« AnteriorContinuar »
government, and the center of power of every horses and given no rest until they reached kind, more than counterbalance the commercial the Turkoman tents. There they were heaviinterests which connect the rest of Persia with ly ironed with a ring around their neck and a India and Great Britain. The acquisition of chain fastening it to a tent-peg, and with rings the freedom of Ashurada port destroys the around each leg, joined by a short chain. Their value of the mountain frontier abutting on Kara market was in Khiva and Bokhara. Until the Kum Desert, which might otherwise have been slave-trade was suppressed in those places by the fortified and held against all the armies in the Russians there were as many as 100,000_slaves world. Russia, from that port, dominates the kept in the khanates and among the Turkowhole interior. The court at Teheran already mans themselves. The trade is still carried on bows to the will of the Czar.
secretly in Bokhara to a small extent, and the The magnificent provinces of Ghilan and Ma- Turkomans still capture slaves in some parts of zanderan are not only the richest part of Per- Khorassan to work them in their own country sia, but one of the most fertile belts of country or hold them for ransom. The Russians are in the world. The northern slopes of the El- said to have liberated 40,000 slaves in Khiva barz Mountains, which traverse them, are cov- alone. Great numbers were killed when reered with forests of teak, oak, walnut, and box. turning to Persia, but in all parts of Khorassan On their southern plateau are mines of coal and there are emancipated captives, of all ranks, iron. These are the scene of Russian mercan- who are full of gratitude toward their delivertile enterprise, and may in the future be merged The place where the Turkomans formerin the Muscovite Empire. The oasis of Merv, ly captured the most valuable slaves was on the at the northeast corner of Persia, which has caravan-road from Teheran to Meshed, in the been conquered by the Russians, is a fertile neighborhood of Miandasht, which is far in the tract, ninety miles in circumference, which interior and not far from the middle of the bears three crops a year, and once supported route. The Shah pays a reward of five tomans a million inhabitants. This acquisition brings (about ten dollars) for every Turkoman killed Russia into contact with the great province of while raiding in his dominions, upon the delivKhorassan, and, though the Merv country is not ery of the scalps. likely to be occupied, and affords no means of The nominal strength of the Persian army is commercial cominunication, the Russians have 100,000 men; but it is doubtful whether more won the undying gratitude of the inhabitants than one fifth of that number are ever in camp of this section of Persia by their subjugation of at one time, or would be likely to obey a call the Akkal Tekke Tarkomans.
to arms. The army is not recruited from the The tent-dwelling Turkomans of the Kara Persians, who are not warlike nor habituated Kum are of the same race as the civilized Ka- to the use of arms, and who, by influence and jar tribe, from which the Persian royal family bribery, manage to evade the conscription. It sprang. Fearless, capable of extraordinary is mainly drawn now, and probably was in exertions and endurance, mounted on the ancient times, when the Persian conquests exbest horses in the world, and cruel beyond tended from Egypt to China, from the Toorks conception, the horrors which they have of Azerbaijan, the Kurdish mountaineers of committed are well calculated to cause the Kurdistan, and from the Loor, Bukhtirgar, and Persians to tremble at the mention of their Eliant tribes inhabiting the mountain chains name. For three or four centuries they have south and east of the Zagros range. The standbeen the scourge of the country. The Belochee ing army, with the exception of the Shah's marauders who infest the southern parts of body-guard, is entirely composed of these tribePersia, and travel several hundreds of miles men, who still keep up much of the tribal or. into the Salt Desert on their plundering expe- ganization, and whose chiefs and khans are ditions, carried by their wonderfully fleet and appointed to the commissions in the regiments enduring camels, are simple robbers. They composed of their hereditary followers. The drive off the sheep and camels which they find organization of the army is according to the in their way, and lurk in ambush behind the European model, but it is only so in name. It sand-hills of the desert to fall upon passing car- was introduced by British officers, who have avans. They treat their victims rudely and twice been employed by the Shah to organize plunder them thoroughly, but seldom commit and instruct his army. Austrian officers have murder. The Turkomans, on the other hand, recently been called to Persia as instructors, would lay whole villages waste, carry off into but only a few remained there. There are 77 slavery those whom they selected, and slay all battalions of infantry, with an average strength the rest. When hotly pressed in pursuit they of 800 men each, and 79 regiments of cavalry, were accustomed to cut off the hands and feet consisting of eight troops of 50 sabers each. of their captives and leave them by the way- The officers are without military education, side. The more aristocratic captives were pref- and the men are devoid of drill or discipline. erable for sale or ransoin. Women slaves were Bribery and favoritism govern the promotions. valued the most. Their inroads were as swift There is often, however, a strong attachment as they were daring, and, unless there were between officers and men, and an esprit de military to oppose them, always successful. corps partaking of the clan feeling. Many of The prisoners were lashed on the backs of the officers are devoted to their profession, and
need only instruction to make good soldiers of driven, when not assigned to duty, to ply the their men. The army is raised by conscription, not very respectable trades of drug-selling and which falls very unequally on different districts usury, and even the sentries on guard have and tribes. T'he War-Office does not even little tables covered with wares which they sell pretend to levy the troops in proportion to the to passers-by. population of the different districts.
