, was freedom, lower conscience, or corrupt morals, Viscount de Prados; and the Vice-President, shall never be countenanced.” The Sadharan F. de Almeida. Brahmo Somaj sends missionaries over India, The Presidents of the several provinces were sustains societies for religious culture among as follows: the students of Calcutta, and maintains a Alagoas...
Dr. J. E. Ferreira Jacobina. theistic library and a school for the higher edu- Amazonas.
Senator J. L. C. Paranaguá. cation of boys, with twenty teachers and 389 Ceará.
Senator P. Leão Velloso. pupils, and labors by itself, and through asso- Espirito Santo.
Dr. M. A. Tostes. ciated societies of women, for the improvement Maranhão.
Dr. J. A. Leite de Moraes. of women. Among the reforms advocated by Matto-Grosso. the theists of India, of whom both of these
Senator J. F. Meirade Vasconcellos,
Pará.. societies are branches, are the complete aboli
Parahyba. tion of all caste restrictions; the abolition of Paraná
Pernambuco the worship of deceased ancestors ; a reform
Dr. J. A. de Azevedo Lima,
Dr. S. Q. de Moura.
Dr. F. P. Soares Brandão. male education and emancipation; the linnita
Dr. H. M. Inglez de Sousa. tion of men to one wife; the removal of the prohibition against the marriage of widows,
The Archbishop of Bahia, the Rt. Rev. L. A. and social reform; the suppression of intem dos Santos (1880), is Primate of all Brazil ; perance of all kinds; the promotion of educa- and there are eleven bishops: those of Pará, tion among the people; and the social and São Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio de Janeiro, moral regeneration of India.
São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, DiamanBRAZÍL (IMPERIO DO Brazil). (For details tina, Goyaz, and Cuyabá. relating to area, territorial divisions, popula
The Brazilian Minister Plenipotentiary and tion, etc., reference may be made to the An. Envoy Extraordinary to the United States is nual Oyclopædia" for 1878.)
• Died August 29, 1881. (See OBITUARIES, FOR EX.)
Dr. A. J. Furtado.
Dr. P. S. Cincinato.
Dr. M. P. Souza Dantas Filho.
Dr. J. R. Chaves.
Councilor Lopes Netto (transferred from Monte- vette and two smaller craft); with an aggrevideo in July, 1881); and the Brazilian Consul- gate of 3,758 men, and a total armament of General at Baltimore (for the Union) is Senhor 166 guns. The aggregate steam-power was Salvador de Mendonça.
8,660 horses. Besides the vessels above enuThe United States Minister to Brazil is Hon. merated, there were five iron-clad ships, one James Monroe (1881); and the United States gunboat, one school-ship, and one brig for Consul-General at Rio de Janeiro is Mr. midshipmen, all without armament. The perThomas Adamson. “We learn, with the sonnel of the navy consisted of 14 general staffgreatest pleasure," writes a Rio journalist, re- officers, 340 first-class officers, a sanitary corps ferring to the appointment of Minister Mon- 73 strong, 17 almoners, 88' accountants, 57 roe, and to the continuance of Mr. Adamson guardians, and 185 engineers; an imperial main the consulate-general, “that the Honorable rine corps, 2,695 strong, a naval battalion of James Monroe has been nominated by the 286 men, and 1.229 apprentices; total, 4,984 President of the United States as repre-enta- men. An additional gunboat has been reporttive of that great republic at the court of ed “in course of construction " for some years Brazil. Mr. Monroe will be no stranger in past; but mention must here be made of two Brazil; he is already known here as a consul important craft, officially described as follows: who discharged his important duties with zeal One of these, an ironclad of novel construcand integrity; and his precedents here afford tion, contracted for in London in 1881, is to the certainty that the United States will find be 300 feet in length with 52 feet beam, and in him a resident Minister in Brazil who will to carry four Armstrong twenty-ton, new patreflect honor on his native country. As re- tern, breech-loading guns, mounted on two gards the present United States consulate- turrets arranged en échelon, and sufficiently goneral at Rio de Janeiro, we are rejoiced to far apart to avoid injury to one turret by the find that no change is contemplated in its oc- flash of the guns in the other. The lighter cupancy by the gentleman who has so wor- armament is to consist of six 44-inch guns and thily discharged the duties thereof, and re- a signal-gun. The armor is to