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crops prevented the expected reaction after his intention, as the state of the finances had the suppression of the imperial taxes, by per- improved, to apply to the following Legislature mitting the supply to exceed the consumption." for an appropriation in the budget for 1882–83

It should here be observed that sugar is for an immigrants' house in Rio, to receive another Brazilian article of export, produced and support for eight days 40,000 spontaneous in all parts of the empire, but particularly in immigrants per annum, for the transportation the provinces of Pernambuco and Bahia. The of 30,000 immigrants from Rio to their destinaquantity shipped, however, is never or rarely tion, for the acquisition of 53,000 acres of land in excess of 140 tons, or about the amount of in readily accessible portions of Southern Brathe total shipments from the little island of zil, and for the survey of public lands and the Mauritius.

making of roads to colonies. He had also deThere have been no official returns of port clared that the Government would not give furmovements published since those given in our ther aid or make further subsidized immigravolume for 1880, to which volume reference tion contracts.* may be made for details relating to Brazilian The new electoral reform bill mentioned in railways and telegraphs. On the subject of our volume for 1880 passed the Senate in the the new line of steamers there mentioned as session of 1881. We here transcribe the prinabout to be established between Canadian and cipal clauses of the bill: Brazilian ports, the following particulars were ARTICLE I. The nominations of senators and depupublished in Rio de Janeiro in February, 1881: ties to the General Assembly, members of the Pro

“St. Thomas, at which port the steamers of vincial Legislative Assemblies, and any other elective this line will call

, is the distributing point for national or local authority, shall be made by direct the mails and traffic of the West Indies and conformity with this law, may take part. The elecCentral America, and arrangements are in prog- tion of Regent of the Empire shall continue to be ress with the Royal Mail Steam Packet Oom- made according to the additional act to the Constitupany for an interchange of traffic by through tion by the electors treated of in this law. bills of lading at that port for the West Indies, Articles VI,

IX, and XCII of the Constitution of the

Art. II. Every Brazilian citizen, in accordance with British Guiana, and Central America, and at empire, having a net annual income of not less than Rio de Janeiro for the republics of the river 200 milreis from realty, trade, business, or employPlate, thus bringing all these countries into ment, is an elector. direct communication with Canada. The di- men of the army, navy, and police corps, and the

The exclusions of said Article XCII include the rect trade of Canada with these countries for workmen of the public departments and establishthe year 1879 has been as follows: Imports, ments. value $1,256,817; exports, value $4,242,112; Art. III. The proof of the income referred to in but it has been carried on entirely by sailing the preceding article shall be made : vessels, and will necessarily be further devel

SECTION 1. As to income arising from realty : oped by the establishment of this company. Imposto Predial or Decima Urbana, by certificate from

(1.) When the realty lies within the bounds of the It is proposed to employ four steamers in this the fiscal department that the realty is assessed at a service, each of 2,200 tons burden, which will rental value of not less than 200 milreis, or by a rerun monthly between Canada and Rio de Ja. ceipt of the same department for payment of that tax. neiro, touching at St. Thomas, Pará, Maranhão, Predial or Decima Urbana:

(2.) When not within the bounds of the Imposto Ceará, Pernambuco, and Bahia, between which

If consisting of premises situated where neither of ports the coastwise traffic in passengers and those taxes is levied, of rural establishments, or of goods is very important. The contract with lands occupied by the owner, then by computing the the Canadian Government is for three years resents, verified by a legitimate deed of ownership or

income at six per cent upon the capital the realty repcertain from 1st of May next, thereafter being holding, or by a judicial sentence recognizing either. terminable by six months' notice, as is usual If not occupied by the owner, then by reckoning in the Dominion. The Brazilian contract is the incoine in the same manner, or by the exhibition for ten years, and it is understood that nego- of a contract of lease of the realty entered in notarial tiations are in progress for additional

subsidies books a year before, with express declaration of thie to the company in respect of intermediate ports SEC. 2. As to income derived from trade or profesof call. The company has the advantage of sion: being introduced to public notice by a strong

(1.) By certificate showing inscription, a year preand influential board, and, in view of all the viously, in the Commercial Register,” as merchant, circumstances, it is reasonable to anticipate that master of vessel, pilot, or administrator of a factory. the capital will be at once taken up by those (2.) By certificate from the respective fiscal departwho are in search of a favorable form of in- ment of ownership of a factory, workshop, or comvestment."