Many PERU (REPÚBLICA DEL PERÚ). For details towns escape the conscription entirely. The concerning territorial division, area, populanomad tribes, which are without court influ- tion, etc., reference may be made to the " Anence, and are too poor to bribe the officials, are nual Cyclopædia” for 1873, 1875, 1878, and to required to furnish far more than their rightful the article Bolivia in the volume for 1879. share. The men are supposed to be discharged The home of the ancient Incas, and afterafter a short term of service, and replaced by ward a Spanish viceroyalty, it was not until fresh annual contingents; but oftentimes the 1824 that Peru became an independent repubdischarge can only be obtained by bribery, and lic, although her declaration of independence many are kept in the service all their lives. dates from July 28, 1821. By the terms of the Their physique is excellent, their nature patient latest Constitution, proclaimed on August 31, and cheerful, and their disposition toward their 1867, and modeled after that of the United commanders obedient and tractable. Their States, the legislative power resides in a Sen. powers of marching are celebrated, but the ate, composed of two members from each provsystem which enables them to get over the ince; and a House of Representatives, whose ground so rapidly is fatal to good discipline. members, at the rate of one for every 20,000 Most of the soldiers possess donkeys, which inhabitants, are nominated by the electoral they ride on the march, carrying also the arms colleges of provinces and parishes. The paof their comrades who go on foot. They do rochial electoral colleges send deputies to the not form, or make any attempt to march in provincial colleges, and these in turn send reporder, but each one takes his own pace; still, resentatives to Congress. In the session of by means of their beasts they accomplish á 1876 there were 44 Senators, and the members longer march in a day than any infantry can of the House of Representatives numbered make on foot only. They wear a tunic of the 110. The executive power is vested in a European pattern, and a black, lamb's-wool President, assisted by à Vice-President, both busby, with a brass ornament representing the elected by the people for a term of four years. emblems of the lion and the sun. The effect The last constitutional President was General of the uniform is entirely destroyed, however, Ignacio Prado, who, despairing of a successful by the long frocks which they generally wear resistance against the victorious Chilian inunder the tunic, and the cloths wound around vader, left his country in December, 1879. their heads in the summer-time, on the top of From that time until the fall of Lima, in Janwhich they set their caps. They are partly uary, 1881, the government was in the hands armed with breech-loading rifles, which have of the Dictator, Don Nicolás de Piérola. After been lately furnished; but the majority carry the decisive battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores, muzzle-loading, smooth-bore muskets, of French and the occupation of the capital by the Chimake. The cavalry are equally wanting in order lian troops, Piérola fled to the mountains with and discipline, but adapted, if well led, for good the débris of his army, and for several months service of the irregular kind. They are mounted maintained a warlike attitude toward the conon strong, stanch horses of all sizes. They are querors. uniformed in long, dark-blue frocks, sheep-skin In March a number of leading men of Lima busbys, and brown-leather boots, reaching half- met in council, and elected, as Provisional way to the knee. They carry a rifle and a President, Señor Don F. García Calderon, with saber, which is very much curved and has no a Cabinet composed of the following ministers: guard for the hand. The cartridges for their Foreign Affairs, Señor Arenas; Interior, Señor carbines are carried in their brown-leather Torrico; Finance, Señor Elguera; Justice, Sebelts. To the bridle is fastened a camel's-hair ñor Paż Soldan; War, Señor Carillo. This rope, with an iron peg at the end, for picket- election was afterward ratified by a Congress ing. The artillery is the best disciplined branch convened under the