be steel-faced formed it. As the New York correspondence throughout; the armor-belt, of two strakes, 7 says, Mr. Adamson is not popular among a feet deep and varying in thickness from 10 to certain class of American citizens here; but 11 inches; and the breastwork and turrets each consuls, like ministers of state, who initiate 10 inches thick. The main-deck will be faced and enforce necessary reforms, must count on with 14-inch compound armor on a steel backhaving to endure much obloquy from the small ing | inch thick. The stem, stern, rudder, but noisy class whose interests the reforms brackets, and tubes will be constructed of brass, traverse. Still, every important American and while the hull will be double sheathed with other house, having business with the United wood and covered with Muntz-metal. PromiStates consulate-general here, will freely ac- nent among the advantages anticipated in this knowledge that, in Mr. Adamson, we have had ironclad are: the protection of the magazines the best American Consul-General Rio has and the spaces beneath the breastwork, fore seen since the days of Honest James Mon- and aft of which the armor-belt will pass inside
and take the form of oblique armor; the dimiThe actual strength of the army in 1880 was nution of weight consequent upon that arrange15,304, of whom 1,743 were officers. The dis- ment, and the security against water lodging tribution of the several arms was as follows: upon the inner protective deck in the event of Infantry-twenty-one battalions, eight garrison piercing of the thin ends of the armor; and companies, and one depot company for drill- the use of the forced blast, with a horse-power service; cavalry-five regiments, one squad- readily increased from 6,000 to 8,000, and a ron, and five garrison companies; artillery- speed of not less than 15 but susceptible of bethree mounted regiments and five foot-battal. ing accelerated to 164 knots an hour. Should ions; sappers and miners, one battalion ; gen- the ship, on trial, fail by one quarter of a knot darmes, 8,340, of whom 931 were at Rio de to make 15 knots, the builders will, by the Janeiro. The National Guard had been dis- terms of their contract, be held to forfeit banded, with a view to reorganization after the £2,000; if by one half knot, £4,000; if by taking of the new census. Pursuant to the law three fourths, £8,000; if by one knot, £16,000; of February 27, 1875, military service is obli- if by 17 knot, £32,000: and should the speed gatory for all Brazilian citizens; but numerous fall short of 134 knots, the whole of the final exemptions are admitted, and substitution is al. installment, amounting to one sixth of the enlowable. The period of service in the regular tire price, will be forfeited. Should the exarmy is six years, and in the reserve three tremo draught of the ship, with 400 tons of years. The regulation war strength was to be coal and sea-going stores on board, exceed 20 fixed at 32,000; and the strength in time of feet, the forfeitures will be as follows: for an peace, although fixed at 13,000, is commonly excess of 1 inch, £1,000; of 2 inches, £2,000; in excess of that number. The navy, in 1880, of 3 inches, £4,000; of 4 inches, £8,000; of 5 consisted of nine steam ironclads, six steam inches, £16,000 ; of 6 inches, £25,000; and of corvettes, sixteen steam gunboats, six steam more than 6 inches, the entire final installtransports, and three sail of the line (one cor- ment. Likewise, for an excess of one tenth
pound per horse-power over the consumption imports were but $4,765,585 in 1880, against of fuel indicated by the builders for the trial $4,900,163 in 1879. Hence the actual increase trip of 6 hours at full speed, £2,000 will be of revenue froin the customs department in forfeited; for two tenths, £4,000; for three 1880, as compared with 1879, was but $413,tenths, £8,000; for four tenths, £16,000; for 257.' Much more favorable results were exfive tenths, £32,000. The ship is to be inclined, pected by the Government from the tariff and her center of gravity ascertained in the which went into operation on January 1, usual way. Her metacentric height when 1880; but economists foresaw that a measure loaded for sea is not to be less than 3 feet, and so unsatisfactory to the commercial commuunder no circumstances is it to be less than 24 nity could hardly prove profitable to the treasfeet; and by failure in any of these stipula- ury; for, although merchants had been retions the contractors are to forfeit the final in- quested to take part in the work of revising stallment. The other new craft is an iron gun- the former tariffs, their suggestions had only boat to be named Iniciadora, and the king-bolt been regarded as worthy of consideration when of which was struck by his Majesty the Em- favorable to increased rates of duty.