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A much deeper spirit breathes in the following extract, which is the last we can afford room for, from the Parabasis. The poet, through the lips of his Chorus, is alluding to the fortunes of his precursors in the art: • Couid it 'scape observing sight what was Magnes' wretclied plight,
when his hairs and his temples were hoary; Yet who battled with more zeal or more trophies left to tell of his former achievements and glory?
[clapping, He came piping, dancing, tapping,—-fig-gnatting and wing
frog-besmeard and with Lydian grimaces : Yet he too had his date, nor could wit nor merit great
preserve him, unchang'd, in your graces. Youth pass'd brilliantly and bright;-when his head was old and white,
strange reverse and liard fortune confronted; What boots taste and tact forsooth, if they've lost their nicest truth, or a wit where the edge has grown
blunted! Who Cratinus may forget, or the storm of whim and wit
which shook theatres under his guiding ? When Panegyric's song pour'd her flood of praise along,
who but he on the top wave was riding ? Foe nor rival might bim meet ; plane and oak ta'en by the feet
did him instant and humble prostration ; For his step was as the tread of a flood that leaves its bed,
and his march it was rude desolation. Who but he the foremost guest then on gala-day and feast ?
what strain fell from harp or musicians, But “ Doro, Doro sweet, nymph with fig-beslipper'd feet ”_
or_“ Ye verse-smiths and bard-mechanicians. Thus in glory was he seen, while his years as yet were green ;
but now that his dotage is on him, God help him! fòr no eye, of all those who pass
throws a look of compassion upon him. 'Tis a couch, but with the loss of its garnish and its gloss ;
'tis a harp that hath lost all its cunning,'Tis a pipe where deftest hànd may the stops no more command,
nor on its divisions be running. Connas-like, he's chaplet-crown'd, and he paces round and round
in a circle which never is ended ;On his head a chaplet hangs, but the curses and the pangs
of a drought on his lips are suspended.' We would not willingly interrupt the current of strong feeling, so simply and yet so beautifully expressed as in these latter lines especially,- but we must remark, that in the verses printed in
§ The poet alludes in his peculiar manner to the titles of some the dramatic works of Magnes.
italics, Mr M. has deserted his author to introduce ornament of his own.
Aristophanes takes his metaphor simply from a couch, . But now,' he says,
ye take no pity on him, beholding him in his dotage like an aged couch,
εκπιπτουσων των ηλεκτρων, και του τονου ουκ έτ' ενοντος,
των 9' αρμονιων διαχυσκουσωνwith its bosses tumbling off—its straining-cords no longer fixed . —its joints wide-saping.' The turn which Mr M. lias given to the words may be more beautiful and more poetical, but it is not the sense of the original.
We must now bid Mr Mitchell farewell, with every assurance of the pleasure it will give us to meet with him again in the course of his entertaining and instructive labours. He professes himself no friend to indiscriminate praise, and will not therefore be offended by any portion of our animadversions. Let him drop a few prejudices, and the general tone of his work will be more pleasing: let him bestow a little more pains, and its general execution will be more correct. For what we have said in commendation, we think the extracts we have given will fully justify us to our classical readers. We hail with much satisfaction the prospect now afforded us of seeing ably and agreeably translated into our native language, an author who has hitherto had so much fewer readers and admirers than his merits deserve. It will be no slight honour to Mr Mitchell, if he succeed in making Aristophanes a more familiar and more popular study than he has been; and in spite of the despairing motto he has adopted, we have good hopes of his doing so. We rejoice to have laboured in a small portion of the same vineyard; and shall be glad if our assistance can in any way contribute to so desirable a result. We would recommend a more cheerful inscription for the next volume:- Aristophanes has long been under a sort of cloud,
“ But shall anon repair his drooping head,
Art. II. 1. Whitelaw's History of the City of Dublin. 4to.
Cadell & Davies. 2. Observations on the State of Ireland, principally directed to
its Agriculture and Rural Population ; in a Series of Letters, written on a Tour through that Country. In 2 Vols. By J. C.
CƯRWEN, Esq. M. P. London, 1818. 3. Gamble's Views of Society in Ireland.
in general, -and none of them are of first-rate importance. Mr Gamble's Travels in Ireland are of a very ordinary description-low scenes and low humour making up the principal part of the narrative. There are readers, however, whom it will amuse; and the reading market becomes more and more extensive, and embraces a greater variety of persons every day. Mr Whitelaw's History of Dublin is a book of great accuracy and research, highly creditable to the industry, good sense, and benevolence of its author. Of the Travels of Mr Christian Curwen, we hardly know what to say, He is bold and honest in his politics--a great enemy to abuses-vapid in his levity and pleasantry, and infinitely too much inclined to declaim upon commonplace topics of morality and benevolence. But with these drawbacks, the book is not ill written ; and may be advantageously read by those who are desirous of information upon the present State of Ireland.