mercial, manufacturing, or rural establishment, with a The Telephone Company of Brazil had re- provincial annual tax of not less than 24 milreis in

capital of at least 6,800 milreis, paying an imperial or ceived, by decree of April 17, 1881, authori- Rio, 12 milreis in other cities, and 6 milreis in towns zation to operate in the empire, and it was and other places of the empire. hoped that contracts would at once be made

The taxes referred to in this provision confer electfor the establishment of telephonic communi. oral capacity only when paid for at least a year before

enrollment. cation between Rio de Janeiro and the neigh No taxes but those mentioned in this law can serve boring town of Nictheroy.

for proof of income. The Minister of Agriculture had announced

See “ Annual Cyclopædia" for 1850.

(3.) By certificate extracted from the book of bank eligible es senator, deputy, or provincial member, companies or commercial or manufacturing associa- within the region over

which their functions extend tions, legally authorized, proving the citizen to have and the ineligibility includes engineers, contractors, been employed, for a year previously, at a salary not furnishers, and others interested in public, guaranteed, less than the legal income.

or subsidized works, or deriving pecuniary profit from Sec. 3. As to income derived from public or pro- state, province, or municipality works. Shareholders, vincial stocks, by authentic certificate that he has held however, are not included. in his own name, or, if married, in that of his wife, Art. XI. No remunerated public functionary can for a year previously, stock yielding annually at least hold his office during the session, if he accepts the the required income.

legislative mandate; and if he accepts a senatorship, Sec. 4. As to income derived from shares of legally he must at once be superannuated. authorized banks and companies, or from deposits in Excepting ministers and secretaries of state, coungovernment savings-banks or others authorized by cilors of state, bishops, embassadors and envoys exthe Government, by authentic certificate of holding, traordinary on special mission, presidents of provinces, for a year before enrollment, in his own or his wife's military and naval officers, as to seniority and pay, and name, shares or deposits yielding at least the said senators, etc., obtaining license from their respective annual income.

chambers. ART. IV. The following are considered to have the Art. XII forbids the election of ministers of state legal income, independent of proot':

as senators while holding office, and for six months (1.) Holders of scientific or literary diplomas of any afterward, unless the vacancy occurs in the native legally recognized faculty, academy, school or insti- province or that of domicile. tute, Brazilian or foreign. The proof will be the Art. XIII forbids the acceptance by senators, and diploma itself, or any authentic document replac- by deputies and members of provincial assemblies ing it.

during the session and six months after, of any paid (2.) Clerks in holy orders.

government or provincial employment or commission, (3.) Citizens who have, for upward of a year before except of councilor of state president of province, enrollment, been directing, houses of education or embassador or envoy extraordinary, bishop,

and comteaching, or have been public teachers, by effective or mander of sea or land forces. It also forbids their life-long nomination, or have been teaching in private obtaining concessions, privileges, contracts, etc., but schools or colleges attended by at least twenty schol- not patents. Two years of residence in the province ars.

is required for election as provincial member. A certificate from the inspector or director of public ARTS. XIV and XV treat of the elections in general. instruction in Rio or in the provinces shall serve as Art. XVI treats of elections of senators, which proof thereof.

must be by separate triple lists for each vacancy. (4.) Ministers and councilors of state, senators, Art. XVII treats of elections of deputies to the deputies to the General Assembly, members of the General Assembly, which will be in districts of one Provincial Legislative Assemblies, the effective verea- deputy. Rio is to have three districts, Bahia and dores and the justices of peace with number.

Recife two each. (5.) Employés of the diplomatic or consular corps. Art. XVIII treats of elections of vereadores and

(6.) Officers of the army, navy, and police corps, justices of the peace. including the active and reserve, retired and honorary Arts. XIX to XXI, of penalties. with pay.

ART. XXII postpones all elections, except as pro(7.) Imperial, provincial, or municipal functionaries vided for in Article XXIX of the Constitution, until having pay of over 200 milreis, with

right of super- the conclusion of the first general enrollment, and the annuation.

Government may delay to the last working day of De(8.) Serventuarios for life in office of justice, with cember, 1881,

the general election of deputies to the allowances of at least 200 milreis per annum. next Legislature.