* The peror on October 27, 1881, at the national ar new tariff undeniably made some improvesenal of marine. This will be the first iron ves- ments, such as the suppression of unnecessary sel built there. The dimensions and other de- distinctions and the approximation of official tails published were as follows: length, 117 to market value; but, on the whole, the refeet; beam, 24 feet; depth of hold, 8 feet; vision was performed too rapidly to admit of draught, 5 feet; with a displacement of 200 proper attention to fiscal conveniences. А tons, and engines of 260 horse-power, expected new revision was ordered toward the close of to give a speed of from 9 to 10 knots an hour. 1880, and the work intrusted to a committee The vessel is to be double sheathed with wood composed wholly of government einployés ; and Muntz-metal; and the armament to consist but the expediency of submitting the result of of two cannons of 15 caliber at the bow and their labors, when these should be terminated, stern, with 3-inch steel plate casemates for for examination to a committee of merchants protection against musketry; two machine and another of manufacturers, was strongly gans and torpedo apparatus. Electric light urged by the public press. will be used on board the Iniciadora, which is The amount and branches of the national to have steel-wire schooner rigging, have ca- debt of Brazil. were reported as follows on pacity for one month's supplies for 60 inen, December 31, 1880: and carry coal for 7 days. This gunboat is Foreign loan of 1862, due 1882....
£390,800 specially intended for river service.
286,800 The subjoined table of the latest official re
1860, * 1890 452,100 turns at hand from the Finance Department,
5,575,900 being for the year 1877–78, will serve to show
8,028,200 the sources of the revenue and the branches
5,079,500 of the expenditure, but not the real condition Total foreign debt
£16,704,000 = 148.665,600+ of Brazilian finances at the present time: Six per cent internal funded debt..
119,600 Customs receipts....
1863, 1871, " 1875,
23,882,000 Imposts on shipping
65,749 Four and a half per cent gold bonds of 1879.. 50.285,000 Internal revenue.. 14,156,169 Treasury bills...
762,417 Five per cent private loan.. Emancipation fund... 521,860 Various deposits, about
50,000,000 Receipts extraordinary
A new loan of £5,000,000 was talked of in Ministry of the Interior
$11,207,295 July as probable, and as necessary to permit of Foreign Affairs.
the payment or funding of the existing floating of Finance...
25,526,199 of Justice
debt. of Commerce and Agriculture.. 21,058,020 In a report made in 1879 by the Minister of of War..
7,917,894 of the Navy.
Finance, the total debt stood at 779,116,837
milreis $389,558,418. Total.......
$75,746,195 The most recent complete official returns of Deficit ........
$20,378,855 the foreign commerce of the empire are those In the budget for the fiscal year 1881-'82, the imports were, as stated in our volume for 1850,
for 1878–79, in which year the exports and revenue was estimated at $58,479,000, and the of the total values of $102,029,250 and $81,expenditure, in round figures, at $59,143,380; 762,900 respectively. thus showing a deficit of but $664,380. As for 1880, the revenue appears to have been
The nature and value of the commodities " greater in that year than any of the preced imported from Great Britain in 1880 were as
shown in the subjoined table: ing years." The customs receipts from exports gave a total of $21,425,497, against $20,877,662 in 1879; though the receipts from
* See " Annual Cyclopædia " for 1880 and for 1878. + $74,832,800.
ing their present vantage-ground in the marLinen manufactures
123,024 Woolen and worsted manufactures.
kets of the United States and of Europe. The Jute manufactures..
152, 128 Brazilian coffee-crops have of late years been Hardware and cutlery. Coal, coke, etc.
abundant. Thus, as has been seen in the table Eartbenware
112,260 last given, the crop of 1878 was 225,500,000 Rails of all sorts..
kilogrammes, or 496,100,000 pounds; that of
105,582 Cast or wrought iron...
