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the United States, is published in full. The Louisiana Historical Society is authorized to prepare a program for the celebration, December 20, 1903.

During the year 1901 the Society sent a memorial, signed by the governors of the States of the Mississippi Valley, and the presidents of the historical societies in the same States, to Congress, asking for the publication by the United States of certain documentary records relating to the history of the Mississippi Valley. These records are in a series of volumes in the archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, Paris, France, and a list of the documents is given.

There is an illustrated article by Mr. H. L. Favrot, on "The State Seal” of Louisiana. In 1805 the first seal under the American Government was adopted by the legislative council for the Territory of Orleans. This seal has the American eagle standing erect, and in its beak is a laurel wreath encircling the head. The first seal of the State of Louisiana, 1813, has a pelican feeding her young, in a nest, and the words, "Justice, Union and Confidence," with a pair of scales under the word “Justice." It is said that Governor Claiborne chose the pelican for the state seal from the legend, not authenticated, however, that the pelican will tear her own breast to feed her young; the pelican being the emblem of self-sacrifice. The state seal of to-day has the pelican and three young in the nest, and the motto, "Union, Justice and Confidence.” The scales are left off.

A very interesting article on "The Louisiana Ursulines" is contributed by Mr. Henry Renshaw. The company of the Indies desirous of providing for the care of the hospital and for the education of girls made an agreement with the French Ursulines to establish a community of their order in New Orleans. The history of the Ursulines is closely connected with the history of the State. Their establishment was of great educational benefit to the city as the tuition was free to day pupils. When Louisiana was ceded to the United States, the Mother Superior being solicitous as to the future of the order, wrote to President Jefferson. In his reply Jefferson wrote, “The charitable objects of your institution cannot be indifferent to any; and its furtherance of the wholesome purposes of society, by training up its younger members in the way they should go, cannot fail to insure it the patronage of the government it is under. Be assured it will meet with all the protection which my office can give it."

After the battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson visited the convent and thanked the nuns for their prayers for his victory and their kindness to the soldiers. For three months the Ursulines cared for the sick and wounded soldiers who had been received at the convent and lodged in the class rooms. The Ursulines were the pioneers of female education in Louisiana and still in New Orleans conduct their institution for female education. The "Traite de la Compagnie des Indes avec les Ursulines" is published in full at the end of the article.

CHARLES G. GILL.

Three scholarly publications have lately come from the University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.

A most learned investigation, now first in English dress, has Professor P. V. C. Baur given us in Eileithyia (No. 4 of Vol. I., of the University STUDIES, large 8vo., pp. 90, $1.00). He traces the cult of this maternity worship from the earliest times of Greek history, making use not only of Greek texts but of images he observed in leading museums.

The Laws Observatory prints BULLETIN No. 1, on one of the comets (4to., pp. 3).

IN HIS RIGHT OF SANCTUARY (No. 5 of the Studies, pp. 106, Feb., 1903, 75 cents) Professor N. M. Trenholme has made a comprehensive investigation into this custom of refuge for offenders in former stages of society. He

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traces this privilege of asylum to a religious origin among the Hebrews and other ancient people, but confines himself chiefly to its history in England. It was a necessary feature in man's development to have some place of safety to flee to from oppression, from anger, from vengeance, from lawlessness generally. It in time degenerated into a shelter for criminals and profligates, and hence had to be abolished, lasting in Europe, in the main, to the end of the 18th century, and faintly surviving in England to near the close of the 19th century. The monograph is very interesting reading, and of course in the most approved scholarly method of to-day, fortified with numerous foot notes and learned references.

In very tasteful form, Dr. Barnett A. Elzas, a rabbi of Charleston, S. C., has reprinted his contributions to Jewish history in that city that first appeared in the News and Courier during the last two months of 1902 and the first three months of 1903. He furnishes us glances over the entire life of his race in that community, ecclesiastically and industrially; historically and biographically. He bases his work on public documents and church records, and other original sources. He treats of the early settlement and naturalization, of reform Judaism, of the history of his congregation, and gives a short sketch of Moses Lindo, and other prominent Jews in provincial days, and carries on a critical discussion with Leon Huhner who had written for the Jewish Encyclopedia. The whole of his labors mount up to some 25,000 words, putting before us a highly interesting and valuable view of the rich ethnical material in our midst.

A most comprehensive knowledge of Southern history of the ante-bellum period does Mr. Edward Ingle display in the Manufacturer's Record of March 5, 1903 (Baltimore, Md.) when he marshals names and facts to show that there were then men of business sagacity and enterprise, of inventiveness, of talent for exploration and discovery in both the material and intellectual world. Right is he in urging that such acquaintance with the past is necessary for understanding and estimating the life and development of to-day. Pertinent to this emphasis he places on the importance of proper historical methods are his pregnant criticisms on historical study now, in the March number of the Southern Farm Magazine, An application of principles thus acquired

. from history he makes in pointing out what he considers defects in the new educational propaganda lately begun in the South under the guidance of two Boards located in New York. For one thing he argues for a training for the negro suited to his needs, and he warns against a repetition of the mistakes of the Freedmen's Bureau, and reconstruction. (Baltimore Sun, Feb. 18; Manufacturers' Record, Feb. 10, 1903).

Anent the books on Spain and Spanish subjects by Southern students noted in a recent number of these Publications (Vi. p. 279) should be mentioned, J. Johnston Pettigrew's Notes on Spain and the Spaniards in the Summer of 1859 with a Glance at Sardinia (Charleston, 1861). This exceedingly sprightly book is the result of two extensive journeys made through Spain, one in 1852 and the other in 1859. The attention of the traveler was directed mainly to the cities of the south, to cathedrals and other architectural matters. His enthusiasm for Spain and things Spanish, for the courtesy and elegance of its men and the beauty of its women was boundless. He possessed marked capacity for description and his extensive knowledge of the Spanish and Arabic languages enabled him to appreciate Spanish literature to the fullest extent. Unlike most foreign travelers he was an enthusiastic admirer of the bull fights. He presents the

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standard Spanish arguments in favor of the amusement. He reviews and answers the arguments against it and concludes: “As for the men and bulls I confess I have no scruples. The men are paid enormously and have every pleasure possible.

The bull has still less reason to complain. Surrounded with the pleasures of barbaric domesticity, he spends his life in the midst of luxuriant pastures, where he is rarely disturbed by the face of man. Every bull must die at last, and it is a mere balancing of enjoyments to say that it is better to work in yokes until he is old, and then be fattened and killed in the butcher's stall, than to lead the jolly life of a monarch, roaming his native fields, and die in the bull ring, preserving his freedom to the very end” (p. 223).

These lines by a singular contrast bring vividly to mind the fate of the author. Pettigrew is said to have been the brightest man who ever graduated from the University of North Carolina; he spent much time in travel; studied law and settled in Charleston where he soon gained a reputation at the bar; he became a member of the Legislature in 1856 and

a made a record by bringing in a minority report against the re-opening of the slave trade. At the opening of the war he returned to North Carolina, became a brigadier general in the Confederate service and was killed on the retreat from Gettysburg. His book is one of the rarest of Caroliniana.

Recent issues of The North Carolina Booklet, vol. 2, are: Our own pirates by S. A. Ashe which deals with Blackbeard and Steed Bonnett; Indian Massacre and Tuscarora War of 1711-13 by Walter Clark (Of course as Judge Clark is a lawyer and accustomed to the weighing of evidence he gives no credit to the belief that the massacre was instigated by the Porter party); Moravian Settlement in N. C. by Rev. J. H. Clewell which is of service as it calls attention to the unexploited material in the Moravian archives in Salem dealing

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