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clamoring for their right to vote, were dispersed capacity during the war, serving on the staffs by a charge of bayonets. By corruption, vio- of Generals Pillow, Forrest, and Withers. At lence, and intimidation, and frauds of every the expiration of the war he returned to Nashkind, a majority was obtained in most of the ville, and resumed the practice of law until towns. One or two of the Liberal strongholds September, 1869, when he purchased a controlwere declared disfranchised on account of dis- ling interest in the “Union and American," orders. Such means did not fail to furnish a and again became its editor-in-chief. In 1873 subservient popular convention, more illiterate, he was appointed by Governor J. O. Brown however, than the Assembly complained of. Comptroller of the State of Tennessee. This The Great National Assembly, thus composed, service was rendered with great ability and assembled at Sistova, and accomplished the rigid integrity, and upon retiring from it he usurpation of Alexander by their vote annul- returned to journalism, in which he continued ling the Constitution, on the 13th of July. until 1879. On the accession of the Demo

BURCH, JOHN C., born in Jefferson County, cratic party to the power of the majority of Georgia, October 21, 1826; died in Washing. the United States Senate, Colonel Burch was ton, D. C., July 28, 1881, of organic disease of elected secretary of that body over a number the heart. His parents were Georgians, and of formidable competitors, each of whom was with tbem he resided in Fayetteville until 1862. an ex-member of the United States Senate or Having received a preparatory education in his House of Representatives, and this position he own State, Mr. Burch entered the freshman held at the time of his death. class of Yale College in 1843, and graduated in BURNSIDE, AMBROSE EVERETT, born at 1847. He then returned to Georgia and studied Liberty, Indiana, May 23, 1824; died at Bristol, law in the office of Governor Charles J. Mc- Rhode Island, September 13, 1881. In 1843 hé Donald, of Marietta, one of the most eminent was appointed from Rhode Ísland to the United jurists of the State. In 1849 Mr. Burch was States Military Academy, where he graduated admitted to the bar, and opened an office at in 1847, and was made brevet second-lieutenant Spring Place, Murray County, where he re- of the Second Artillery. During the war with mained three years, and then removed to Chat- Mexico, 1847–48, be served at the city of Mextanooga, Tennessee. Here he established a ico, and received his full commission as secondsuccessful practice, and in 1855 was elected to lieutenant. In 1848–49 he was stationed at Fort the General Assembly as the member for Ham- Adams, Newport, Rhode Island. Engaged on ilton County. The House of Representatives, frontier daty at Las Vegas, New Mexico, in in which he served, was equally divided in 1849–50, he took part in a skirmish there with politics, and, though one of the youngest mem- lacarillo Apache Indians, August 23, 1849, rebers, Mr. Burch took a foremost place as de- ceiving a wound. From April, 1851, to March, bater and parliamentarian, and was one of the 1852, he was with the Mexican Boundary Comrecognized leaders of his party. The session mission, acting quartermaster. On December was a long and important one, in which Know- 12, 1851, he was commissioned as first-lieunothingism figured as a new phase in politics. tenant, and on returning from New Mexico he In the debates and discussions growing out of was again stationed at Fort Adams, Newport. that issue Mr. Burch achieved State-wide repu- Having invented a breech-loading rifle, he retation, and in 1857 was elected Senator from signed from the army October 2, 1853, to enthe district composed of Hamilton, Bradley, gage in manufactures, and pursued that business Rhea, Bledsoe, Sequatchie, and Marion Coun- in Bristol, Rhode Island, from 1853 to 1858. In ties. Though barely of senatorial age, he was the year 1856 he was appointed one of the chosen Speaker of the body. In 1859 the Board of Visitors to the United States Military Nashville" Union and American,” the organ Academy. During his residence in Rhode of the Democratic Party of Tennessee, lost its Island he was active in the militin, and from leading editorg-Messrs. Poindexter and East- 1855 to 1857 he held the rank of major-general. man-and, acting under the counsel of the party Finding the business of manufacturing arms leaders, Mr. Burch assumed the editorship of unsuccessful, General Burnside became cashier the paper, which duty he performed during the of the land department of the Illinois Central presidential campaign of 1860, and the critical Railway Company in 1858, and removed to agitation which culminated in civil war. After Illinois. In 1860–61 he was treasurer of the the fall of Fort Sumter he enlisted as a private same corporation. When the civil war broke in Company C, Rock City Guards, but was ont, he at once tendered his services to the soon after chosen lieutenant of another com- Union, and was appointed colonel of the First pany. Before going into the field, he was ap- Regiment of Rhode Island Volunteers, which pointed aide-de-camp to Major-General Gideon marched to Washington four days after the J. Pillow, then in command of the Provisional President's call