Art. V. Any citizen unable to prove the legal in Art. XXIII provides for collecting, in a distinct come by any of the modes laid down in the preceding part of the instructions to be issued for the execution articles will be permitted to do so by the rental value of the law, all existing provisions and decisions in of the house or houses he has lived in, with his own harmony with it, to be submitted to Parliament for earnings, during at least a year before, the rental value approval. paid by him being 400 milreis in Rio ; 800 milreis in "Art. XXV revokes contrary provisions. the citias of Bahia, Recife, Maranhão, Para, Nicthe A novel event for Brazil was that of general roy, São Paulo, and Porto Alegre; 200 milreis in other cities ; 100 milreis in towns and other settle- elections by a free constituency, untrammeled ments; also by rented farms, etc., paying 200 milreis by government pressure and unbiased by gova year rent.

ernment interference. It was apprehended, (This proof must be made before a judge.) All certificates and other documents required for

however, that electoral reforms may not prove enrollment of electors are exempt from stamp and any to be an unmixed blessing for Brazil just yet, other taxes.

it being doubtful whether the masses are suffiArts. VI to VIII treat of the enrollment by the mu- ciently enlightened to see the necessity of nicipal judges, with revision by the juiz de Direito, breaking with traditional evils and allowing and appeal to the Relaçao. ART. IX. Excepting restrictions hereafter enumer

themselves to be carried along by the current ated, every citizen included in Article II is eligible as of modern progress. The late elections threw senator, deputy to the General Assembly, member of a Liberal majority into the Chamber of Deputhe Provincial Legislatures, vereador, justice of the ties, while in the Senate the Conservatives were peace, and any other charge created by law. Only section. A special condition of eligibility

is: of a Liberal Cabinet must needs be embarrass

and still remain in majority; hence the position For senator of the empire, to be over forty years of age, and have 1,600 milreis income.

ing, particularly so when bampered by the For deputy to the General Assembly, member of the parliamentary requirement of an absolute maProvincial Legislature, to be over twenty-five years of jority in the formation of a quorum. The presage, and have 800 milreis income; and, as to natu- ent Cabinet has little to fear on that score;

For vereador and justice of the peace, that of resi- but, in the case of a successor, the difficulty dence for at least two years within the municipality. would at once arise, unless the Liberal major.

Art. X enumerates a long list of functionaries in- ity in the Chamber of Deputies should give

proof of unprecedented assiduity, disciplined of his service as Secretary of the Interior, Mr. union, and abnegation of self-interest.

Browning resumed his profession in Quincy, Nevertheless, and in face of all opposition, where he continued to reside in active practice the spirit and letter of the emancipation law up to the time of his death. His State laments of September, 1871, continue to be observed, his decease as the loss of an able public serand every measure is taken that, directly or vant. indirectly, contributes to the accomplishment BULGARIA, A principality of Southeastof the great work of abolition. In December, ern Europe, which was created in 1878 by the 1880, the Provincial Legislature of Rio de Ja- Treaty of Berlin, as a dependency of Turkey. neiro imposed a tax of $500 on each slave Reigning Prince, Alexander I,* elected in 1879; brought into the province, except in the case area, 63,972 square kilometres (1 kilometre = of slaves already owned when the law was 0.386 square mile); population on January 1, passed, and merely transferred from an estate 1881, 1,995, 701. The population of the prinoutside the province to another within the cipal cities on the same date was as follows: province, and the property of the same plant- Sofia (the capital), 20,541; Rustchuk, 26,867; er. A tax of $15 was imposed on the register Varna, 24,649; Shumla, 22,921; Widdin, 13,of slaves moved from one municipality to an- 602; Tirnova, 11,500; Sistova, 11,438. The other. A bill, signed by the majority of the only railroad in operation was that from Rustmembers, was brought into the São Paulo As- chuk to Varna, 224 kilometres. The number sembly, imposing a fee of $1,000 for the regis- of post-offices in 1879 was 35; the number of ter of every slave, not inherited, brought here- letters and postal-cards sent, 337,600; of printafter into the province. Half the fee was to ed matter and packages, 2,060; of newspapers, be applied to emancipations. Thus São Paulo 402,454. The length of the government teleand Minas Geraes have followed the course of graph lines in 1879 was 2,057 kilometres, and the province of Rio de Janeiro to stop, by of the wires 3,021 kilometres. The number of prohibitive taxes, the further introduction of offices was 31, and of dispatches 99,350. The slaves.