228,408 1878–79 was rather smaller, 222,349,800 kiloMachinery and mill-work.
grammes; that of 1879—'80, still smaller, was Seed-oils...
174,543,480; while, on account of 1880-'81, Total...........
£4,966,133 for the first six months, ending on December
= $24,830,690 Against a total of £3,995,721 (= $19,993,605)
31, 1880, there had already been shipped 142,for the year 1679.
622,820 kilogrammes, or almost seven eighths The imports from the same source for the of the entire quantity exported in the whole first six months of 1881 were as follows:
of the year immediately preceding. It was re
garded as probable that the crop of 1881–282 Cotton manufactures..
£849,403 Woolen manufactures.
would reach 3,000,000 bags of sixty kilogrammes Linen manufactures.
84,334 each, or 180,000,000 kilogrammes = 426,000,Jute manufactures..
000 pounds.'" The year 1880 was not favorable Rails...
101,029 to coffee exportation," observes a Rio journal. Machinery
“The European markets remained apathetic Hardware and cutlery
83,661 Cast or wrought iron
during the first half-year, with prices constantly Earthenware
86,729 low, while in the United States the presence Coal, coke, etc....
71,603 Seed-oils, etc.
of large cargoes, presumed to be for account of
the Brazilian Government, kept speculators Total.....
away. At home, holders and buyers found it = $7,193,670
difficult to agree, as the latter could not go Judging from the total of the first of these above certain limits in accordance with the two tables, that of the second would seem to situation of the markets the shipments were foreshadow a considerable decrease for 1881 for; while the sackers, unwilling to sacrifice as compared with 1880.
the article by selling at a low price, endeavOf all the Brazilian staples of export, coffee ored at all hazards to sustain their pretensions. is by far the chief. With her 530,000,000 * of In the last months of the year, when coffee shrubs, producing on an average 260,000,000 fell considerably in the American markets, kilogrammes or 572,000,000 pounds annually, some New York and Boston merchants, una Brazil exports nearly one half of the entire quan- able to meet their losses thereby, suspended tity of coffee consumed in the world, her home payments. But no unfavorable impression was consumption not exceeding 110,000,000 pounds. felt at Rio; on the contrary, the fortnight in Her prodigious superiority over all the other which the news of the failure was received coffee-growing countries individually and col- was that of greatest sales here. In rum, the lectively may be seen by the following figures: production has increased greatly, but the con
sumption has increased equally, and its use in COUNTRIES.
the fabrication of liquors has of late been ex1855.
1878. tensive. New means of transport have also
assisted, by cheapening freight. Of the 15,000 Brazil... 163,400,000 225,500,000
pipes made in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, Dutch possessions.. 71,322,000
91,404,800 about 9,000 proceeded from the Campos mar20,300,000
41,800,000 ket. Pernambuco followed Rio in production, Ceylon..
53,422,400 South Africa.
9,000 pipes having been exported from Recife, Arabla..
2,779,200 and the home consumption being large. In Africa..
4,000,000 Central America. 8,500,000
Rio de Janeiro prices were forty per cent high
3,896,800 er than at Pernambuco, preventing shipments Oceania..
150,000 thither. In tobacco the year 1880 was unTotal.....
830,151.880 490,843,200 profitable, if not, indeed, one of the losses and = 676,811,854 lbs.' = 1,006,225,560 lbs. liquidations for all the classes depending on
the manufacture of Minas tobacco. The low A significant fact of another kind is observed prices which prevailed almost unchanged on glancing at the foregoing columns of fig- throughout the year, despite a considerable ures-namely, that while coffee-culture has decrease in the harvest, were attributed, by the taken an immense stride in the course of twen- parties interested, to the perturbation produced ty-three years, an astounding development is in commercial relations by the new taxes. But, noticeable in many other countries, and par- while it is evident that the taxes contributed ticularly in Central America; and Brazilian to the evils pointed out, it is no less so that planters will do well to reflect that, though the principal cause of the decline in prices to the supremacy is decidedly theirs, no means the point of being unremunerative consisted in can safely be neglected by them of maintain- the narrowness of the circle of foreign custom* In 1881.
ers. And thus the three years of abundant