direction of the Chilian of the army. Their armament, however, is commander-in-chief, at Chorrillos (July 10th). defective, consisting mainly of old smooth-bore But the end of the year found Peru in the denine-pound guns, though a considerable number plorable situation of a country without a govof Uchatius rifled cannon have recently been ernment of its own, without any regular armed imported. Not over 20,000 troops are kept un- force by land or by sea, and deprived of the der arms, garrtsoning the principal towns and chief sonrces of national income :-President guarding frontier posts. The remainder are Calderon deported to Chili; the remnants of with their flocks and herds, or engaging in the army scattered far and wide in the train of their agricultural or commercial occupations. reckless guerrilla chiefs; the navy annibilated; The pay is nominal and never reaches them. the nitrate and guano deposits in the possesTheir rations are liberal, according to the regu- sion of and controlled by the invader; and the lations, but usually there are no rations given proceeds of the customs applied to support out at all. The soldiers are consequently the Chilian army of occupation. The peace
strength of the Peruvian land forces seldom of which £17,829 had been distributed among exceeded 6,000, including some 1,200 gen- the bondholders.* darmes, and about an equal number of vigilantes, The Chilian authorities having, shortly after constituting the organized police force. After the captare of Lima, established a tariff of the declaration of war against Chili, the mili- customs duties on imports and exports, Mr. tary strength was raised to 40,000 (May, 1879), Christiancy, late United States Minister to and the number of men under arms in the Peru, presuming that said tariff would probsummer of 1880 was reported at 70,000, a ably be adhered to during the continuance of tigure apparently very much exaggerated. Of the Chilian military occupation, and “thinkthe navy, but a few years ago accounted one of ing it might be well that our merchants and the finest in America, destruction in engage- ship-owners should have information upon the ments with, and capture by, the Chilian fleet, subject, inasmuch as it might affect their achad, by the end of 1880, left nothing to tion in questions bearing upon commercial Peru.
ventures with Peru," forwarded to the DepartThe national revenue for 1873–'74 was 62,- ment of State at Washington a copy of the 753,903 soles ; * that for 1875–76 was 66,601,- decrees concerning the new tariff, and an ex664; and the expenditure for the same periods tract of which is here transcribed: amounted respectively to 65,500,836 and 65, Patricio Lynch, Rear- Admiral and General-in-Chief 063,122 soles. There was no direct taxation in
of the Army of Chili. Peru, and the revenue was for the most part Whereas, I have on this date decreed the following: derived from the sale of nitrate and guano, and Considering that it is just that the Government of from the customs, the yield of which latter for Chili should obtain from the territory occupied by the years 1873–77 having been 8,400,000 soles, their military forces all the benefit compatible with
the interest of its commerce and industry-I decree: 7,097,000 soles, 17,082,000 soles, 5,541,664 soles, and 4,005,689 soles, respectively. As for
DUTIES UPON IMPORTS. the sale of guano,t before the war, the average
ARTICLE I. All merchandise imported into the port annual exportation of that commodity for the of Callao shall pay an ad valorem duty of 25 per cent, decennial period 1868–77 has been set down
with the exception of the following, which shall pay :
Art. II. A duty of 15 per cent: Tar and pitch for at 400,000 tons, valued at $23,000,000. Of the use of ships; animals alive or slaughtered ; quicksildisposal of guano under Chilian administration ver in jars; charcoal and mineral coal ; oakum for mention will be made hereafter; and, for infor- calking; woolen felt (barred) for use of shipping; mation on the same subject, reference may be pig-iron in bars, unwrought, square, round, or in made to the “Annual Cyclopædia ” for 1880 printing-presses and utensils; machinery, for agri
plates; iron axles or champs (or hoops); fresh prints; (page 624).
