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more cruelly oppressed. Many of the incapacities and privations to which the Catholics were exposed, have been removed by law; but, in such instances, they are still incapacitated and de-, prived by custom. Many cruel and oppressive laws are still enforced against them. A ninth part of the population engrosses all the honours of the country; the other nine pay a tenth of the product of the earth for the support of a religion in which they'do not believe. There is little capital in the country. The great and rich men are called by business, or allured by pleasure, into England; their estates are given up to factors, and the utmost farthing of rent extorted from the poor, who, if they give up the land, cannot get employment in manufactures, or regular employment in husbandry. The common people use a sort of food so very cheap, that they can rear families, who cannot procure employment, and who have little more of the comforts of life than food. The Irish are light-minded--want of employment has made them idle—they are irritable and brave -have a keen remembrance of the past wrongs they have suffered, and the present wrongs they are suffering from England. The consequence of all this is, eternal riot and insurrection, a whole army of soldiers in time of profound peace, and general rebellion whenever England is busy with other enemies, or off her guard! And thus it will be while the same causes continue to operate, for ages to come,-and worse and worse as the rapidly increasing population of ihe Catholics becomes more and

The remedies are, time and justice; and that justice consists in repealing all laws which make any distinction between the two religions; in placing over the government of Ireland, not the stupid, amiable and insignificant Noblemen who have too often been sent there, but men who feel deeply the wrongs of Ireland, and who have an ardent wish to heal them; who will take care that Catholics, when eligible, shall be elected; who will share the patronage of Ireland proportionally among the two parties, and give to just and liberal laws the same vigour of execution which has hitherto been reserved only for decrees of tyranny, and the enactments of oppression. The injustice and hardship of supporting two churches must be put out of sight, if it cannot or ought not to be cured. The political economist, the moralist and the satirist, must combine to teach moderation and superintendence to the great Irish proprietors. Public talk and clamour may do something for the poor Irish, as it did for the slaves in the West Indies. Ireland will become more quiet under such treatment, and then more rich, more comfortable, and more civilized; and the hor

more numerous.

rid spectacle of folly and tyranny, which it at present exhibitsa, may in time be removed from the eyes of Europe.

There are two eminent Irishmen now in the House of Commons, Lord Castlereagh and Mr Canning, who will subscribe to the justness of every syllable we have said upon this subject; and who have it in their power; by making it the condition of their remaining in office, to liberate their native country, and raise it to its just rank among the nations of the earth. Yet the Court buys them over, year after year, by the pomp and perquisites of office; and year after year, they come into the House of Commons, feeling deeply, and describing powerfully, the injuries of five millions of their countrymen,-and continuc members of a Government that inflicts those evils, under the pitiful delusion that it is not a Cabinet Question,--as if the scratchings and quarrellings of Kings and Queens could alone cement politicians together in indissoluble unity, while the fate and fortune of one-third of the empire might be complimented away from one minister to another, without the smallest breach in their Cabinet alliance. Politicians, at least honest politicians, should be very flexible and accommodating in little things, very rigid and inflexible in great things. And is this not a great thing? Who has painted it in finer and more commanding eloquence than Mr Canning? Who has taken a more sensible and statesman-like view of our miserable and cruel policy, than Lord Castlereagh? You would think, to hear them, that the same planet could not contain them and the oppressors of their country,-perhaps not the same solar system. Yet for money, claret and patronage, they lend their countenance, assistance and friendship, to the Ministers who are the stern and inflexible enemies to the emancipation of Ireland !

Thank God that all is not profligacy and corruption in the history of that devoted people--and that the name of Irishman does not always carry with it the idea of the oppressor or the oppressed the plunderer or the plundered—the tyrant or the slave. Great men hallow a whole people, and lift up all who live in their time. What Irishman does not feel proud that he has lived in the days of GRATTAN? who has not turned to him for comfort, from the false friends and open enemies of Ireland ? who did not remember him in the days of its burnings and wastings and murders? No Government ever dismayed him--the world could not bribe him-he thought only of Ireland-lived for no other object-dedicated to her his beautiful fancy, his elegant wit, his manly courage, and all the splendour of his astonishing eloquence. He was so born, and

so gifted, that poetry, forensic skill, elegant literature, and all the highest attainments of human genius, were within his reach; but he thought the noblest occupation of a man was to make other men happy and free; and in that straight line he went on for fifty years, without one side-look, without one yielding thought, without one motive in his heart which he might not have laid open to the view of God and man. He is gone !-but there is not a single day of his honest life of which every good Irishman would not be more proud, than of the whole political existence of his countrymen,--the annual deserters and betrayers of their native land.

Art. III. An Account of Experiments for determining the

Variation in the Length of the Pendulum vibrating Seconds at the principal Stations of the Trigonometrical Survey of Great Britain. By Captain H. KATER, F. R. S. From Phil. Transactions. London, 1819. Part III.

T is not long since we laid before our readers a detailed ac-

connt of the experimer ts made by Captain Kater, with a view to determine the length of a pendulum vibrating seconds in the latitude of London. We have now to direct their attention to a more extended investigation of the same careful observer, by which he has ascertained the length of a Seconds Pendulum, at the principal stations of the great survey of this Island.