National Assembly consists of the Exarch or There were reports that the question of Chi- head of the Bulgarian Church, of one half of nese labor would be brought to test before the bishops, one half of the presidents and long, "an eminent American contractor have members of the Supreme Court, one half of ing undertaken to forward to Rio de Janeiro a the presidents of the district courts and of the number of coolies, under contract to serve five commercial court, and of deputies of the peoyears on plantations, at five dollars a month, ple—one member representing 20,000 perwith rations."

sons. BROWNING, ORVILLE H., born in Harrison The people of the principality were in 1881 County, Kentucky, 1806; died August 10, 1881, deprived of the Constitution, which, in accordat Quincy, Illinois. Early in life Mr. Brown- ance with the Treaty of Berlin, they had formed ing removed to Buckner County, where he went to suit themselves. The change from a constithrough a course of classical studies at Augusta tutional monarchy, with exaggeratedly demoCollege, while officiating as clerk in the county cratic popular rights and guarantees, to an auand circuit courts. He afterward studied law tocratic state, was accomplished by a virtual and was admitted to the bar. In 1831 he went act of usurpation on the part of their elected to reside in Quincy, Illinois, where he practiced prince, Alexander. On the 9th of May the his profession. Having served through the Prince dissolved the National Assembly, and Black Hawk War, he was elected in 1836 to declared the Constitntion suspended. The inthe Illinois Senate, and four years later to the competency of the administration, and the misLower House, in which he served two years. takes of the majority, whose alleged follies At the Bloomingdale Convention he co-oper- and short-comings had prompted the arbitrary ated with Abraham Lincoln in organizing the course of the sovereign, were in a measure Republican party of Illinois. In 1860 he was confessed by the chief members of the Liberal a delegate to the Chicago Convention which party themselves. Their parliamentary leader, nominated Mr. Lincoln for the presidency, and the Minister-President Zancoff, proposed, induring the war he was an active supporter of stead of the total revocation of the Constituthe Government. In 1861 Governor Yates tion, as demanded by the Prince, its suspension appointed Mr. Browning to fill a vacancy for three years, during which time the Prince caused by the death of Mr. Douglas, United should govern with the assistance of a Cabinet States Senator from Illinois. In this position and of a Council of State, composed of foreign he served for two years with distinction. While experts, selected by the Assembly. in Washington he engaged in the practice of The draft of a constitution made by Prince law with Hon. Jeremiah Black and Hon. Dondoukoff-Korsakoff was constructed in harThomas G. Ewing. President Andrew John- mony with the liberal views of the popular son appointed Mr. Browning Secretary of the party, who have all along carried with them Interior, and he also acted as Attorney-Gen

a biography of Alexander I, see " Ann Cyclopaeral for a brief time, upon the retirement of dia” for 1879, article ALEXANDER 1for an account of the Henry Stanbery, of Ohio. At the expiration bistory of the race, of the progress of education, of newspa

pers, of industry, and of the Bulgarian Church, see Annual * See "Annual Cyclopædia " for 1571.

Cyclopædia" for 1878, article BULGARIA.