culture and mining ; flower-seeds and garden-seeds; As stated in our volume for 1880, the na- printer's ink. tional debt of the republic in July, 1879,
Art. III. A duty of 10 per cent: amounted to upward of 246,000,000 soles, ex
Sub. 1. Chilian products, and merchandise free, or
on which duty has been paid in Chili. clusive of a floating debt variously estimated Sub. 2. Peruvian products coming from ports occuat from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000. Of the en- pied by Chilian arms. tire indebtment, 20,000,000 soles represents
Arr. IV. A specific duty: . the home debt, and 226,340,516 the foreign per dozen : brandies, 42 cents per litre; coffee, 15
Sub. 1. Brandies, bottles of the common size, 84 debt, made up of loans contracted in Eng- cents per kilogramme; beer, $1.25 per dozen bottles ; land in 1869, 1870, and 1872. No payment of beer, 12 cents per litre ; cigars, $3 per kilogramme; interest on these loans has been made since alcohol (pure), 50 cents per litre; gin, $3 per dozen the commencement of the war, and the British bottles ; giņ, 32 cents per litre; sweet liquors, $4.50 bondholders were for some time in a state fard, 6 cents per kilogramme; snuff, $3 per kilo
dozen bottles ; sweet liquors, 48 cents per litre; verging on despair. The bonds at the end of gramme; burning rum(or burning alcohol),, 84 per 1881 were quoted very low, scarcely higher dozen bottles ; burning rum (or burning alcohol), 42 than in the darkest days of the war. In cents per litre; Havana tobacco, $2 per kilogramme; March, 1881, the 6 per cents railway loan of other tobacco, 81, per kilogramme; tea, 75 cents per
kilogramme; white wine, 32 cents per litre; white 1870 were worth 26, and the 5 per cents of wine, $3 por dozen bottles ; red wine, $2.25 per dozen 1872 sold at 21; in December of the same bottles; red wine, 25 cents per litre ; Paraguay tea, 6 year the quotations of the latter were given at cents per kilogramme. 191-201. That they have any value at all is
Sub. 2. Products of Chili and articles on which, owing to Chilian generosity, the Chilian Gov. being subject to specific duties, duty has been alrendy
paid in Chili, shall pay 25 per cent of those established ernment having consented to the shipment, for in last above. the benefit of the bondholders, of guano from Sub. 1. Peruvian products coming from ports occuthe deposits secured by conquest, on condi- pied by the Chilian arms shall pay the same duties as tion of the payment of a royalty of £1 108. Chilian products subject to specific duties.
Art. V. The appraisement shall be according to the per ton to the Chilian Treasury. The sales are Peruvian tariff of 1880. in the hands of Messrs. Gibbs & Co., of Lon- Art. VI. The collector of customs will prescribe don, who, from April to December, 1881, had the special rules and modes of proceeding in the case sold 16,442 tons for the gross sum of £120,000, of documents presented for dispatch.
Art. VII. All other import duties in force at the • The sol is equivalent to about ninety cents of United States money,
* See the articles Chili and Peru in the Annual Cyclo# For nitrate exports, see page 787.
pædia" for 1880, and Chili in the present volume.
1878 1874 1875
time of occupation shall be collected in the form which to the collector of customs at Callao, after having certhe chief collector of customs shall determine. tified to the quantity of merchandise shipped. The
ART. VIII. All merchandise disembarked should be other copy shall be returned to the party interested immediately dispatched for consumption. If from after the remarks written upon the one reserved have exceptional circumstances, duly certified to by the been copied thereon. chiet collector of customs, it shall not be possible to Art. VIII. The collector of customs at Callao, as dispatch from the port the merchandise disembarked, soon as he shall receive the copy sent hina by the these may be deposited in the stores of the custom- military commander, or the commander of the blockhouse for fifteen days. The compensation for storage ading squadron, shall proceed to collect the duties on shall be equivalent to 2 per cent of the value of the the goods, in case they have not yet been paid. merchandise. If, at the expiration of fifteen days, the ART. IX. Any exports made in violation of the merchandise shall not have been dispatched, the col- foregoing articles will subject the party making them lector of customs shall proceed to sell them at auction to the penalties prescribed for the prevention and reto the highest bidder, and, after deduction of costs pression of smuggling, and duties, the remainder shall be held in deposit to Done at Lima, in the Government Hall, May 25, the credit of whom it may concern.