It may be recollected, that this inquiry originated in a bill submitted to Parliament, for the general regulation of Weights and Measures, and fortunately thrown out in the House of Lords. We

We say fortunately,--because those who most readily admit the expediency of adopting some uniform system, will naturally be the first to reject a plan so crude and so ill calculated to attain that desirable object. One good, however, resulted from the discussion ; an address was presented to the Crown, praying that instructions might be given for determining the length of a Seconds Pendulum in the latitude of London, as compared with the standard made for the House of Commons in 1758, known by the name of Bird's Parliamentary Standardfor ascertaining the variations in the length of the Pendulum at the different stations, and for comparing the standard measures with the ten-millionth part of the quadrant of the meridian, the basis of linear measure in France. In order to carry this purpose into effect, a Committee was appointed by the Royal

Society; and Captain Kater, a Member of it, was desired to conduct the inquiry. The choice was amply justified by the success which attended his labours in the first branch of the operations; and still more decisive testimony is borne to the same point, by the satisfactory manner in which he has now brought the task to its close, attended as it was with great difficulty, and demanding the utmost patience which a mind, ardent in the pursuit of its object, could bestow upon the endless details essential to the attainment of perfect accuracy.

If in Captain Kater the inquiry found a most able conductor, in the Government it met with no less efficient supporters. Every aid was given him which the enterprise could possibly require. He had sloops of war at his orders, to convey his attendants and instruments; the use of barracks wherever they were to be found; and all the minor accommodations of waggons, non-commissioned officers, gunners, artillery horses and tents. With an establishment thus liberally provided, he left London on the 24th of June 1818, accompanied by Lieutenant Frank of the Royal Navy, and arrived at Unst, one of the Shetland islands, on the 9th of July. This was the most northern station of the Meridional Arc of the Trigonometrical Survey; and Dunnose, in the Isle of Wight, the southernmost. The intermediate stations were Portsoy, lat. 57° 40'; Leith Fort, lat. 55° 58'; Clifton, lat. 53° 27'; Arbury-bill, lat. 52° 12'; and London, lat. 51° 31'. The latitudes of the extreme points, Unst and Dunnose, were 60° 45', and 50° 37' respectively.

As the operations for determining the length of the pendulum were the same at each station, it will only be

necessary to enter into the detail of the experiments made at any one of them; and we shall take for example the experiment made at Unst. But before proceeding to this abstract, we must express our regret that Captain Kater should have departed from the old received method of describing the various parts of his apparatus, by references with letters to the parts of the plates representing it. This is peculiarly requisite towards forming, speedily, a distinct idea of instruments which we are not in the habit of seeing; and it enables us to avoid erroneous notions, which a verbal description is apt to create. This defect is no doubt remedied in some degree by the plates annexed to Captain Kater's former paper in the Phil. Trans. for 1818: but they are useful only as a general reference; they present a handsome perspective of the apparatus, while the reader would prefer a more ordinary drawing, with specifick references to the several parts described in the text.

It may be remembered that the former experiments fo the latitude of London, were founded upon a very ingenious application of the well known property of oscillating bodies, namely, that the centres of oscillation and suspension are reciprocal. From hence it follows, that the time of oscillation is the same, whether the centre of suspension or of oscillation be taken; and, conversely, if any two points of suspension can be found in a pendulum, such, that the time of vibration is the same in both cases,-then one is the centre of oscillation, when the other is the centre of suspension; and thus, from the distance between the two, we ascertain the true length of the pendulum. In Captain K.'s convertible pendulum, one point of suspension being fixed, the other is placed as near as possible to the calculated centre of oscillation: any inequality in the vibration when it is suspended from different points, is regulated by shifting a moveable weight made to slide between he two centres; and as soon as the oscillations in the two opposite positions are accurately adjusted to one another, the weight is fixed in its place, and the pendulum is complete.

In extending the observations made in London to the other stations, very little alteration was made upon the apparatus described in the former paper, and in our thirtieth volume. The pendulum was of the same construction, and the other parts of the machinery were similar, excepting the frame to which the pendulum, with its support, was attached. This, in all the Iatter cases, was made of cast-iron, and furnished with a back pierced to receive very large screws, by which it might be firmly fixed to the wall of a building. For further security against any lateral motion, there were brackets below, so formed as to spread at the bottom to a distance of three feet. Every precaution was thus taken to render the point of suspension perfectly immoveable. The clock with which the pendulum was compared, was made by Arnold, and had a gridiron pendulum for the compensation of temperature. The other instruments with which Captain Kater was provided, were a box chronometer by Arnold, a transit by Dolland three feet and a half in length, and a repeating circle, of one foot diameter, by Troughton.

On his arrival at Unst, Captain Kater was received by Mr Edmonstone with an hospitality which supplied every thing that might be wanting in so remote a spot. The place which he chose for his experiments was the shell of a cottage adjoining to Mr Edmonstone's house: one wall of it being ancient, and upwards of three feet in thickness, seemed to have all the stability requisite for his purpose. It was the same, too, in which M. Biot had, the summer before, made his observations on the pendulum. Into this thick wall, strong oak wedges, il

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