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the majority of the Bulgarian nation. The Liberal Government had been most successful. Russian commissioner fostered the aspirations of Through a redistribution of taxes, they had the Liberals for a Great Bulgaria, and probably nearly doubled the revenue, without increasing hoped himself to be chosen Priuce of the Pan- the burden on the people. The general rates Bulgarian nation. His draft was modified in were not greater than under the former Gova radical sense by the Constituent Assembly at ernment, and were one third lower than under Tirnova. The Constitution, while embodying the Turkish rule. The people, on the contrary, extreme principles of popular sovereignty based were enabled, owing partly to the new highupon universal suffrage, was, in respect to its ways and similar public works to which some provisions for the practical conduct of the Gov- of the additional revenues were applied, but ernment, in many respects imperfect, as every chiefly to an abundant harvest, to pay the paper constitution instituting a new political taxes more easily than ever before. When system must be of necessity. The Prince pos- the Conservatives handed the administration sessed no sympathy for popular institutions, over to the Liberals, they had reduced the surand attributed all the friction and the abuses plus of 12,000,000 francs received from Prince of the Government to the democratic features Dondoukoff - Korsakoff to 7,000,000, during of the Constitution. The Conservative minor their one year's management of public affairs. ity, from whom he had first chosen his minis- The budget which they delivered to their sucters, were composed of the semi-aristocracy of cessors provided another deficit for the coming the Tchorbadjees, who had acquired wealth year, the revenue being placed at 16,000,000 under the Turkish régime, and had come to a francs, and the expenditures at 19,000,000 modus vivendi with the Mohammedan authori- francs. The revised budget of the new adties. The Young Bulgaria party, led by men ininistration balanced revenues and expendiwho in the Universities of Vienna and Moscow tures at 27,000,000 francs, and their estimate had imbibed the ideas of Western liberalism for the following year fixed them both at 30,and of Russian radicalism, and who were in- 000,000 francs. When dismissed from office spired with an enthusiastic national ambition, by the ukase of the self-constituted autocrat, presented the only doctrines which appealed they left a surplus of 17,000,000 francs cash in to the intelligence and patriotism of the peo- the Treasury. The excess of revenue was exple. Their agitation bad led to the Turkish pended in public works, roads, barracks, hoswar and the independence of Bulgaria, and pitals, and public-office buildings, and in esthe leadership of the people and direction of tablishing a system of higher education and the destinies of the young state naturally de- erecting buildings for the elementary schools, volved upon them. The Prince's repugnance which are maintained by the communities. to their advanced ideas of liberty, and his con- For the latter, of which there are 1,088, affordtempt for their nationalistic patriotism, were so ing instruction to 56,354 children, a system of fixed that he regarded the direction of affairs state inspection was inaugurated. Nine secby the doctrinaires of the Liberal party as a ondary schools bave been established in the political impossibility.

principal towns, including two for girls, beThe difficulty of working the Constitution sides a classical college at Sofia and a priests' lay not so much in the " disorganization at seminary at Liscovatz. There is known to home,” which Alexander declared to be the have been more or less corruption in the effect of popular government in Bulgaria, as in management of the public funds, but they were the fact which he embodied in his twin charge, employed in the main for judicious and useful that the Bulgarian Parliament had brought the purposes. Although the people complained of country into " discredit abroad.” This resulted the Government, from a chronic habit of from the reckless thoroughness with which the resenting taxation, they were as lightly taxed Liberals were inclined to carry out the prin- as ever before, and never had experienced so ciple of Bulgaria for the Bulgarians, in entire much prosperity and general well-being. A disregard of the wishes of the powerful neigh- reform in the treatment of the Mussulman boring empires, on whose good-will their population by the Liberal Government was country's existence as an independent nation instituted before their dismissal from power. must in a great measure depend. The over- Persecutions were checked; efforts were made weening jealousy of outsiders, expressed in the to persuade Christians, who had seized the motto " Bulgaria fard da se ” of the Liberals, property of refugee Mohammedans, to return and exemplified in the acts which were de- it to the owners, and, in communities having a nounced as obstructive by the Austrian Gov- preponderant Mussulman population, Turkish ernment, and those which were construed as mayors (Kmets) were appointed. The change ingratitude by the Russians, was the out- in policy was sufficient to stop the emigration, cropping of the ancient masterful spirit of the thus keeping in the country a useful agricultBulgarians, and had asserted itself under Turk- ural population, as well as strengthening the ish rule in the repudiation of the dictation of bands of the Liberals by retaining an element the Phanar, their frequent uprisings against the hostile to Russia. Porte, and their acquisition of the right of Prince Alexander, after he had suspended entire local self-government.

the Constitution by proclaiming it unsuited to The administration of the finances by the the requirements of the country, summoned a