for troops was issued. At the Army of Tennessee, which was organized to first battle of Bull Run be commanded a brisupport the army of the Southern Confederacy. gade, and was soon after made brigadier-genHe was soon promoted to the office of lieu- eral. In command of an expedition to North tenant-colonel, and when Tennessee became a Carolina in January, 1862, he captured Roanoke member of the Confederacy he was made as- Island, Newbern, and Beaufort. At the close sistant adjutant-general, and continued in that of the campaign on the Peninsula he was re

called and ordered to Fredericksburg. There mine to be run, and blew it up on the 30th of he remained until General Pope was defeated June; but the general assault, which had been at the second battle of Bull Run. In March, planned to follow, was not made, and the affair 1862, General Burnside was commissioned was a failure. Burnside then proffered his major-general of volunteers, and during the resignation, which was not accepted, but he Confederate invasion of Maryland he was under was granted leave of absence, and not being General McClellan's command. At the battle recalled to active service he resigned April 15, of Antietam he commanded the left wing. On 1865. As an officer he was much loved by November 10, 1862, he took command of the his subordinates. After his retirement GenArmy of the Potomac, superseding General eral Burnside was engaged in business in McClellan, which position he retained until Rhode Island, having been a director in the January 26, 1863. In 1862 the State of Rhode Illinois Central Railroad Company, the NarraIsland presented to him a sword of honor in gansett Steamship Company, and President of testimony of his services at Roanoke Island. the Cincinnati and Martinsville Railroad ComWhile in command of the Army of the Potomac pany, of the Rhode Island Locomotive Works, he moved from the Rapidan to Fredericks. and of the Indianapolis and Vincennes Railburg on the Rappahannock, with a view to road Company. In 1866 he was elected Govcrossing the river at that point and moving ernor of Rhode Island, and was afterward thence upon Richmond. General Lee, how- honored with two re-elections. In 1869, beever, took possession of the heights on the fore the expiration of the third term, when he opposite bank before Burnside was ready to was asked for the use of his name again, he cross, and when, on the 12th of September, the publicly announced that he would not be a Union forces crossed and endeavored to break candidate for re-election. The following year the Confederate lines, they were repulsed after he visited Europe, and was admitted within the repeated attacks. For this movement he was German and French lines in and around Paris, severely criticise:l by several officers of high acting as a medium of communication between rank, whose removal he requested, tendering the hostile nations, in the interests of conciliahis resignation of the command if his request tion. On his return home he was again sumwas not complied with. His resignation was moned to public duties, being elected to the accepted, and General Hooker succeeded him. United States Senate as successor to ex-GovIn the following March he was in command of ernor William Sprague. When a similar electhe Department of Ohio, and soon after assum- tion was required he was again chosen, and had ing this position he arrested O. L. Vallandig- entered upon his second term at the time of ham on account of his defiant utterances. The bis death. pursuit and capture of Morgan's raiders also General Burnside resided periodically in occurred while he had charge of this depart- Providence and Bristol, the latter being his summent, soon after which General Barnside under- mer home, and it was here that he entertained took to drive the Confederates from East Ten- General Grant in the summer of 1875. He nessee; in this he was successful, and for it died without family, his wife having closed her received the thanks of Congress. Late in Sep- life in March, 1876. In the hearts of his friends tember, 1863, the Ninth Corps, which had and associates General Burnside's memory is been detached from Burnside's command, was preserved with the kindliest respect; the peorestored to it. In the mean time General Lee ple of his State admired and trusted him, and had sent General Longstreet to Tennessee with the veteran soldiers delighted to honor the veta strong force from Virginia. Burnside fell eran leader on many a hard-fought field. back to Knoxville, where he was besieged until BURNSIDE, John, born in Ireland; died the beginning of December, when the siege was June 29, 1881, at Greenbrier, White Sulphur abandoned on the approach of General Sher- Springs, Virginia. Mr. Burnside was at the man with a detachment of General Grant's time of his death one of the few millionaires army. Burnside was then relieved from his in the South, and the largest sugar-planter in command in the West, and in January, 1864, the United States. His reticence concerning his was restored to that of the Ninth Corps, with age leaves that point to conjecture, but it is supwhich he followed Grant over the Rapidan- posed by his most intimate friends that he must Grant crossing May 4th and Burnside May 5th. have been at least seventy-eight when he died. The battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Like many other men of large fortune in Amerand North Anna succeeded—the corps being ica, Mr. Burnside commenced life in extreme now attached to the Army of the Potomac, poverty, and from filling the humble position under the immediate command of General of clerk to Mr. Andrew Beirne, a merchant in Meade, Burnside waiving his seniority in rank. Fincastle, Botetourt County, Virginia, he graduHis corps was prominent in subsequent oper- ally acquired such importance with his emations down to the siege of Petersburg. Dur- ployer as to be made by him the partner of ing the early part of this siege, Burnside's his son in a wholesale dry-goods house at New lines were close to those of the enemy, and op- Orleans. During a great financial panic, Mr. posite them was a strong redoubt forming an Burnside and his partner had the nerve to eximportant part of the Confederate defense. tend credit when other merchants refused all Beneath this work General Burnside caused a risks. In this way the firm of Beirne & Burn