So great, and so long has been the misgovernment of that country, that we verily believe the empire would be much stronger, if every thing was open sea between England and the Atlantic, and if skates and codfish swam over the fair land of Ulster. Such jobbing, such profligacy--so much direct tyranny and oppression--such an abuse of God's gifts-such a profanation of God's name for the purposes of bigotry and party spirit, cannot be exceeded in the history of civilized Europe, and will long remain a monument of infamy and shame to England. But it will be more useful to suppress the indignation which the very name of Ireland inspires, and to consider impartially those causes which have marred this fair portion of the creation, and kept it wild and savage in the midst of improving Europe.
The great misfortune of Ireland is, that the mass of the people have been given up for a century to an handful of Protestants, by whom they have been treated as Helots, and subjected to every species of persecution and disgrace. The sufferings of the Catholics have been so loudly chanted, in the very streets,
that it is almost needless to remind our readers, that during the reigns of George I. and George II., the Irish Roman Catholics were disabled from holding any civil or military office, from voting at elections, from admission into corporations, from practising law or physic. A younger brother, by turning Protestant, might deprive his elder brother of his birthright: by the same process, he might force his father, under the name of a liberal provision, to yield up to him a part of his landed property; and if an eldest son, he might, in the same way, reduce his father's fee-simple to a life estate. A Papist was disabled from purchasing freehold landsand even from holding long leases--and any person might take his Catholic neighbour's house by paying five pounds for it. If the child of a Catholic father turned Protestant, he was taken away from his father and put into the hands of a Protestant relation. No Papist could purchase a freehold, or lease for more than thirty years--or inherit from an intestate Protestant-nor from an intestate Catholic--nor dwell in Limerick or Galway--nor hold an advowson, nor buy an annuity for life. 501. was given for discovering a popish Archbishop---301. for a popish Clergyman -and 10s. for a Schoolmaster. No one was allowed to be trustee for Catholics ; no Catholic was allowed to take more than two apprentices; no Papist to be solicitor, sheriff, or to serve on grand juries. Horses of Papists might be seized for the militia ; for which militia Papists were to pay double, and to find Protestant substitutes. Papists were prohibited from being present at vestries, or from being high or petty constables; and, when resident in towns, they were compelled to find Protestant watchmen. Barristers and solicitors marrying Catholics, were exposed to the penaltics of Catholics. Persons plundered by privateers during a war with any Popish prince, were reimbursed by a levy on the Catholic inhabitants where they lived. All Popish priests celebrating marriages contrary to 12 George Ist, cap. 3, were to be hanged.
The greater part of these incapacities are removed, though many of a very serious and oppressive nature still remain. But the grand misfortune is, that the spirit which these oppressive Laws engendered remains. The Protestant still looks upon the Catholic as a degraded being: The Catholic does not yet consider himself upon an equality with his former tyrant and taskmaster. That religious hatred which required all the prohibiting vigilance of the law for its restraint,'has found in the law its strongest support; and the spirit which the law first exasperated and embittered, continues to act long after the original stimulus is withdrawn. The law which prevented
Catholics from serving on Grand Juries is repealed; but Catholics are not called upon Grand Juries in the proportion in which they are entitled, by their rank and fortune. The Duke of Bedford did all he could to give them the benefit of those laws which are already passed in their favour. But power is seldom entrusted in this country to one of the Duke of Bedford's liberality; and every thing has fallen back in the hands of his successors into the antient division of the privileged and degraded We do not mean to cast any
present Secretary for Ireland, whom we believe to be upon this subject a very liberal politician, and on all subjects an honourable and excellent man. The Government under which he serves allows him to indulge in a little harmless liberality ; but it is perfectly understood that nothing is intended to be done for the Catholics; that no loaves and fishes will be lost by indulgence in Protestant insolence and tyranny; and, therefore, among the generality of Irish Protestants, insolence, tyranny, and exclusion continue to operate. However eligible the Catholic may be, he is not elected ;-whatever barriers may be thrown down, he does not advance a step. He was first kept out by law; he is now kept out by opinion and habit. They have been so long in chains, that nobody believes they are capable of using their hands and feet.
It is not however the only or the worst misfortune of the Catholics, that the relaxations of the law are hitherto of little benefit to them: the law is not yet sufficiently relaxed. A Catholic, as every body knows, cannot be made sheriff; cannot be in
Parliament; cannot be a director of the Irish Bank; cannot · fill the great departments of the law, the army and the navy; is cut off from all the high objects of human ambition, and treated as a marked and degraded person.
The common admission now is, that the Catholics are to the Protestants in Ireland as about 4 to 1--of which Protestants, not more than one half belong to the Church of Ireland. This, then, is one of the most striking features in the state of Ireland. That the great mass of the population is completely subjugated and overawed by an handful of comparatively recent settlers, – in whom all the power and patronage of the country is vested, who have been reluctantly compelled to desist from still greater abuses of authority,--and who lock with trembling apprehension to the increasing liberality of the Parliament and the country towards these unfortunate persons, whom they have always looked upon as their property and their prey.
Whatever evils may result from these proportions between the oppressor and the oppressed--to whatever dangers a coun