MANUEL Diaz B., Secretary-General.
Of the condition of Peruvian commerce at the payer, (1) in the silver peso (dollar) of any na the present time nothing more can be said tionality, provided always that, by weight and stand- than that it has reached the lowest ebb. Even ard, it shall not be worth less than that of Chili; (2) the trade with Great Britain has been sensibly (3) in treasury bills of Chili at such rates of discount decreasing since 1878. The subjoined tabular as shall be fixed at these headquarters within the first statement will serve to show the valne of the two weeks of each month.
Peruvian exports to and imports from Great Art. XII. This decree shall take effect from and Britain during the decennial period embraced after the 8th of June, proximo.
The decrees of the 224 January and the 15th Feb- between 1871 and 1880 : ruary last are repealed. Given in the Government House, in Lima, this 24th
Exports. Imports. of May, 1881.
PATRICK LYNCH. MANUEL Diaz B., Secretary-General.
19,859,840 10,798,850 Patrick Lynch, Rear-Admiral and General-in-Chief 1872
21,038, 615 14,881,190 of the Army of Chili,
26,097,860 12,623,110 Whereas, I have this day decreed as follows:
24,420,905 7,972,495 1876
1877 FOR EXPORTATION.
23,482,610 6,831,970 1878
26,161,625 6,849,155 ART. V. Merchants wishing to export sugar, or any 1879
16,942,660 8,787, 185 article subject to export duties, from any port lying 1880.
18,268,115 1,664,040 north or south of Callao, may do so by complying with the following provisions :
Of the total value of the exports for 1880, 1. They shall present an application to the collector given in the foregoing table, 2,932,160 soles port (or ports) in which the goods are to be discharged, were for guano, which article, and nítrate and together with the quantity to be exported. On ar raw sugar, constitute the staple exports of the ranging for the payment of duties on the merchandise republic. The quantities and values of the to be exported, the parties interested shall furnish a guano shipments to Great Britain during the to the satisfaction of the collector, as "security for the period just referred to were as follows: amount of such duties. 2. The payment of said amount shall be required,
Quantities. if, during the period which shall be fixed by the collector, and which shall not exceed one month, it shall 1871.
142.865 8,555,880 not be satisfactorily shown that the exportation has 1872
74,401 4,879,410 been impossible, owing to some unforeseon occurrence, 1873
188,893 8,614,270 or to vis major.
94,346 6,085,895 3. Notwithstanding the provisions contained in the 1875.
1876 foregoing paragraph, the collector may require the
156,964 9,830,840 1877
111,835 payment of the export duties to be made in cash 1878
127,918 whenever he shall deem it proper so to do.
44,825 2,404.685 Art. VI. The duties having been paid, or a suffi- 1880
53,530 2,982,160 cient guarantee furnished for their payment, the collector shall issue an order in duplicate, in which shall be stated the name of the vessel which is to receive small previous to 1869, have attained large
The exports of sugar in an unrefined state, of the port (or ports) in which they are to be dis- proportions in recent years. From 2,560,560 charged, and such other particulars as may tend to soles in 1874, they rose in 1876 to the value prevent abuses. Both copies shall bear the approval of 4,963,995 soles, and in 1880 to 5,640,310 and seal of the military commander of Callao. ART. VII. The order referred to in the foregoing
soles. article shall be delivered to the party interested, and
The following table shows the annual exports shall be considered a sufficient permit by the com- of nitrate of soda from Iquique (the principal manding officer of the blockading force, or by the port of the nitrate region), from 1830 to 1879, military officer in command of the port from which the value, per cwt., at Liverpool, in each year the exportation takes place. The military command- since 1847, inclusive, and the number of vesading force, shall retain one of the copies of the order, sels annually engaged in the nitrate carrying for the purpose of transmission, as speedily as possible, trade:
per cwt. of
4 12 15 26
45 89 81 86 45 52 65 67
11 0 11 9 18 9 14 0 13 8 15 9 18 3 18 0 18 0 18 6 18 0 18 0 15 3 12 6 18 9
expedients as the conferences of Arica, which Price in Quintals,
could give no positive result, but by striking Liverpool Spanish, of 100 pounds.
the final blow in the very capital of the ene112 pounds.
my." As soon as the army was raised to a
strength sufficient, 26,000 Chilians, commanded 1830.
by General Baquedano, began a campaign which 1831.
culminated in the complete overthrow of the 1888..