side spread their business to the farthest points noted for his public spirit, he was given to perof the South, and laid the foundation for their sonal charities that he carefully concealed remarkable future prosperity. Subsequently from the world, and in his own way he conMr. Burnside associated himself with another tributed largely to the prosperity of his im. firm under the title of Burnside & Co. About mediate community. He was one of the first 1852 he began to make investments in sugar- to try planting with free labor on an extensive plantations, first among which were those scale, and his eminent success in the venture known as Houmas and Orange Grove, for induced others to follow his example with which he paid $1,000,000. At the time of his similar results. Mr. Burnside kept constantly death he owned ten of the most highly culti- in his employment between two and three vated and best improved plantations in Louisi- thousand persons, who were promptly and ana, the value of his possessions being estimated liberally paid. His money was spent

chiefly in at between $4,000,000 and $5,000,000. At the Louisiana, and his annual expenditure in New time of the war he owned 2,200 slaves, but, Orleans amounted to $300,000 in the purchase notwithstanding his heavy loss by their emanci- of plantation supplies. At the time of his last pation, he continued to accumulate wealth in sickness he was arranging to have built on his the dry-goods business, from which he virtually plantation in Ascension a sugar-house to cost retired in 1857. He was never married, and it $100,000. According to the sugar report for is thought he had no relatives in this country. the season of 1879–80, the plantations now Among the distinguished guests whom he en- included in his estates produced 5,373 hogstertained were the Grand Duke Alexis, Dom heads of sugar and 9,074 barrels of molasses, Pedro, and General Hancock. Although not valued at about $600,000.


CALIFORNIA. The twenty-fourth session cultural property could with safety be estiof the Legislature of California commenced on mated as follows: January 3d. In the Senate, Lieutenant-Gov

Landed property...

$4,000,000 ernor Mansfield took the chair, and William Improvements...

2,000,000 M. Johnston, of Sacramento, was chosen Presi


$6,000,000 dent pro tem. In the House, William Henry Parks, of Yuba, was chosen Speaker. The ses The indirect damage to property is most apsion was continued sixty days, as provided in parent along the main streams--the Feather the Constitution of the State, and adjourned River, and the upper and lower Sacramento on March 4th. More than eight hundred bills River. For the most part, the difference bewere introduced, but only fifty-one received tween direct and indirect damage to property the signature of the Governor. It was antici- is more in the degree of harm inflicted than in pated that the new Constitution would short- its character. This, however, is not invariaen and simplify legislation. It contains a pro- bly the case. The settlers along the lower Sacvision against special legislation, and on this ramento have, for example, expended millions ground the length of the session was limited to of dollars during the past fifteen years in atsixty days. These anticipations were disap- tempting to reclaim swamp and overflowed pointed.

lands. The failure which has followed these Among the measures considered was the re- courageous and spirited efforts must be aspeal of the debris act of the previous session. cribed to the constant operation of those natuThis was defeated. The nature of the injury ral forces which the processes of hydraulic for which a remedy was sought in the passage mining put in motion, and which from year to of the débris bill was briefly stated in the “ An- year have been counteracting and nullifying nual Cyclopædia" of 1880. It arises from the the most determined attempts at reclamation. effects of hydraulic mining, and has, thus far, The State sold the swamp-lands on the condi. most seriously occurred on the American, Bear, tion that they should be reclaimed, and should and Yuba Rivers. It consists in a practical remove obstacles which render the fulfillment burial of large areas under the mining detri- of the conditions thus imposed by it impractus or "slickens" and sand. The property 60 ticable. buried is, in fact, so completely deprived of ag The indirect injuries which may be traced ricultural value that in the opinion of compe- without any doubt or difficulty to hydraulio tent judges it can under the most favorable mining are, however, very extensive. In all circumstances be fit for nothing but raising these cases the future can be predicted from swamp timber for from fifteen to thirty years. the past. On the one hand are lands already As to the extent of the damage done in this covered with the flood of sand and débris. On way, the State Engineer, in his latest report, the other hand are lands threatened with this declared that he believed the destruction which flood. And the flood is continually advancing. might be classed as direct in the loss of agri. The low lands of the whole Sacramento Valley

are, in fact, threatened with unavoidable de- if through any cause the cost of transportation struction. That is to say, an area inclosing is raised two dollars a ton, the products of the from twelve to fourteen hundred square miles region so affected must by this change be put of fertile territory is indirectly damaged, and at an increased disadvantage equal to the reis menaced with ultimate destruction.