Great National Assembly to revise its pro- navigation, a hostility which was shared by the visions. The dismissal of the Assembly, and Roumanians. the irregular method by which the Prince The Liberal party during its administration sought to have it abrogated by a kind of plé- of the governinent had offended three influen. biscite, were both infractions of the express tial classes by reforms affecting them which provisions of the Constitution, which prescribes were in the popular interest. The Russian elethat the power to alter and amend shall be ex- ment was incensed by the over-jealous attitude ercised only by the Extraordinary National of the Liberals, whose project of dismissing Assembly, convoked in accordance with the Russian officers from the military and civil esaction of the Assembly. Prince Alexander's tablishments, and of reducing all foreigners in justification of his coup d'état was that the Bulgarian service to an equal footing with naConstitution had brought discredit upon Bul- tives, precipitated the coup d'état which it aimed garia abroad and bred domestic disorder. The to avert. The ecclesiastical reforms which subAssembly, it was charged, was filled in great ordinated the church to the state, and restrictpart with illiterate members, who were in- ed the authority of the bishops over the parocapable of judicious legislation, who wasted chial clergy, aroused resentment in ecclesiastheir time in fruitless party strife, and im- tical circles. The local magistracy also was posed incompetent and corrupt Cabinet ad alienated by a measure of administrative revisers upon the Prince, and were also en- form which curtailed the powers of the chogrossed in intrigues to maintain their positions, rabji class, or village magnates. The young and had instituted a foreign policy which en- German prince and Prussian Guard lieutenant, dangered the existence of Bulgaria. The Lib- who had been selected as the constitutional eral party, who maintained that the tradi- ruler of the new principality, regarded with tions and character of the Bulgarian people impatience and contempt the extreme demodemanded a democratic form of government, cratic provisions of the organic instrument proposed to remedy the admitted evils by re- which he had sworn to observe, and for the ducing the number of members in the As- first year of his reign refused to take his adsembly, and lowering the age of eligibility visers from the majority. In his plan for defrom thirty to twenty-five, in order to admit stroying the national Constitution, he was ceryoung men who had been educated abroad tain of the active co-operation of the Russians, and were returning in considerable numbers. of the well-wishes of Austria, and of the neuThe strife in the Assembly had been in great trality of Germany. The support of the civil, measure dne to the course which the Prince military, and clerical oligarchies, which the had pursued, at first, of choosing his ministers Liberal party had effectually estranged, was of from the minority. As soon as he allowed indispensable assistance. In the country disthe formation of a Liberal Cabinet, the As-tricts a considerable degree of popular animos. sembly applied itself to legislation, and in the ity against the administration was already in period of eight months matured twenty-seven existence, which was skillfully worked by the bills, the most important of which were mea- electioneering agents of the Prince and his sares to improve national education and to Russian allies, in the extraordinary election raise the moral qualifications of the clergy, which was to decide the fate of the national increase their stipends, and free them from the Constitution. Military tribunals were constidomination of the hierarchy.

tuted by the Prince's edict to try any officials The democratic character of the Constitution who should exert their influence on behalf of which, in accordance with the conclusions of Liberal candidates. By these courts-martial the conference of plenipotentiaries at Berlin, any Liberal could be arrested, and even conthe Bulgarian people had framed for them- demned to death. Two of the Liberal leaders, selves, rejecting the extremely liberal Consti- Zankoff and Slaveikoff, were arrested before tution drafted by the Russian commissioner, the election, and, when released after a short had from the first excited repugnance and confinement, were forbidden to go to Sofia or apprehension in the Russian Government. It Tirpova. A Russian officer was placed in evmistrusted the influence in Russia of the large ery election district as a commissioner, and a measure of popular liberty enjoyed by the large number of others were detailed as subSlays across the Danube. The purpose of the commissioners of elections. The diplomatic Liberal majority to remove the Russian officers agent of the Russian Government, Ilitrovo, who had command of the army, which they was the active lieutenant and principal adviser had brought to a high standard of discipline of the Prince. Peasants were brought into and efficiency, was the occasion for a trial of the cities to vote, and carefully guarded from strength between the popular party and the the allurements of the Liberals by the military. Russian entourage of the Prince, re-enforced by Bands of peasantry were encouraged to atcourt and diplomatic influences of the Czar's tack and maltreat any Liberal who was too Government. The Austrian Government had outspoken. In the towns the election was conshown antipathy to Bulgarian liberties from ducted with scarcely the pretense of legality, the beginning, and was incensed at the Liberal Voters were kept from approaching the urns party on account of its hostility to the Austrian by the soldiery. In some cases crowds of claim to exclusive powers over the Danubian electors collected about the polling-places, and

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