Peruvian army, and the occupation of the Pe1834.
ruvian capital by the victorious Chilian troops. 1886..
Landing at Curuyaco early in January, 1881, 1887.
the expedition at once proceeded to camp in 1838..
front of the Peruvian army, which occupied 1840..
the heights extending from Bella Vista to Mon1841
terico, under cover of parapets and ditches. 1843.
At five o'clock, on the morning of the 13th, the 1844.
first division, under Colonel Lynch, opened 1845
fire, and, the second soon following, the attack 1847..
became general. A fierce fight of four hours 1848..
ended in a victory for the Chilians. Yet an1850.
other battle had to be fought, for some 8,000 1551..
Peruvians bad concentrated in Chorrillos, 1852..
whence they were “dislodged street by street." 1354..
The town was completely destroyed. An ar1855..
mistice was now granted, at the request of the 1857.
foreign ministers resident at Lima, but the Pe1858..
ruvians, again in position under cover of the 1860..
fortifications at Miraflores, provoked another 1861.
attack, and were routed and pursued to the 1862
1,629,017 12.9 1863..
suburbs of the capital. According to the re1864.
port of the Chilian commander-in-chief, 25,000 1865.
Peruvians were beaten by half that number of 1567..
Chilians at Chorrillos, and the number of the 1868.
former at the commencement of the fight at 1869.
Miraflores was 15,000. The Peruvian losses in 1971..
the first of these two engagements "exceeded 1872..
7,000, with 1,500 prisoners, over 60 cannon and 1874...
mitrailleuses, and a quantity of arms”; while 1875..
the Chilian losses in both battles were esti1876
7,050,764 1877. .
mated at but 600 killed and 2,000 wounded. 1878.
Lima surrendered unconditionally, and was oc1879.
cupied by 4,000 Chilians on the 17th. Callao Totals...
surrendered on the same day, and here virtu
ally comes to an end the record of the military Thus the total quar 'ity shipped in the thirty- operations of this protracted struggle. Meanthree years from 1847 to 1879, inclusive, was time Piérola, the Peruvian Dictator, had fled 3,723,182 tons of 2,240 pounds each, at an av- to Chocos, from which place he issued a pomperage value of £14 68. 8d. per ton, and an ous proclamation. aggregate value of $264,345,900 approximate Piérola was credited with the design to proly. The rate of duty imposed on nitrate tract the struggle by carrying the scene of hosshipped from the port of Iquique from 1830 tilities to the mountainous regions, distant from to 1873 was four cents per quintal; from the the coast, and of difficult access for the Chililatter year to the end of 1880 it gradually rose to , ans. But these had no desire for the indefi$1.50 per quintal; and at the end of 1881 it was nite prosecution of guerrilla warfare, unprom$1.60 per inetric quintal (of 100 kilogrammes). ising of glory or benefit. The main professed
The total length of the twenty-two railway object for which they bad pursued the conflict lines open to traffic at the end of 1877 was was not the conquest of Peru, but her destruc2,030 miles. Eleven of these lines belonged tion as a naval power, and her incapacitation to the Government, eight were the property for future intervention in Chilian affairs. That of private companies or individuals, and the object attained, their further desires were lim. three remaining lines were in part owned by ited to two requirements: the establishment the Government, and in part private property. of a permanent peace, and the payment to
As recorded in the article Peru, in our vol- them of a war indemnity. The only present ume for 1880, the Chilians, after their victory at means of securing the latter being the occupaArica, set about preparing an expedition against tion of the conquered territory, that it was reLima, for the avowed purpose of putting an solved to continue indefinitely. With a view end to the prolonged contest, “not by such to obtain the first, a provisional government
VOL. XXI.-47 A
70 66 70 75 69 81 89 95 124 101 121
98 123 124 140 120 118 147 144 163 200 174 199 184 183 226 255 808 417 832 427 893 240 290 108
14 6 14 0 12 6 10 8 10 6 15 0 16 0 16 8 16 3 15 10 14 2 12 3 11 9 11 6 14 0 14 6 14 8