moval of their lands from a market a distance Nor is this the whole of the situation, for represented by the enhanced ratio of transthe injury done to the Sacramento Valley ex- portation. Their lands are in fact thereby put tends, by a reflex action, to the low lands of the as much farther from the market as two dolSan Joaquin, and to the lands about the upper lars will carry a ton of wheat, and the consebays by a direct movement. It may, therefore, quence must be to lower the value of land exbe said without exaggeration that the indirect posed to such an impost. damage actually embraces an area extending An approximate estimate of the loss of values from Oroville and Chico to Benicia on the to be apprehended in this direction from the Strait of Carquinez.

destruction of the principal water-ways can not It is necessary to bear in mind that the de- be fairly stated at less than $100,000,000. struction of the navigability of the Sacramento This leads to a statement of the value and River is involved. This would deprive the importance of hydraulic mining, which is the whole of Northern California of competition cause of the present and prospective damage in transportation. The wheat-crop alone of to the State. This mining has been carried on that region may be estimated at five hundred for twenty-five years, and the present annual thousand tons. It may also be fairly calculated output of the hydraulic mines is estimated at that the removal of competition would result from $12,000,000 to $14,000,000. It is therein a rise of freight-rates to the extent of $2 per fore apparent that an estimate of $150,000,000 ton. Thus, then, an additional tax of $1,000,- for the whole period of their working is not 000 a year on the movement of the harvest extravagant. It is equally clear that while no alone is involved in this question, as concerns accurate estimate of their future output can be Northern California. An illustrative instance made, it is safe to assume that it will be larger of the influence of river iniprovements on than it has been in the past, since the extent of freight-rates is to be found in the effect pro- gravel-bearing claims remaining unworked is duced by deepening the channel at the mouth practically unlimited, and since many very exof the Mississippi. The competition offered by tensive workings have either just been opened that river after the opening of its mouth reduced or are not yet opened so as to be largely prothe aggregate freight charges on the first year's ductive. Enough is known to make it plain that products of the Mississippi Valley $50,000,000. the hydraulic mines have contributed greatly

Taking the counties of Colusa, Placer, Sac- to the prosperity of the State, and will contribramento, Solano, Sutter, Yolo, Yuba, Butte, and ute still more largely in the future, if suffered Tehama, and estimating the assessed value of to proceed. A very considerable population is the real estate other than town lots, and the supported by these mines, estimated at 30,000, improvements, and of the town lots and their and the indirect support is very much more improvements, and making what seems a suffi- extensive. The counties in which the principal cient deduction from the aggregate, it is esti- hydraulic mines are situated may be said to demated that the property in these counties threat- pend almost entirely upon the mining industry. ened with partial or complete destruction can All values in those counties are therefore denot properly be put at a lower amount than pendent upon the prosperity of this interest. $60,000,000

What this involves may be perceived by refThe evidence furnished by the State and con- erence to the comprehensive decline of valsulting engineers shows that the water-ways are ues in Virginia City consequent upon the in danger of destruction, and that, unless sus- depreciation of the mines on the Comstock tained and systematic treatment is applied to lode. In that case the mining population was the rivers, they will shortly cease to be naviga- thinned out, the value of real property fell to ble, and that both the Feather and Sacramento panic prices, and the general effect upon the Rivers are in a condition in which an unusual prosperity of the community was as disastrous flood might cause them to abandon their present as thongh every man in the city had been channels, and spread themselves abroad through directly interested in the mines. Similar rethe low lands between Knight's Landing or sults must always follow where the intimacy Grey's Bend and Suisun Bay, ruining the coun- of the relations between the various interests try everywhere, and changing the very face of is as great as in the mining counties of Califorthe State.

nia. The suppression of hydraulic mining, thereApart from the burden that would fall upon fore, would in all probability be productive of the northern region of the State by the re- a general collapse throughout this region. Not moval of the means of competition by the riv- only would there ensue a positive and direct loss ers, this injury would affect a population of at to the State in the cessation of auriferous proleast one hundred and fifty thousand, of whom duction, but the entire industries, commercial one third would be directly and two thirds in- activities, and general civilization of the mindirectly concerned. The effect upon the value ing counties would be virtually destroyed, and of land can not be ignored. It is evident that the tax-paying as well as the wealth-producing

capacities of those counties would be paralyzed. districts to be aided ; the hydraulic miners It is, however, evident that the hydraulic min. were called upon for extra contributions, and ing interest is an important one. It may be a tax of five cents on the hundred dollars was said, as regards its annual output, to repre- made general throughout the State. sent a fixed capital of $100,000,000, and directly A large portion of the session of the Legislaand indirectly it affords support to a consider ture was occupied in the discussion of the bill to able population. Even the farmers in the val- repeal the act, which, however, was defeated ley, who occupy lands on the verge of the min- on the first reading in the Assembly. eral area, owe a portion of their prosperity to The plans of the engineers embrace a systhese mines, which create a brisk demand for tem of levees and cut-offs for the lower course their produce, and a demand the loss of which of the Sacramento, and a system of dams for would be severely felt.

the upper course. It has never been preThe engineers were required to ascertain the tended that the dams without the levees, or extent of the injury, present and prospective, the levees without the dams, would bring about and whether remedial measures were availa- the results aimed at. But the works have only ble. Their reports have shown that the ex- been commenced a short time, and the dams tent and gravity of the damage and menace are alone have been constructed. No engineer far greater than had been commonly supposed; bas claimed that the dams were capable by that it was possible to counteract the ill effects themselves of effecting a cure for the evil atof hydraulic mining by a systematic treatment tacked. On the contrary, all the engineers of the rivers; that such a systematic treatment have agreed that before any real relief can be of the rivers was necessary in any case, since had, the levees must be made strong enough to it would be impossible to meet the exigencies carry the flood-waters of the river withont of the situation by merely stopping hydraulic giving way. During the past winter no real mining.

test of the engineering plans was possible, inThe most formidable danger to the low lands asmuch as they were incomplete. Such a test is due to the deposit in the mountain-streams can not be applied until the lower river has and tributaries of enormous quantities of heavy been leveed scientifically—and this is not the sand, which is being washed down lower every work of a few months. The brush dams, howyear. The deposit of this sand must continue ever, have been so successful in holding back until the entire Sacramento Valley is covered the heavier débris, that the efficiency of that and destroyed, even though hydraulic mining kind of work can not be questioned seriously. should be stopped at once, until remedial meas- The inundation of the Sacramento Valley does ures are adopted. In fact, it may be asserted not show that the engineers made any mistake, that the stoppage of hydraulic mining in the for no steps had been taken to prevent such an present stage of the débris evil would produce inundation. The floods found no obstacles no alleviation whatever. There is a mass of but the old and thin and insufficient levees mining débris now collected in the cañons of which had been built piecemeal here and there, the mountains sufficient to cover the Sacra- and as a matter of course they soon overcame mento Valley completely a couple of feet deep, those frail barriers. and this matter will continue to be washed The report of the Board of Equalization down every winter until the beds of the river presented the first trustworthy data for ascerare entirely choked, and until the destruction taining the results of the revenue system put inflicted upon the valley agricultural lands has in operation by the new Constitution. Its become past relief or reparation.

framers believed that a great deal of property The surveys of the engineers resulted in as- bad escaped taxation in the past, and they certaining the practicability of remedial meas- were determined to make everybody pay in ures, but at the same time showed that the sub- the future. They imagined that this could be ject was too extensive to be dealt with locally. done by decreeing it, and so resolute and unIt was particnlarly insisted on by the engineers flinching were they in the prosecution of their that sustained and systematic treatment of the purpose that they refused to exempt from taxrivers must be undertaken, or that it would be ation even the shadows of property, but inuseless to attempt anything. While, therefore, sisted that everything which represented propthey held out the encouraging consideration erty should be assessed. It happened coincithat by such a systematic treatment the condi- dently that there prevailed a belief that land tion of the rivers might be made even better monopoly could be put an end to by taxation, than it had ever been, they contended that and to this end it was agreed that cultivated nothing less comprehensive than the methods and uncultivated land, of the same character they proposed would be adequate. It was and quality, should be assessed at the same estimated by the engineers that the expendi- rate when in contiguity. The taxation of ture required for the construction of suitable mortgages, the taxation of credits and stocks, works could not exceed $10,000,000, and that it the taxation of uncultivated land at the same might not exceed $5,000,000. What was known rate as cultivated, was to lighten the burden as the drainage bill' was prepared and passed of taxation on the masses by forcing the rich at the previous session of the Legislature. to bear their just share of the general load. This act levied a benefit assessment upon the How the new system succeeded, the State

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